american great lakes

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What are some good books to learn about Native American history? Ideally Algonquin/Ojibway • r/AskHistorians
I have some history of these people, and some stuff that I've learned from my grandmother but that's more what her life was like when she was young. I'd like to learn more about the realities of my people and how they lived, as opposed to pop culture understanding of them. Any solid resources beyond general Internet research to learn would be greatly beneficial in my search. Thank you!

From /u/anthropology_nerd

My favorite, solid introductory text for the Anishinaabeg is McDonnell’s Masters of Empire: Great Lakes Indians and the Making of America. This book is immensely readable, well sourced to direct you to further sources, and does an amazing job of centering the story in the Great Lakes (instead of facing west from English or French colonial lands). Seriously one of my favorite books.

Going out to the whole West, Calloway’s One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and Clark gives a great overview, and Rushforth’s Bonds of Alliance: Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France deals with the repercussions of the Indian slave trade in the region. Rushforth may be too focused for an intro, but it is fascinating to examine the slave trade as you dive into the history of the region. White’s The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 used to be the go-to source, but might be a little dated now. If you start with White go to McDonnell next to get an updated perspective.

Hope this helps. Happy reading!

In Masters of Empire, the historian Michael A. McDonnell reveals the pivotal role played by the native peoples of the Great Lakes in the history of North America. Though less well known than the Iroquois or Sioux, the Anishinaabeg, who lived across Lakes Michigan and Huron, were equally influential. Masters of Empire charts the story of one group, the Odawa, who settled at the straits between those two lakes, a hub for trade and diplomacy throughout the vast country west of Montreal known as the pays d’en haut.


I saw this at a bookstore and it sounded interesting. Just wanted to share with you all

Tecumseh

One of the greatest men ever to be born on the American continent. A Native American, war chief and statesman he was essentially a Native American George Washington. He saw his family killed by the white settlers and the soldiers of the new United States of America yet he refused to kill women and children. Among the tribes there was no concept of Indians as a group i.e. you were a Shawnee or Mohawk not an Indian. Indeed, even the whites were seen as “tribes” the British tribe, French tribe, Spanish tribe or, worst of all from their perspective, the American tribe. Tecumseh was a visionary and envisioned a Native American confederacy from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. He sided with the British in the War of 1812 only to be abandoned after the end of the war. Abandoned to the Americans who destroyed him and his people.

Footnote: No nation is all good or all evil. One must acknowledge the failings as well as the successes of your nation to truly understand it.

THE DELAWARE PROPHETS AND THE WALKING PURCHASE OF 1737 CE

This is an excerpt from my post: THE COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING.

The Lenape Natives initially lived along the Delaware River Valley in parts of New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania –from which they received their more common name, Delaware. They became dependent on the colonies and became so involved in the trade of pelts and furs that they eventually killed off most of the mammals in their area –they soon grew impoverished and were forgotten as traders abandoned them for the Iroquois Natives to the north. Under the threats of poverty, conflict, alcoholism and disease, the Lenape numbers had dwindled from about ten to twelve thousand to about three thousand since contact was made with the Europeans.

“-as small groups sold their land or were forced from it at various times. The scattered, decimated, and unorganized bands … soon gathered, or were gathered, as they had never been in pre-European times. The ‘towns’ that grew up in the river valleys of Pennsylvania in the early decades of the eighteenth century were not formed from homogeneous cultural units.”

^ Lenapehoking, the original Lenape territory. 

Selling their lands, being forced out of others, and willingly abandoning others – they became refugees within their own land and would also retreat to the land of others. After the death of William Penn in 1718, he was succeeded by his sons Thomas Penn and John Penn –whom were involved in the infamous Walking Purchase of 1737 in which they brought forward a suspicious and possibly fraudulent copy of a land deed from 1686 that led to a large theft of land from the Lenape. The Penn brothers had arranged to have three trained runners sprint through a cleared route, covering about sixty-five miles in eighteen hours and winning them 1,200 square acres of land from the Delaware.

^ Delaware by David Wright.

They [Thomas Penn and John Penn] were used to an expensive life-style, but had no money. In their desperation, they contemplated ways to sell Lenape land to colonial settlers. The resulting scheme culminated in the so-called Walking Purchase. In the mid-1730s, colonial administrators produced a draft of a land deed dating to the 1680s. William Penn had approached several leaders of Lenape polities in the lower Delaware to discuss land sales further north. Since the land in question did not belong to their polities, the talks came to nothing.

But colonial administrators had prepared the draft that resurfaced in the 1730s. The Penns and their supporters tried to present this draft as an actual deed. Unsurprisingly, Lenape leaders in the lower Delaware refused to accept it. What followed was a convoluted sequence of deception, fraud, and extortion orchestrated by the Pennsylvania government that is commonly known as the Walking Purchase. In the end, all Lenapes who still lived on the Delaware were driven off the remnants of their homeland under threats of violence.” – Steven Harper.

^ Walking Purchase.

The refugee Lenape villages that had arose from this displacement are believed to have been an important component that led to the French and Indian War and the surge of revolutionary ideas among the Lenape Delaware Natives. One of these revolutionaries was a man from the Delaware named Wangomen, who believed that the great creator spirit, Gichi-Manidoo, had chosen him as a messenger. Wangomen, also known as the Assinisink Prophet, was visited by a great buck during a hunting trip that conveyed the message that by abandoning the old ways, the Natives had placed themselves in this difficult situation.

The great creator spirit, Gichi-Manidoo, let him peer into the heavens where he saw that there were three heavens –one for Natives, one for ‘Whites’ and one for ‘Negroes’. The ‘Whites’ were ill-treated in their heaven, as punishment for their abuses against the Natives, for taking the promised land away from them and for their enslavement of the ‘Negroes’. 

Another Delaware man named Papoonan, had a vision while mourning his father’s death –the great creator spirit, Gichi-Manidoo, was offended by the way that the Natives had abandoned the old ways. Papoonan was a supporter of Natives purifying themselves in the old ways of their forefathers and for them to denounce the use of alcohol. Unlike the other prophets he preached peace, coexistence, the sharing of resources and also accepted some of the teachings of the Moravian Christian missionaries 

^ Neolin, the Delaware Prophet.

There was yet another man from the Delaware tribe named Neolin, meaning “the enlightened”, in this story he plays the greatest significance. Neolin traversed the spirit world for days before reaching three forks in the road, from both the wide and the narrow roads a great fire arose from the ground which forced him to turn back. On the third path he encountered a marvelous white mountain in which he saw a woman of radiant beauty that instructed him to strip himself of all that he has and to purify himself in a nearby river. After purifying himself he met with the great creator spirit, Gichi-Manidoo, who gave him a guideline for the Natives to follow. The Natives must refrain from drinking, be married to one woman, not covet their neighbors’ wife and not to fight with their fellow brethren.

That the land in which they inhabited was given to them by him, reminding them that they lived before the French and English had arrived and didn’t need their assistance. They hunted with bow and arrow without need of firearms. That now they had become dependent on the whites, for his children (the Natives) to send the whites back to the homes that he has given them, across the ocean. To “drive off your lands those dogs clothed in red who will do nothing but harm”. 

He sought to purify his followers, urging them to rid themselves of all European goods and return to the lifestyle of their ancestors. Though he had many followers, the idea of tossing aside their arms was too much for some Natives to comply with. Nevertheless, Neolin became yet another force swaying the Natives against the ‘Whites’. 

By so doing, and by strictly observing his other precepts, the tribes would soon be restored to their ancient greatness and power, and be enabled to drive out the white men who infested their territory. The prophet had many followers. Indians came from far and near, and gathered together in large encampments to listen to his exhortations.” – Chapter VII, The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest.

If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.

SEE ALSO:

  • THE COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING – This post covers some of the history, culture and religion of the Native American inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of North America, focusing on the Pontiac-Guyasuta Uprising and the Council of Three Fires (the Ottawa, Ojibwe and the Potawatomi); the peace-pipe, Rogers’ Rangers, the sport that inspired lacrosse, and some Native battle tactics
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE “SAVAGE” EMPIRE – The origins of the Iroquois Confederacy, the early wars they were involved in, the effects that disease epidemics incurred upon them, the Iroquoian cultural use of torturescalping, and cannibalism, the tomahawk and its symbolism (bury the hatchet), as well as the taking of captives during mourning wars and adopting them in order to replace lost tribal members.
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS – This post covers the religious beliefs of the Iroquois Confederacy, their origin story, their belief in duality (like yin and yang), their secretive and mysterious masked societies, and their involvement in the conflicts between their two great colonial neighbors (New France and the New England) like the famed French and Indian War. I’ll also speak of their involvement in the American Revolutionary War as well as the famed Joseph Brant, a Freemason Mohawk leader who swayed most of the Iroquois Confederates into siding with the British. It is believed that without the aid of the Iroquois Confederacy, North America would now be speaking French instead of English and that France would’ve held a massive portion of the eastern half of North America, leaving a massive battlefield for the French and Spanish to battle over.

anonymous asked:

Can I ask a linguistics question? What's the deal with English's A sound in words like hat, cat, or Alice? I'm a native English speaker, but I think it's such an ugly sound. Do other languages have this sound too?

It depends what your dialect is. Americans in the Great Lakes region have diphthongized what is usually /æ/ into /eə/ (sounds like “ay-uh”). Many languages have [æ] phonetically but not phonemically, meaning it’s usually interchangeable with similar sounds like /ɛ/ (”bed”) or /a/ (Spanish “gato”).

5

Meet the Beasts

01. Billywig

M.O.M Classification: XXX
The Billywig is an insect native to Australia. It is around half an inch long and a vivid sapphire blue, although its speed is such that it is rarely noticed by Muggles and often not by wizards until they have been stung. The Billywig’s wings are attached to the top of its head and are rotated very fast so that it spins as it flies. At the bottom of the body is a long thin sting. Those who have been stung by a Billywig suffer giddiness followed by levitation. Generations of young Australian witches and wizards have attempted to catch Billywigs and provoke them into stinging in order to enjoy these side effects, though too many stings may cause the victim to hover uncontrollably for days on end, and where there is a severe allergic reaction, permanent floating may ensue. Dried Billywig stings are used in several potions and are believed to be a component in the popular sweet Fizzing Whizbees.

02. Occamy

M.O.M Classification: XXXX
The Occamy is found in the Far East and India. A plumed, two- legged winged creature with a serpentine body, the Occamy may reach a length of fifteen feet. It feeds mainly on rats and birds, though has been known to carry off monkeys. The Occamy is aggressive to all who approach it, particularly in defence of its eggs, whose shells are made of the purest, softest silver.

03. Demiguise

M.O.M. Classification: XXXX
The Demiguise is found in the Far East, though only with great difficulty, for this beast is able to make itself invisible when threatened, and can be seen only by wizards skilled in its capture.
The Demiguise is a peaceful herbivorous beast, something like a graceful ape in appearance, with large, black, doleful eyes more often than not hidden by its hair. The whole body is covered with long, fine, silky, silvery hair. Demiguise pelts are highly valued as the hair may be spun into Invisibility Cloaks.

04. Thunderbird

M.O.M. Classification: Unavailable
The thunderbird is a legendary creature which features in the mythology of certain indigenous peoples of North America. It is especially prominent within the cultures of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest, and is frequently featured in their art, songs, and stories. However, versions of the thunderbird are also found in the traditions of peoples of the American Southwest, Great Lakes, and Great Plains regions of the continent. Accounts of the thunderbird and its characteristics vary, but it is often described as a very large bird, capable of generating storms and thunder as it flies.

05. Swooping Evil

M.O.M. Classification: Unavailable
A large, blue-and-green winged butterfly-like creature that emerges from a small object, possibly a cocoon. 

OK

I have answered all of the asks thus far sent in, though not all have posted. Below is a list of the asks, with links to the ones which have posted. If you have questions regarding things not on this list feel free to send them in!