Thoughtforms: Theory & Ethics

Thicket’s Thoughtform Masterpost

Thoughtforms are known by many names. Tulpas, servitors, artificial spirits. Each name has its own connotations and context. In general I call them thoughtforms which holds the least “baggage.”

Anyone can create a thoughtform. It is a surprisingly simple process. So simple, in fact, that many of us have unintentionally created thoughtforms that float around us and constantly affect us.

So what is a thoughtform?

A thoughtform is a human created bundle of energy with a purpose. In this way they are highly similar to spells. Certain types of thoughtforms, in fact, are identical to spells. It is only when we get to more advanced thoughtforms that they really become differentiated.

The most simple type of thoughtform is a regular thought given energy until it has power of its own.

Have you ever had a thought which seems to have a life of its own? Maybe it’s a crush, a worry, a fear, a hope, or a dream. You think about it intensely for a day or a week, and now something strange has happened to it. When this thought revisits you, it’s evolved. The factors have changed. It’s taken on a life of its own. It visits you and demands time and energy before it will go away again. That thought has become a thoughtform, a little artificial spirit without a mind of it’s own, evolving and changing and coming back to Mom or Dad for regular feeding.

What if, however, you took control over this process and carefully constructed a certain thought and gave it power, so that it would be your ally and work on your behalf. That is the type of thoughtform most of us are thinking of. Many of these thoughtforms become characters and even gain their own sentience over time.

A thoughtform of this type is limited only by your imagination and ability to feed it. I have several thoughtforms around my home, many of them guardians. I will later go over how to build a powerful thoughtform and give it life. For now, we can talk about theory!

Sentience is a huge ethical problem when it comes to thoughtforms. A mindless thoughtform is just like a spell; spells have no mind, they just do as they are told. A thoughtform that starts to make decisions and process things is more like a computer. And at a certain point, that computer gains it’s own artificial intelligence. But it’s still intelligence; it’s still self-aware. It knows what life is, and what death is. Some thoughtforms go as far as to beg their creators for life and never to kill them.

So now you’re in the position of creator god. What do you do with your thoughtforms once you’re done with them? Do you murder them and scatter their spirits to the four winds? Do you allow them to die a natural death of old age? Do you starve them out? Do you hit the self-destruct button? If you are tender-hearted, what you can do is give your thoughtform an alternate energy source (such as sunlight, moonlight, the winds, running water, whatever) and set them free from your service, free to roam the world in whatever condition they like. I suppose if you got very fancy you could create an afterlife for your thoughtforms to exist in once you’re done with them (or just lie to them about it).

Personally, I look through my notes and see what forces I used to create my thoughtform. Did I create it under the powers of the Sun and Moon? Then I will release part of their spirit back to dwell with the Sun and part to dwell with the Moon. I send them back from whence they came. Human consciousness does not survive death, regardless what you believe about souls; death is “it”. So it should be for thoughtforms. Once they have served their purpose in life, it is perfectly alright to grant them a noble end and send their spirits back to the Universe. That is my belief.

Switching Up A Gear - Chapter 1

Summary: Megan is fiery Omega and the Manager for Team Stark, one of the most successful NASCAR teams on the circuit. Her boss Tony recruits a new driver to work alongside their current one Steve Rogers, she soon has to cope with two Alpha males butting heads, and when she finally meets the new driver she’s in for a surprise.
Pairing: OC Megan x Bucky Barnes
Triggers/Warnings: A/B/O Dynamics, none really for this chapter.
A/N: This is a Avengers/NASCAR AU, and one that will also include the Alpha/Beta/Omega verse, however i have decided to make sure i explain things for people not used to this genre within the story, so if you don’t know, or haven’t read A/B/O before i can assure you that this story will make sense!


Switching Up A Gear – Chapter 1

Megan closed her eyes and inhaled deeply, the scent of gasoline and motor oil filling her senses and calming her nerves. Even with the ear plugs in, the constant roar of engines reverberated through her body and pushed at her mind. Racing was in her soul. She’d grown up on the circuit and had spent her working life so far doing everything from being a PR girl in spandex booty shorts to what she was doing now; managing Team Stark.

Her boss Tony Stark was the owner and CEO of Stark Industries, dabbling in everything from arms and weaponry to alternative energy sources. He was also a shameless flirt and had at least one scandal a year that Megan would have to work tirelessly with their PR whizz Wanda to quell in the press and work with their legal team for the appropriate out of court settlement.

Squinting into the hot North Carolina sunshine Megan felt the first trickle of perspiration run down her back, her red and gold uniform blouse sticking to her skin, her tight pencil skirt reminding her that she needed to switch to the jersey fabric when she was back on home ground, the local humidity clinging to her the moment she’d stepped outside. Adjusting her sunglasses she strode around the pits, her high heels expertly dodging the patches of spilt oil as she headed to the bay they were working out of.

Stepping into the relative darkness of the low roofed building, she hooked her sunglasses into the front of her blouse, blinking a few times as her pupils adjusted to the low light and to wet her contact lenses after the heat of the racetrack, plucking her earplugs out as she ventured further into the building.

“Hey Beautiful, looking hot”

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Bad End Friends Masterpost!

liCollection of Ideas that were added to this AU! Which was original Bipper, IceFinn and Beast! Wirt, but now it seems that it has gotten bigger! New additions are being separated to make it easier and find the fandoms they originally came from! 

Gravity Falls

☻ Birthday Girl Mabel - Mabel can’t wait for her birthday and invites everyone she knows, and obviously her brother has to show up. But when no one comes, she is all alone and sooner or later she starts loosing her sanity and throws her own “Pity Party” And after hearing that Dipper isn’t going to show up, she goes ballistic and trashes the house, setting it aflame and deprives herself of sleep, not wanting the party to end. 

☻ Pacifica Northwood - Idea by @tigerlizii - Lumberjack ghost spares her life unlike the other Northwest’s, but he curses her into becoming wood creature/tree nymph

Star vs the Forces of Evil

 Monster Marco - Marco takes Toffee’s place including his clothing style, personality and rarely seen alternate creepy facade. Probably the most sane out of all the other Bad Enders but can get surprising really quickly. Mostly seen as a leader figure is very apathetic towards everyone, with the exception of Star and sometimes Tom.

 Mewberty Star - Mewberty strikes again but in a really unnerving way, making Star lose her senses and turns into a full love-crazed “yandere” and even becomes cannibalistic. She has a dark sense of humor that includes legit hearts.

 Pyromaniac Tom - Tom’s title as a demon and his own ignition powers aren’t enough to satisfy his sudden pyromania, so he finds more ways to set flames by burning everything in his path even if it kills someone. He uses this as a threat to other’s in the group, but of course most of them are unfazed, mainly with Mabel, Bipper and Marco. Marco finds his threatening amusing while Mabel shares the interest and Bipper just mocks him. However IceFinn and Wirt become very defensive. 

☻ Siren Jackie - A smaller addition to the group and shows up rarely,, luring in others with her majestic singing. Beautiful but extremely dangerous, at least she’s rare.

Adventure Time

 Feral Vampire Marceline - Simon never found her, so she was left on her own and grew up in the most wild of states, so she attacked anyone or anything in her way and it became an entertaining habit to her.

 Sugar Crashed Bubblegum - Bonnie is in the state where her mind consumes what she is and uses that as an alternate energy source. A “Sugar Crash” happens when someone consumes to much glucose and has fatigue, but since Bubblegum is entirely made of sugar, she is ultimately and constantly hyperactive. 

 Lich Jake - Must I say more?

Steven Universe

Steven Diamond/Polar Opposite - Instead of being the half-gem son of Rose Quartz, he is the son of Yellow Diamond and was raised by her instead. As said, Steven as his polar opposite.

 Crystal Clusters - The crystal gems eventually being mutated into gem clusters and it’s a literal painful thing to go through and is terrifying to them. 

 Or Rose Quartz being the one leading the invasion to Earth as well- @squidspookies :> Everything is Evil here man the poor Earth holy crap

 These ideas were inspired by the original AU and also came from these two as well!!

@sir-o-lantern @eldritch-bill-cipher I’m pretty sure there were a couple more but memory sucks :p

Oh yeah and the theme song!

Main: “Mad Hatter” by Melanie Martinez 

More from Melanie and Halsey match with this so much! Which is why we picked it, but Mad Hatter just sums up the entire concept! There you go! Share if you like to help this fandom grow! #Bad End Friends


AU Credit and the addition of Bipper, IceFinn and Wirt

Education, Entertainment, and Inspiration; or How I learned there is a time and place for IP.

An essay on the future of EPCOT by tumblr user Capri-Harmony

Disclaimer: Before reading, I would like it to be known I do not believe every pavillion needs an IP. Personally, I want to keep them out of Future World in particular. This is just my brainstorming of IPs that would fit each topic, so if an IP change had to come, these would be the better fit.

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Auradon Improvement Initiative Explained! (Part 2): “Bibbidi-Bobbidi-Beep Boop”: Magitech in Auradon

From a writer’s standpoint, Auradon’s Magic Ban is incredibly lazy and stupid.

Majority of the states of Auradon have heavily relied on magic, both for the incredible circumstances that led to their nobility taking power, and as an important everyday part of their lives, a means for improving and sustaining their standard of living.

Banning such a powerful tool is the stuff of dictatorships or abusive totalitarian states, akin to China’s completely shutting down the Internet to try and quell the unrest happening within its citizens.

It also feels dangerously hypocritical, as royals like Aladdin only managed to rise up to power with Genie’s magic, and to suddenly ban that and prevent anyone from ever benefiting from the thing that permanently changed his (and all of Agarbah’s) lives for the better for the sake of “fairness” is awful.

It is in essence the “I’ve got mine, now fuck off!” philosophy I hate so much.

This would be a good move if Auradon was meant to be portrayed and understood as the incredible sunny, smiling dystopia it is, but unfortunately, the canon and the intention of the writers is to portray it as someplace you’d actually want to live in, than a cautionary tale about the abuse of power and deifying your government officials, and why the people need to be checks on their leaders than blind followers.

“But it’s dangerous!” you might say, and they were right to ban it because it caused incredible amounts of suffering alongside the benefits.

But so do cars.

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To Clear Things Up About the Timeframe of the Campaign

imagine if these civilizations in particular banned together and found an alternate energy source of power crystals with electrical qualitiea that could be grown, farmed and harvested at a rate that could sustain what we would call a Modern level of intake. Semi-futuristic technologies are invented and created because of the crystals. Now major city centres have access to technologies at the level of 1930s Middle America (besides GUNS.) No guns created but black and white TV, telegrams and trains, ski-lifts, and scarce few automobiles, various boats, exist. As well as several modern-day returuaunt chains time warped into the semi-fantastical era such as Starbucks, 7/11,Denny’s etc. even everyday technologies such as kitchen appliances, skis, hairdryers, medical tools (and many more) have been invented using the power of these magic crystals.

Going to smaller outposts and villages, one will find less, scarce varieties of these technologies make it the Nomadic areas of medieval living.

meowdoglover  asked:

May I ask how the axis would react to a bird flying through the open window at a world meeting, lands on their head, and then poops on their notes?

This needs to happen in canon, that would be hilarious

Originally posted by gaiasnavel

//cries because there’s no gifs of Gilbird

Italy/ Feliciano Vargas

Germany would be proud of him, Italy is taking pretty careful notes. At the moment, the topic is global warming, and what are the alternative energy sources that they can use. Germany been talking about this for weeks now, can’t he move on from that? Italy takes a second to look at his notes. Sure they’re a little disorganized, but at least he can understand them. Unfortunately for Italy, a bird flew in and landed on his head. He didn’t mind, the bird wasn’t doing anything. Well, that’s until the bird flew off…and pooped on his notes. Only Romano saw this, and quietly snickered. Italy, meanwhile, is pretty upset by this and would quietly excuse himself while going to find that bird.

Germany/Ludwig Beilshmdit / Japan/Kiku Honda

America was talking about whatever is happening at his place, politics or something. Germany and Japan are looking over notes from previous topics. Should they take notes on this? Nah, America doesn’t really talk over important things. They don’t notice the bird that’s in front of them. But when they do, they wonder how it got in. That didn’t last long though, the bird took off and pooped on their notes. Germany sighs, that’s one set of notes ruined. He luckily has another notebook with the same exact notes. Japan is internally crying

South Italy/Lovino Vargas

He doesn’t even need to be here, gosh darn this. Romano is only here because his brother insisted…for some reason. Potato bastard has the floor, talking about whatever potato bastards talk about. He’s so bored that he’s just doodling, really. A bird suddenly flew very close to his face. When he tried to wave it off, it just pooped on his notes. Cue all that Italian rage

Prussia/Gilbert Beilshmdit

“Hoe don’t do it”

Gilbird didn’t listen and pooped on his sketch


July 15th 1979: Carter’s ‘Crisis of Confidence’ speech

On this day in 1979, the US President Jimmy Carter made a televised address that has become known as the 'crisis of confidence’ or 'malaise’ speech. The address came during an energy crisis which had its roots in the 1973 oil embargo, which led Carter to conclude that America needed a focus on conserving energy and the use of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar. Carter also encouraged people to be more responsible in their use of gas and electric. It was in this environment that the President made his July 15th speech, which he had spent many weeks preparing at Camp David. He identified a 'crisis of confidence’ throughout the nation in the wake of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. The reception to the speech was initially favourable, but came to be seen as a scolding lecture where Carter was blaming the American people for the crisis in his emphasis on over consumption and consumerism. The address has since become identified with the general period of 'malaise’ that characterised America in the 1970s, with a flagging economy, uninspiring politicians, heightened racial tensions and seemingly endless war; however Carter never actually used the word in his speech. Jimmy Carter lost his re-election bid the year after this speech in 1980 against charismatic Republican challenger Ronald Reagan.

You Don't Know Sh*! About Natural Gas. Read This.

Let’s talk about gas. No no, not the gas that comes out of your ass but rather the gas that comes out of the earth and fuels your stoves, homes and generates electricity that powers your life and gadgets! Everyone who recycles and eats “locally sourced” lettuce thinks they know a thing or two about what it means to being green, but when we bring up natural gas as one of the great heroes of the clean energy movement, everyone goes blank.

Here’s just how much you don’t know about natural gas.

When you hear the words “climate change” being spoken, you think about the sad polar bear standing on his 1 cubic square inch of ice almost drowning to death in the middle of the North Pole. And the world coming to an end. And the fact that you could be riding your bike more. You definitely don’t think about all the things we could be doing to lower CO2 emission rates, and how we can maintain our standard of living whilst being conscience of our carbon footprint. Natural gas is a great remedy to our emissions issues. It is the least carbon-intensive major energy source, emitting up to 60% less CO2 than coal when used for electricity generation.

When you think about oil, you think “evil liquid killing the earth that also fuels my lovely Prius named Penelope”… But did you know that coal is a huge culprit of CO2 emissions as well? Well now you know. You’re welcome.

When you see solar panels, you wish you were soaking up the sun, too or you think “ugh, too expensive for me”. You definitely don’t think about how much solar panels are saving us from ultimate world doom and saving you dollars on your energy bill.

“You know what fracking is, right??” “Fracking… Oh, let me just google that right quick. I used to know… Umm, my internet is down. Can you just remind me again?” “It’s this thing…”

When you think about climate change and these types of issues, you get overwhelmed because quite frankly, who cares about the environment when you don’t even have a job and you have all these bills to pay? Forget the polar bears, save the US economy first!

When you think of oil companies, you don’t think about the other “good stuff” they’re doing to save the environment such as renewable energy and natural gas exploration. You just think “big evil oil company killing all the polar bears… and fueling my car” because after all, that’s the way the media and all your friends tell you to think, right?

Staying informed is the key to curing ignorance… But remember, not all news sites are created equal.

Let’s talk about something dirty… Voting! Everyone does it, but no one wants to talk about it. Just kidding! It’s more like: no one does it, but everyone talks about it. It’s like our complicated relationship with cross-fit and veganism.

When you think about the things that matter to the US, you think of job creation, more organic food for everyone, and stricter gun laws. One of the most understated issues is alternative, clean sources of energy. We all love our iPhones, computers, the lights in our homes, and the gas in our stoves, but we rarely think about what powers our world (literally!). Without energy, you wouldn’t be able to read this article right now!

Think about the next question carefully… Your iPhone, iPad, computer, cat, mom, and the mac-n-cheese on your stove depend on it.

Forming opinions and perspectives can be healthy when it comes to understanding complex issues such as climate change and natural gases. However, remember that being flexible about your views can make you even smarter and more enlightened.

So knowing what you know now… Why don’t you think more people know about natural gas?! When you figure out the answer, please tell us (in the poll below).

anonymous asked:

Y r u so obsessed with Rand Paul

Not sure if I posted this before but here it goes… This was a setting inspired by mad max, cyberpunk, and the last of us. I know is not the most of original ideas but hopefully some of you mind find it entertaining or will provide feedback.


In the year X an unexpected asteroid entered our solar system bound to impact earth (could be another world entirely). Scientists worked together to find a possible solution and proceeded to attempt to divert or destroy the asteroid in the event diversion failed.

After several attempts to divert the asteroid scientists proceeded to try and destroy the asteroid which caused it to fragment into numerous pieces that fell upon earth. These fragments nearly destroyed civilization but also carried a special mineral within them that once exposed to the environment began to mutate the remaining flora and fauna (accelerated growth), eventually affecting humans as well.


It is no surprise that humans managed to survive. Most of the population was wiped out but not by direct hit of the fragments but in consequence of what they carried; the shards. Humans exposed to the shards either died, mutated, or were naturally resistant to their effects. Over the course of many decades (from 5 to 10) humans were divided into 3 groups:

  • Humdrums: Humdrums is the nickname given to those humans who managed to resist the effects of the shards and remained relatively normal (all humdrums possess several tiny pieces of shards encrusted on their skin which appear at birth or during puberty). Although it is a degrading term, it is something normal humans have accepted and embraced. Its better to be a humdrum than a freak or a spyker.
  • Freaks: *Give them some other name since apparently everyone is a freak*Freaks are humans who appeared to have been severely burnt in several areas of their body revealing what appears to be bone but are actually crystals. Freaks are able to perform feats of strength and agility and even transmute their own bodies to shape hands into claws or enhance their leg muscles to make very high jumps and take long strides.
  • Psykers: Psykers are feeble humans who possess one or many psychic powers due to the direct exposure to the shards at an early age or inherited the mutation from their parents. There are instances of humans and other creatures who have gained supernatural abilities.
  • Mocks: Mocks are robots with human appearances and a human brain. It is believed they were constructed before the asteroid fell since mocks are usually found in buried facilities. Something must have gone wrong with mocks since those that have woken up do so with no recollection of their previous lives (if any). Some do claim to remember a past life but their memories are too vague to be taken seriously. Mocks don’t require to breathe, eat, or sleep and can upgrade their own bodies to add utilitarian tools and even weapons.

The Shards

Shards is the common name used for the crystal shards that came along with with the fragments of the asteroid that hit earth. No one knows exactly what the shards are nor where they came from but some scientists believe they were the vessel for an alien bacteria which causes it’s host to rapidly mutate. After decades of voraciously changing everything around them, the shards stopped glowing which allowed humans to finally get near them and study them. It was discovered that these shards could be used as a form of battery/fuel and many of the technology today revolves around these shards and the energy they produce.

Recent studies have revealed that the shards appear to be semiconscious and perhaps have their own agendas. The shards have progressively been burying themselves deep within the earth and slowly expanding. Some theories suggest that the shards absorb minerals and other elements from our soil in order to process such elements and increase their own mass, other theories suggests that the shards can turn to jelly-like state in order to expand its own mass and perhaps even take new shapes.

The Crystal Plague

The first to benefit from the shards were mining companies who dedicated themselves to unearth them and control their distribution. After a few years of mining, miners began to feel rigidness on some parts of their bodies, later the affected area would begin to crystallize, that part eventually becoming a small shard. This was later known as the crystal plague and it has been slowly spreading around areas that have been mining the shards. Creepy stories abound of mining companies kidnapping people and forcing them to work at the mines in the hopes they would become infected with the crystal plague to later use the crystallized parts. Engineers and scientists began to study the robotic anatomy of Mocks —through reverse engineering mainly— in order to develop prosthetics for those who have lost limbs due to the plague.

Mining Companies

Mining companies have monopolistic control over the resources of most communities, specially shards since they are the only ones with the equipment and manpower to extract the strange mineral. Mining companies offered jobs in exchange of sustenance and protection, people began to form settlements around the mines of these companies working mainly as miners. Mining companies protect the settlements who have agreed to join them with their own police force dubbed sentinels but are colloquially called babysitters, chaperones, and watchdogs. The latter being the most common even among the sentinels themselves. Competition between mining companies is fierce sometimes leading to all out wars, however mining companies usually try to avoid open war and often send spies to observe their rivals and sabotage them if necessary.


People live in the few areas nature has not reclaimed. Settlements are usually formed around mines where mining companies rule  with their own police forces. gangs and bandits run rampant through the wilderness usually on customized buggies, cars, and SUVs, others move through the more swampy areas through airboats and rarely, with hybrid buggies. Some groups have shown resistance to the corrupting nature of the mining companies and have settled elsewhere where they sustain their communities with alternate sources of energy such as by moving near an old petroleum plant or installing solar panels. These alternate communities are constantly harassed by the mining companies to have them integrated into their own circles and often sabotage and even destroy the resources of such communities to force them to trade with them.

Most communities rely on agriculture for sustenance which is the easiest form of food production since the world has become such a lush place after the shards began to mutate the vegetation. Still, food is runned through makeshift purifiers to make them more suitable for consumption for humdrums and psykers, freaks tend to be immune to the effects of shards.

Besides settlements, mining companies, mercenaries, gangs, bandits, and raiders, there are rumors of an organization called the Fallout Coalition. They began operation shortly after all gubernamental structures collapsed as an attempt to maintain order but after resources were depleted, the organization fell into chaos setting the stage for mining companies to flourish.

FYI..latest information from PW regarding High Life.

Film Description: takes place beyond the solar system in a future that seems like the present. About a group of skilled criminals who, in a bid to escape their long sentences or capital punishment, except a likely fatal government space mission to find alternative energy sources. They find themselves in the most unimaginable situation after a storm of cosmic rays hit the ship. The film follows the character of Monte a few years after the missions launch as he raises his daughter, Willow, in complete isolation on the empty spacecraft as it heads towards its final destination, a black hole. He fathered Willow against his will after his sperm was used inseminate another convict in space as part of the experiment. In the process of raising her, however, he comes to experience real love for the first time in his life.

I’m not holding my breath that production will actually begin in January. But what I really love is that Lars Eidinger has been added to the cast.

Plants Are Far More Intelligent Than We Ever Assumed

Like higher organisms, plants appear able to make complex decisions. A new study shows that plants may be able to initiate a survival mechanism by aborting their own seeds to prevent parasite infestation.

Plants have previously been shown to draw alternative sources of energy from other plants. Plants influence each other in many ways and they communicate through “nanomechanical oscillations” vibrations on the tiniest atomic or molecular scale or as close as you can get to telepathic communication.

Plants exhibit intelligence with an intrinsic ability to process information from several type of stimuli that allows optimal decisions about future activities in a given environment.

Stefano Mancuso from the International Laboratory of Plant Neurobiology at the University of Florence, Italy, and his colleagues are starting to apply rigorous standards to study plant hearing (Trends in Plant Sciences, vol17, p323). Their preliminary results indicate that corn roots grow towards specific frequencies of vibrations. What is even more surprising is their finding that roots themselves may also be emitting sound waves. For now, though, we have no idea how a plant might produce sound signals let alone how they might detect them.

Scientists from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the University of Gottingen have now shown from their investigations on Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), that it is is able to abort its own seeds to prevent parasite infestation.

The results, as reported in a news release, are the first ecological evidence of complex behavior in plants. They indicate that this species has a structural memory, is able to differentiate between inner and outer conditions as well as anticipate future risks, scientists write in the renowned journal American Naturalist — the premier peer-reviewed American journal for theoretical ecology.

The European barberry or simply Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) is a species of shrub distributed throughout Europe. It is related to the Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium) that is native to North America and that has been spreading through Europe for years. Scientists compared both species to find a marked difference in parasite infestation: “a highly specialized species of tephritid fruit fly, whose larvae actually feed on the seeds of the native Barberry, was found to have a tenfold higher population density on its new host plant, the Oregon grape”, reports Dr. Harald Auge, a biologist at the UFZ.

This led scientists to examine the seeds of the Barberry more closely. Approximately 2000 berries were collected from different regions of Germany, examined for signs of piercing and then cut open to examine any infestation by the larvae of the tephritid fruit fly (Rhagoletis meigenii). This parasite punctures the berries in order to lay its eggs inside them. If the larva is able to develop, it will often feed on all of the seeds in the berry. A special characteristic of the Barberry is that each berry usually has two seeds and that the plant is able to stop the development of its seeds in order to save its resources. This mechanism is also employed to defend it from the tephritid fruit fly. If a seed is infested with the parasite, later on the developing larva will feed on both seeds. If however the plant aborts the infested seed, then the parasite in that seed will also die and the second seed in the berry is saved.

When analyzing the seeds, the scientists came across a surprising discovery: “the seeds of the infested fruits are not always aborted, but rather it depends on how many seeds there are in the berries”, explains Dr. Katrin M. Meyer, who analyzed the data at the UFZ and currently works at the University of Goettingen. If the infested fruit contains two seeds, then in 75 per cent of cases, the plants will abort the infested seeds, in order to save the second intact seed. If however the infested fruit only contains one seed, then the plant will only abort the infested seed in 5 per cent of cases. The data from fieldwork were put into a computer model which resulted in a conclusive picture. Using computer model calculations, scientists were able to demonstrate how those plants subjected to stress from parasite infestation reacted very differently from those without stress. “If the Barberry aborts a fruit with only one infested seed, then the entire fruit would be lost. Instead it appears to ‘speculate’ that the larva could die naturally, which is a possibility. Slight chances are better than none at all”, explains Dr. Hans-Hermann Thulke from the UFZ. “This anticipative behavior, whereby anticipated losses and outer conditions are weighed up, very much surprised us. The message of our study is therefore that plant intelligence is entering the realms of ecological possibility.”

But how does the Barberry know what is in store for it after the tephritid fruit fly has punctured a berry? It is still unclear as to how the plant processes information and how this complex behavior was able to develop over the course of its evolution. The Oregon grape that is closely related to the Barberry has been living in Europe for some 200 years with the risk of being infested by the tephritid fruit fly and yet it has not developed any such comparable defense strategy. These new insights shed some light on the underestimated abilities of plants, while at the same time bringing up many new questions.

By: April McCarthy

Aquarius Midheaven Careers

Anything in the social field. Social justice, social work, politician, activitst, fighting for equality and the rights of people. Progressive science - astronomy, astrology, engineering, alternative energy sources, environmental sciences. New age guru. Modern forms of art like photography, graphic design and film making that spread a message to the general public. Having influence on society in a progressive, future-oriented way.

Digital Currency Looks To Charge Up Solar Electricity Production

by Morgen E. Peck

A new project called SolarCoin seeks to make investments in solar energy just a little bit more attractive for anyone who may be on the fence. It’s a brand new digital currency of the Bitcoin ilk whose creators are offering to disburse to anyone who can prove that they’ve generated solar electricity. Right now, each megawatt-hour of electricity that your solar panels pump into the grid will get you one SolarCoin.

The goal, they say, is very simple. “SolarCoin will help make more solar energy,” currency founder Nick Gogerty tells Txchnologist. “In economics, whatever has more money flowing through it generally gets amplified. Throwing SolarCoin at solar electricity producers is the goal.”

To that end, SolarCoin Foundation volunteers began verifying electricity production claims in a pilot program this January. A third party reads each applicant’s meter to determine the amount of coins granted. The coins are then disbursed from a reservoir of “pre-mined” coins that the foundation has on hand.

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anonymous asked:

Ok but really what has Rand Paul done to prove he would be a good president

You have to know I expected this.

Any more questions?