amazonas state

ultra-acid-fairy  asked:

Wait so what is actually happening in Venezuela?

SITUATION OF VENEZUELA EXPLAINED

*Note: There’s a short list of acronyms explained at the bottom of the post.

*I would much appreciate if you (anyone reading this) could reblog this post to raise awareness on the matters without the bias of mainstream media. Also, comment me anything inaccurate I could have written, any further information you can contribute or any other questions about the topic.

What’s happening right now as in recent news?

Some (very few) soldiers (some of them weren’t even soldiers) declared themselves in rebellion against the government, to “restore the constitutional order” and claiming that “the peoples shall rebel against the “”tirany”” of President Nicolás Maduro”, following the «Operación David».

Basically, they called for the military, police and civilians to disobey the actual constitutional and democratic order to overthrow it even by violent means, because they consider everyone that supports or doesn’t directly oppose the government and structures of the state “military objectives” that should by fought with “every firepower available”(these are literal words).

These people (around a dozen or so) held a military base in Valencia, Carabobo have been arrested and the base has been taken back by the army loyal to the government, so everything is back to normality for now.

The “rebels” called for other battalions to join them taking up arms against the government, but no one supported the insurrectionists (even if the opposition is saying that they did in some places to spread a false believe that a notable part of the army supports their counter-revolution and try to facilitate a future coup d’état).


What’s happening in the grand scheme of things and why did these people do that?

Well, that’s a complicated question that I’m not able to answer in detail being that I’m not Venezuelan nor I’m well informed in the affairs of the legal system of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela or know their Constitution and recent history, but I’ll try my best.

To understand what’s happening right now, we must head back to the parliamentary elections of 2015.

The opposition (more specifically the MUD, Mesa de la Unidad Democrática) won 112 of the 167 seats of the National Assembly and the chavistas (the GPP coalition, Gran Polo Patriótico Simón Bolivar) won the other 55 seats. This granted MUD a two thirds majority, and even if the loss was democratically accepted by the GPP, the Supreme Court saw evidencies of fraud in the state of Amazonas, that conflicted with the election of three MUD members and a PSUV (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, major chavista party) member.

Because of that, the TS (Tribunal Superior, Supreme Court) declared as invalid the takeover of the seats mentioned before as a temporary measure, until further investigation would be made to solve the issue.

Despite of the TS’s decision, the AN ruled by the opposition didn’t obey the order and continued to take actions as a formed government with the inclusion of the suspended members by possible fraud, which led to any said action to be declared invalid by the TS.

Given that the AN was in contempt (en desacato, not following the law), the TS took over the legislative branch until they accept the court’s action, following the constitution and the laws of the State.

The opposition, whoever, said that this was a “move towards dictatorship” and considered illegitimate the takeover of the AN or any other mesurare by the official powers, which led them to disobeying the State order and so on.


With all this taken into account, having the opposition in constant violence against the State order, President Nicolás Maduro called for the Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (National Constituent Assembly, ANC for short) to reform the country and aiming for peace and stability. This is totally legal as the article 348 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela says that any of the following can call for the ANC: the President, the AN (not right now because it’s out of power by rule of the TS) with at least two thirds of the votes, at least two thirds of the Municipal Councils (more local-like governments), or at least 15% of the people that can vote.

The goal of the ANC, as the Constitution(articles 347 and 349) states, is the following: given that the people of Venezuela are the trusted with the original constituent power, they have the power to transform the State, create a new juridical order (legal system) and write a new Constitution.

What the citizens of Venezuela decide via the ANC is legitimate because the people have the power in Venezuela (a true factor in favor of the democracy in the country that few places in the world have, by the way), and so it can’t be taken down by the President or any other form of power.

Because the President himself made the call (which is totally legal and constitutional as mentioned before in the article 348) to the ANC, the opposition is nonsensically calling it a coup d’état and not taking it as legitimate, so they oppose any future ruling by it or in favour of making it possible. To show this opposition to the ANC, they (the MUD, the opposition themselves) called for a referendum with the following three questions:

1. Do you oppose and not know about the proposal for the Constituent (ANC) by Nicolás Maduro without the previous approval of the citizens of Venezuela?

2. Do you demand the National Armed Force and to every public worker to obey the Constitution and to back the decisions of the AN?

3. Do you want to elect new public powers and a new “national unity government” to return constitutional order through new elections?

First, let me show why these questions are not valid to begin with, and later I’ll explain why the voting itself was poorly made and not legitimate.

1. As the Constitution states, the President can make the proposal for the ANC, without the approval of any other members, as well as the AN could have made the call without the President, for example.

2. The Armed Force is obeying the constitution and its commander-in-Chief: the President Nicolás Maduro. The AN can’t be backed up by no one because it’s in  contempt and not following the law, so it’s powers are transferred to the TC following the Constitution.

3. The Constitutional order is in rule the entire time. The calling for new elections is made by the CNE, as the Constitution states. If the want to revoke any public office member or elect new ones, they could hold a legal and binding referendum, but they didn’t.

Let’s continue with what was done wrong in the referendum of the opposition:

This referendum was unconstitutionally called and so it didn’t have the backing of the Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE, National Electoral Council). Because of that, the opposition made up entirely the process of the referendum, without the complete and updated electoral census, without the means to validate the results (voting machines and other methods, which, by the way, are very transparent and reliable and few countries have) and without the means to detect electoral fraud at major scale.

Even that, the government let them do their “referendum” and major fraud was made: people were able to vote dozens of times, even with expired IDs or with the IDs of dead or other people (if it was made following the constitution and with the support of the CNE, the would scan the fingerprints and IDs), the voting records were literally burnt in the streets as soon as the voting was finished, which made it impossible to audit the liability of the results.

In summary: this voting lacks any legitimacy.


Following the calling for the ANC, the citizens of Venezuela were called to vote with all the means given by the CNE to verify the correct voting, to chose the 500 members of the assembly. Those 500 members consist of: 79 workers, 28 retired/pensionary people, 24 students, 24 representatives of the communes, 8 farmers and fishermen/fisherwomen, 5 disabled people, 5 businessmen/businesswomen, and 364 other citizens elected by each territory.

So, in June 30th, even if the opposition abstained from voting their representatives or postulating themselves, and despite the violent means, threats, roadblocks, and many other impediments that tried to make people not to vote, millions of Venezuelans took part in a democratic choosing to reconstitute the country’s organisation.

This showed the strength of the Bolivarian Revolution across the country and the overall support for peace and for the legitimate sovereignty of the peoples government, something that the opposition will never be capable of having and so the only mean they have is the coward and mercenary style of U.$. backed paramilitary uprising, which will also be crushed by the courageous revolutionary people of Venezuela.


  • AN: Asamblea Nacional, National Assembly, parliament of Venezuela.
  • ANC: Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, National Constituent Assembly, where the peoples power lies in, to reform the country’s structure and Constitution.
  • CNE: Consejo Nacional Electoral, National Electoral Council, agency that manages electoral affairs.
  • GPP: Gran Polo Patriótico Simón Bolivar, chavista/bolivarian/left wing party coalition.
  • ID: Identity document, Cédula de Identidad in the case of Venezuela.
  • MUD: Mesa de la Unidad Democrática, opposition/center and right wing party coalition.
  • PSUV: Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, major chavista party inside the GPP.
  • TS: Tribunal Supremo, Supreme Court.
2

The Eastern and Western Yanomami usually live in a single hut inhabited by several families, such as the one of the photo, of the Tootobi group of the State of Amazonas. Considered an autonomous political and economic entity, it is the home of all the members of the village.
Photo: René Fuerst, 1961.

A Caboclo couple from Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

The term Caboclo is the Brazilian equivalent to the Mexican racial concept of a Mestizo, or the Canadian racial designation of a Métis; a person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.

In the Brazilian national racial narrative the two main races focused on are whites and blacks, with those of Indigenous descent and culture often overshadowed. However, the Caboclo’s were Brazil’s first racially-mixed group, starting from the 16th century when the Portuguese king, Joseph I of Portugal, encouraged intermixing between Portuguese colonizers and Native Brazilian women. Much of the Caboclo population was centered in the Northeast of the country, until Brazil’s first and second rubber boom, when white and Caboclo people from that region were compulsorily drafted to harvest rubber in the Amazon. These people were not permitted to leave the Amazon and were forced to settle there permanently. This resulted in more miscegenation between people of European and Native descent, distinguishing it from the North-Eastern region where people of African and mixed black descent were far more common. For this reason, most of the Caboclo’s of today are located in the northern states of Brazil such as Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Tocantins.

As mentioned above, people of Amerindian and mixed Amerindian descent are often overshadowed in Brazilian society. This has gone as far as to cause erasure of the Caboclo’s by the Brazilian government. On the Brazilian census the official category for people of mixed-race ancestry is “pardo” (brown), and since most mixed-race people in Brazil are of European and African descent, certain government agencies group all pardos as Afro-Brazilians. Thus many Caboclo’s who have no African ancestry at all are presented as Afro-Brazilians, and issues concerning them alone as a racial minority group are ignored by the state in favor of the Afro-descended minority groups.  

Ok, ok, so, many people are complaining about the whole thing with CasteloBruxo and I get that but hey, did anyone really expected everything to be perfect? I know I didn’t. JK has her flaws and there are holes in universe she created.

But it doesn’t mean we can’t do something about them and make the thing even better!  So, this is how I see CasteloBruxo, and how it could work as a safe place for all Latin America community:

Keep reading

mirror.co.uk
England's World Cup stadium being built by Haitian 'slaves' earning just £5 a day - if they're lucky

Thousands of desperate Haitians fled the devastation of the 2010 earthquake and ended up in Brazil where they are being subjected to imhumane exploitation

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Exploited: Haitian refugees Onik, Jean-Michel and Ronain

Thousands of miles from their earthquake-devastated homes, three exhausted and hungry Haitian men sit in a tiny, shadowy backstreet room.

Cockroaches scuttle over their bare feet and across the single mouldy mattress on which they take turns to snatch elusive sleep.

Above them a single bulb flickers, dangerously lit by two live mains wires touched together.

But today their plight helps shed a blinding light on a sickening scandal behind the building of the multi-million-pound stadium where England captain Steve Gerrard and his team will play their first World Cup match this summer.

Because a Sunday Mirror ­investigation reveals these three men, and hundreds of Haitian quake survivors like them, are used as slave labourers – working ten hours every day in a race against time to finish the new Arena Amazonia before the kick-off in June.

But Jean-Michel, Onick and Ronain are the lucky ones – they get paid, even if it is only a shocking £5 a day.

Dad-of-three Ronain, 39, revealed: “We send the money back to our families. But there are many from our country who get jobs at the stadium, work hard to get their wages, then don’t get paid at all.

“They are being badly mistreated.”

In 2011, thousands of desperate Haitian men headed here looking for jobs a year after the enormous quake a year earlier which killed 220,000 people and wrecked the impoverished country.

Brazil allowed many immigrants in and gave them work permits. Since then around 5,000 Haitians have arrived in Manaus where England play Italy on June 14. They dreamed of making good money to send back to their loved ones to help rebuild their lives.

But the brutal reality has been very different. Many claim they have been duped into working for weeks on the £170million stadium without pay.

Others got a fraction of what they were told they would earn.

All were made to work harder and quicker when Brazilian workers went on strike.

Eyevine
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Big job: The Arena Amazonia under construction in Manaus

Trainee priest Felimon Rodriguez, who works with Haitian refugees in the city, said they often become prey to rogue recruitment companies.

“A firm turned up at one shelter and recruited 18 Haitians to work at the stadium,” he said. “They worked a whole month only to find there was no pay for them. So they left the city.”

Felimon explained that the stadium construction firm, Andrade Gutierrez, outsources work to other companies, who in turn hire “recruitment firms”.

He said: “Many of these firms have sprung up. The Haitians don’t speak the language, or understand their rights. They are destitute.

“When their wage doesn’t arrive they don’t know what to do. So they just move on and the firm who conned them is never found out. There are people here making a lot of money off the backs of vulnerable, hard-working Haitians.”

Sitting in a musty room in crumbling flats, Haitian Jean Clifford, 39, reveals the nightmare working conditions at the stadium where thousands of England fans will gather this summer.

Three months ago he left his wife and five children behind and arrived in Manaus. “I was offered work as a builder’s assistant on 900 reals a month (around £230),” he said. “They told me I would get work insurance and pension.

“I was ecstatic. I called my family to tell them our lives would get better.” Jean Clifford, who shares a room with three others, started work last month – and soon found out he was expected to work in chain gang-like conditions .

He said: “I was made to carry heavy building materials from the ground to the top tier. I would start at 7am and work without a break until 5pm.

“I’m used to hard work but that was exhausting. We didn’t even get a day off. They wanted us working non-stop because they were so far behind schedule.

Getty Images
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Kick off: England captain Steven Gerrard

‘They’d complain if we needed to drink water or go to the toilet. When the Brazilian workers went on strike over their working conditions, the Haitians were made to work even harder. They kept shouting ‘quicker, quicker!’, ­threatening us with the sack.

“We were treated like slaves. I was told to run up and down carrying heavy materials.

“I could easily have fallen. I didn’t want to lose my job so I did what they said, even though I was risking my life.”

When Jean went to get his wage he was told there was no money and given excuses to keep him working.

After two more weeks without any promised wages he walked out.

He said: “I hope the football fans find out how many Haitians have suffered to build that stadium.”

Godheil Chatelain, told how he was employed to build a road around the Arena Amazonia, and promised £2 per metre. But on payday a fortnight later, the firm just told him to come back in two weeks. He said: “They thought I’d just keep working for no money, but I insisted on being paid. So they sacked me.”

Godheil, 24, kept returning to the firm’s offices demanding his money. He was threatened so he went to police. They eventually paid up – but only £3 a day.

Godheil, who now has a job at a chicken farm elsewhere in Brazil, said: “The people making money from the stadium know we need to find work and they think they can get away with it.

“The Haitians are suffering in silence to build their stadium which will ­advertise how great Manaus is to the world. I hope the opposite happens: that it will reveal how badly Manaus treats its immigrant workers.”

Getty Images
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Devastation: The aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti

Construction workers’ union leader Cicero Custodio told us it is not just foreign workers being taken for a ride.

Nearly 60 per cent of the 1,600 men at the Arena Amazonia come from other Brazilian states. They are on far better money than the Haitians – around £680 a month – but many complain of being paid less or not being paid on time.

A union spokesman said: “Often workers are promised decent lodgings and a good wage, but when they get here they have to sleep six to a room and get half of what they were promised.”

Last year Brazilian construction workers at the stadium went on strike over safety conditions after two workers died the same day. One fell 115 feet from the stadium roof. The other died of a heart attack after being told to work harder.

Last night a spokesman for Andrade Gutierrez said: “We have no knowledge of mistreatment or delays of payments to employees.

"The paying of an outsourced employee is the direct responsibility of the company who contracted him.

“We will increase checks to investigate these claims and, if they are proved, we will demand immediate solutions.”

A spokesman for the state of Amazonas said officials “have no ­knowledge of these practices”, adding that much of the work at the stadium is outsourced and it is “difficult to identify if there is truth in these claims”.




Lanceolated Monklet (Micromonacha lanceolata)

…a small species of puffbird (Bucconidae), a group of birds allies with the woodpeckers and their allies, which occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru. In the western Amazon River Basin, it ranges from the Purus River in the southwest, the state of Amazonas to the Japura River in the northwest. Lanceolated monklets typically inhabit subtropical and tropical and sub/tropical montante forests.

Classification

Animalia-Chordata-Aves-Piciformes-Bucconidae-Micromonacha-M. lanceolata

Image: Joel Rosenthal

3

Brazilian prison riot leaves dozens dead

Rioting inmates decapitated their rivals in brutal fighting between two gangs in a Brazilian jail that left 56 dead, while 144 prisoners escaped, officials said.

The riot broke out Sunday afternoon and lasted through the night at a prison on the outskirts of Manaus, the capital of Amazonas state, state public security secretary Sergio Fontes said.

Bloodied and burned bodies were stacked in a concrete prison yard and piled in carts, an AFP photographer at the scene said.

Fontes’s department later lowered the death toll to 56 from an earlier count of 60.

The fighting ranks among the most deadly of numerous prison riots across Latin America in the past decade.

Fontes called it “the biggest massacre” ever committed at a prison in the state.

Outside, heavily armed police hunted for dozens of inmates who escaped through a series of tunnels discovered at the Anisio Jobim penitentiary complex.

Fontes’s department later said that 112 prisoners escaped from that prison and another 72 from the nearby Antonio Trindade Penal Institute. Just 40 of the escapees were captured, it added. (AFP)

Photos: (from top) Edmar Barros/Futura Press via AP, Marcio Silva/AFP/Getty Images, Michael Dantas/Reuters

See more images of the prison riot in Brazil on Yahoo News