almohades

Raza - Santiago y cierra -

Es el último zine proyecto en el que ando metido. Un visión triste de la historia bélica de España. Toda la mierda por la que tuvieron que pasar los que nos precedieron para llegar a dónde estamos ahora. Un gran estercolero.

En este álbum iré subiendo dibujinchis varios del proyecto, tanto del primero “Raza” que protagoniza nuestro Españolito del tiempo, como de Santiago y Cierra, que ya serán de otro costal. Dibujos masivos de los míos.

En esta ocasión, nos vamos al verano de 1212.
Los reinos Cristianos del norte de la península, hacen piña y le echan ganas. Van hacia el sur a darse de yoyas con los Almohades. Que se les tenía algo de tirria desde lo de Alarcos.

Así que eso. Que una escabechina, como siempre. Pero a los sureños, les dieron para el pelo los norteños. Y así entre otras cosas, Navarra puso la gran piedra sobre la que gira su heráldica y comenzó una serie de derrotas para los musulmanes, que acabaría con su destierro de la peninsula con la ya archifamosa “Reconquista” Etapa bélica de nuestra tierra, en la que se gritaba más el “Santiago y cierra” que el “Vamooooos” de los subidones raveros de hoy en día.

noasaurus  asked:

Hey just in case you're curious what an actual Jewish person thinks; Muslims and Jews aren't natural enemies. The actions of a tiny fraction of Muslims don't represent core concepts of Islam any more than the actions of some Christians represent core concepts of Christianity. Is there antisemitism in the Muslim community and on the Left in general? Certainly, but that doesn't represent the views of every single Muslim. I'm tired of gentiles using us as a means to attack vulnerable people

I’m tired of apologists like yourself using “not all Muslims” to excuse a hugely disproportionate problem with Islam. You act as if it’s only a tiny percentage of Muslims who hold these views yet you ignore the fact the top 16 countries with the highest rates of antisemitic views are all Muslim countries, you ignore Muslims are more than twice as likely to harbor antisemitic views than any other religion, you ignore the fact 16 Muslim countries strictly forbid Jews from entering, you completely ignore the fact more Muslims than any other religion deny and mock the Holocaust, you ignore the fact that violent crimes against Jews across Europe are mostly committed by young Muslims

You ignore the fact more than a thousand Jews were killed in anti-Jewish rioting in Muslim countries which has led to mass exodus of almost a million Jews from Arab countries, you completely ignore research has found that 47 percent of Muslims in the UK stated that they hold “unfavorable” views of Jews compared with 7 percent of the population as a whole; that 28 per cent of Muslims in France hold unfavorable views of Jews compared with 13 per cent of the population generally; and that 44 percent of Muslims in Germany hold such views compared with 20 percent of the population generally, you completely ignore the fact antisemitism is spread all over Arabic news and media, it’s being taught all throughout mosques and it’s ingrained in Muslim families and history, you completely ignore the fact that right now every single neighbor of Israel is a Muslim country who are all hellbent on destroying Israel and killing every last Jew. These are entire nations, not just a small minority ffs.

You may have a case by saying a fraction of Muslims are actually butchering and hunting Jews but how the fuck can you sit there and say that only a tiny fraction of Muslims hold these views so we should never talk about it and if we do, then it’s an attack on “vulnerable people”. Are you kidding me? The evidence is right there, what the fuck is wrong with you? You do realize there’s more Muslims in the world than just the ones who go to your university and who tells you how awesome Islam is, right? Muslims and Jews aren’t natural enemies? Have you ever read a history book? What kind of Jew are you? You don’t even know your own history? You don’t even know what’s happening in Israel? Or are you just choosing to ignore it along with everything else because it shows Islam isn’t quite as peaceful as your Muslim friend tells you? Well, it seems like somebody needs a history lesson. 

Muhammad traveled to Medina in 622 to attract followers to his new faith. When the Jews of Medina refused to convert and rejected Muhammad, two of the major Jewish tribes were expelled and in 627, Muhammad’s followers killed between 600 and 900 of the men, and divided the surviving Jewish women and children amongst themselves. The Muslim attitude toward Jews is reflected in various verses throughout the Quran. "They [the Children of Israel] were consigned to humiliation and wretchedness. They brought the wrath of God upon themselves, and this because they used to deny God’s signs and kill His Prophets unjustly and because they disobeyed and were transgressors" (Sura 2:61). According to the Quran, the Jews try to introduce corruption (5:64), have always been disobedient (5:78), and are enemies of Allah, the Prophet and the angels (2:97­98).

The traditional concept “dhimma” (“writ of protection”) was extended by Muslim conquerors to Christians and Jews in exchange for submission to the Muslims. People subjected to Muslim rule usually had a choice between death and conversion, but Jews and Christians who adhered to the Scriptures were allowed as dhimmis (protected persons). This “protection” did little to insure that Jews and Christians were treated well by the Muslims. On the contrary, an integral aspect of the dhimma was that, being an infidel, he had to openly acknowledge the superiority of the true believer the Muslim and pay Muslims “tributes” (jizya), as a yearly tax, symbolized the inferiority of the Jews and Christians. Muslims also forced Jews to wear yellow badges, setting a precedent that would be followed centuries later in Nazi Germany.

Later the inferior status of Jews and Christians was further reinforced through a series of regulations that governed the behavior of the Jews and Christians. They were forbidden to criticize the Quran, Islam or Muhammad, to proselytize among Muslims or to touch a Muslim woman (the scary part is they still practice this today.) Jews and Christians were excluded from public office and armed service and were forbidden to bear arms. They were not allowed to ride horses or camels, to build synagogues or churches taller than mosques, to construct houses higher than those of Muslims or to drink wine in public. They were not allowed to pray or mourn in loud voices as that might offend the Muslims. Jews and Christians were not allowed to give evidence in court against a Muslim and his oath was unacceptable in an Islamic court. To defend himself, Jews and Christians would have to purchase Muslim witnesses at great expense. This left them with little to no legal recourse when harmed and attacked by a Muslim.

When Jews were perceived as having achieved too comfortable a position in Islamic society, antisemitism would surface with often devastating results: In 1066, Joseph HaNagid, the Jewish vizier of Granada was crucified by an Arab mob that proceeded to raze the Jewish quarter of the city and slaughter its 5000 inhabitants. The riot was incited by Muslim preachers who had angrily objected to what they saw as inordinate Jewish political power. Similarly, in 1465, Arab mobs in Fez slaughtered thousands of Jews leaving only 11 alive, after a Jewish deputy vizier treated a Muslim woman in “an offensive manner.” Other mass murders of Jews in Arab lands occurred in Morocco in the 8th century, where whole communities were wiped out by Muslim ruler Idris I, North Africa in the 12th century, where the Almohads either forcibly converted or decimated several communities, Libya in 1785, where Ali Burzi Pasha murdered hundreds of Jews, Algiers, where Jews were massacred in 1805, 1815 and 1830 and Marrakesh, where more than 300 hundred Jews were murdered between 1864 and 1880. And most recently in the 1940s where more than a thousand Jews were killed in anti-Jewish rioting in Muslim countries which has led to mass exodus of almost a million Jews.

Decrees ordering the destruction of Jewish synagogues were enacted in Egypt and Syria (1014, 1293-4, 1301-2), Iraq (854-859, 1344) and Yemen (1676). Jews were forced to convert to Islam or face death in Yemen (1165 and 1678), Morocco (1275, 1465 and 1790-92) and Baghdad (1333 and 1344). Jews during the 19th century in Muslim countries of North Africa were forced to live in ghettos and Muslim children participated in the degradation of Jews, throwing stones at them and harassing them and Jews were only allowed to work as shoe shiners. The frequency of anti-Jewish violence increased and many Jews were executed on charges of apostasy. Ritual murder accusations against the Jews became commonplace in the Ottoman Empire. The attitude of the Muslims toward the Christians and the Jews is that of a master towards slaves, who he treats with a certain lordly tolerance so long as they keep their place. Any sign of pretension to equality is promptly repressed. 

This is still happening right now. It’s not only history but it’s still very real and very current and people wonder why Islam gets called the primitive religion. Their hatred of Jews, gays and women is brushed off as “not real Muslims” when it’s impossible to make it any clearer that this is real Islam, as it always has been. Sure, many Muslims have been Westernized enough to adopt our laws and values but you’re completely failing to understand these Muslims do not make up the majority. You look at countries such as Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan and almost 100% of their Muslims admit they don’t like Jews. But sure, tell me again there’s no natural tension between Jews and Muslims, keep telling me what a tiny minority antisemitic Muslims are. You’re a fucking disgrace.

te busco

te busco abajo de las horas
y atrás de las paredes

te busco entre las sábanas
entre los pliegues de la piel

te busco en las páginas
adentro del polvo y los libros

te busco al fondo del cajón
y acabando la novela

te busco sobre mis párpados
tras un perfil

te busco arriba de los árboles
y al final de los caminos

te busco sobre el fin
y en el silencio

te busco en los cuentos
y en las fotos sonriendo

te busco por encima de las nubes
y en el medio de los círculos

te busco sobre la brisa 
y bajo la almohada

te espero en una lágrima
y te busco dentro del brillo

te busco al lado de las cosas
y te busco detrás de las cosas

y siempre te busco
en el filtro de las cosas

te busco contempladora 
y obnubilada 

te busco líquida 
y amadora 

y te busco libre
fuera de mí

te busco sin mí
y no te encuentro

Illustration of Sancho VII “The Strong”, King of Navarre from 1194 to 1234.

He participated in the Christian Reconquista in Spain against the Moors, his leadership was decisive in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. A decisive victory of an allied force of Christian Iberian Kingdom against the ,mostly African, troops of the Almohad Caliphate. This victory marked the decline of the Muslim rule in Spain.
His nickname “The Strong” was given to him because of his imposing height and strength. According to forensic studies of his skeleton he was 2.23 mts (7 foot 4 inches) tall.

 

“Jews lived happily together with Muslims and in harmony before Israel was established.” How many times have you heard this said? 

During the rise of Islam, the first encounters between Muslims and Jews resulted in persecution when the Jewish tribes of Medina were expelled or killed .In Moorish Spain,there was the 1066 Granada massacre, when more than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, and in Fez in 1033, when 6,000 Jews were killed. There were further massacres in Fez in 1276 and 1465.

Other mass murders of Jews in Arab lands occurred in Morocco in the 8th century, where whole communities were wiped out by Muslim ruler Idris I; North Africa in the 12th century, where the Almohads either forcibly converted or decimated several communities; Libya in 1785, where Ali Burzi Pasha murdered hundreds of Jews; Algiers, where Jews were massacred in 1805, 1815 and 1830 and Marrakesh, Morocco, where more than 300,000 Jews were murdered between 1864 and 1880.

The Damascus affair occurred in 1840, when an Italian monk and his servant disappeared in Damascus. Immediately following, a charge of ritual murder was brought against a large number of Jews in the city. All were found guilty. The consuls of England, France and Germany as well as Ottoman authorities, Christians, Muslims all played a great role in this affair.

Following the Damascus affair, Pogroms spread through the Middle East and North Africa. Pogroms occurred in: Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901-02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901-07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874). There was a massacre of Jews in Baghdad in 1828. There was another massacre in Barfurush in 1867. 

In 1839, in the eastern Persian city of Meshed, a mob burst into the Jewish Quarter, burned the synagogue, and destroyed the Torah scrolls. Known as the Allahdad incident. It was only by forcible conversion that a massacre was averted.

In 1941, following Rashid Ali’s pro-Axis coup, riots known as the Farhud broke out in Baghdad in which approximately 180 Jews were killed and about 240 were wounded, 586 Jewish-owned businesses were looted and 99 Jewish houses were destroyed.

While the Allies and the Axis were fighting for the oil-rich region, the Mufti of Jerusalem Amin al-Husayni staged a pro-Nazi coup in Iraq and organized the Farhud pogrom which marked the turning point for about 150,000 Iraqi Jews who, following this event and the hostilities generated by the war with Israel in 1948, were targeted for violence, persecution, boycotts, confiscations, and near complete expulsion in 1951.

Durante la batalla del Guadalete (Julio 711 d.c) no todo fueron pegas.
También había gente de fiesta en el río. La última fiesta Visigoda en tierras Españolas, eso sí…Pero vaya, una fiesta de todos modos.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62RmjlZb9lk

October 30th, 1340 | The Battle of Río Salado

Have you heard of the Marinids? No? They ruled Morocco from the 13th to 15th Century’s … still no? Okay, you probably should have, because their administrative and military center was Fes Jdid, and Fes was the LARGEST CITY IN THE WORLD at the time.

So who the heck were these guys, and what makes them so special?

Picture North Africa, particularly the area around Tunisia, Tripolitania and Constantinois. There was a tribe bumbling around this desert known as the  Zenata Berber, but because their parties were always tame as hell, a splinter group known as the Marinids formed and they poddled off westward and into the north-eastern Morocco area.

Now Morocco was already owned by a local gang known as the Almohads, so when the Marinids arrived they were all “yo, yo, whatchudoin’here?” The Marinids responds “it’s cool, bro, chill. We’re just gonna sleep under this palm tree here, we’re not crashing for long. Listen, if you need to tumble, count us in, ‘cos we’ve got sick MMA moves and we’re useful in a scrap, right? Call us.”

They did something right, because the Almohads not only let them stay, but they did take them on various little sorties, one of which was deep into Spain against King Alfonso VIII of Castile at the Battle of Alarcos, where the Muslim forces drop kicked the Christians into a bloody submission.

And because the Marinids really strutted their stuff there, when they got back home they had kind of an inflated ego and figured that they were owed a little more than a palm tree to sleep under. So they started taxing the local farmers and acting all like a proper little government, which really – to put it mildly – pissed off the Almohads. I mean, they were meant to be doing the taxing around here, what the heck were the new guys doing?

Things got strained and the Marinids got themselves thrown out on their ear; a little like that couch guest who not only overstays his welcome, but he uses the last of the coffee and doesn’t offer to replace it. Yeah, he’s gotta go.

But in their 30-year exile in the mountains, the Almohads started to get shanked by the forces of Spain and bit by bit territory was being lost. Feeling bad for their former mates, the Marinids rode down from the mountains in a glorious demonstration of friendship and support.

Pfft! Of course they didn’t, they rode down from the mountains and started rabbit punching the Almohads in the kidneys, stealing every bit of land they could! They took Taza, Rabat, Salé, Meknes and Fes, made Fes their capital (‘cos: swanky place, yo!), hired a bunch of Christian mercenaries, and took Marrakech. From starting off as a small group of dissatisfied nomads, they were suddenly in charge of a small kingdom. Time to party.

But there was a problem, because around this time the Kingdom of Castile is being a right royal pain in the arse. After recovering from their defeat at Alarcos, the Spanish Christians were all over the place, tipping over plant-pots, tagging walls, turning over trashcans. It was a right mess.

Their ruler - Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali – decided to do something about it. A large kick-ass army was pulled together: 40,000 cavalry, a whole slew of Andalusian archers, and a personal bodyguard of 7,000 men. And you know that you’re doing something right in the world if your personal escort is of the 7k range.

Of course, if you have close to 50,000 men at your disposal you may as well do something with them, and during the years around 1340 various little kingdoms and cities were throat-punched into submission, which gave the Marinids a huge territory, spanning from southern Morocco to Tripoli.

Time to deal with the damn Spanish Christians and the Kingdom of Castille.

al-Hasan gathered up his fleet, threw his massive army on it, and sailed over the short distance to Gibraltar. The Christians – somewhat alarmed, because they hadn’t invited anyone for a sleep-over – were face-smashed and their entire fleet was reduced to matchsticks. Out of almost 40 Christian ships, only 5 managed to escape to Cartagena.

Muslim troops started to flood across the Straits and into the Peninsula and they started besieging anything that couldn’t move out of the way. But the sultan screwed up: the cost of maintain his fleet was pretty high, so thinking that Castille would take a long time to rebuild, he laid up his ships, returned borrowed ones, and left himself with just 12.

What he didn’t know is that Alfonso XI was running a Kickstarter campaign to raise a new fleet, and his biggest backers - King of Aragón and of his father-in-law, Alfonso IV the King of Portugal – threw in 27 ships. Which promptly turned up in the Straits and cut off all supply lines from Morocco.

Meanwhile old Al and his buddy King Po’ gathered together 20,000 of their best Marinid stomping men and they started marching on the Sultan’s position.

“Well … bugger.” Said Hasan.

He had to act quickly, but an all-out assault against the besieged Tarifa failed and lost a whole slew of guys on both sides, forcing Hasan to break the siege and seek the safety of two hills nearby. They had barely got there when the Christians arrived, promptly placing themselves between the Muslims and the beach. Between the two was a valley crisscrossed by streams and a river, which – in hindsight – probably wasn’t the smoothest of places on which to wage a battle.

That night Alfonso sent 1,000 horse and 4,000 foot to Tarifa hoping to catch the sultan’s men there from behind and give them a rude surprise. But the troops encountered very light resistance and entered the town without a problem. Now the Muslim commander in charge of ensuring that didn’t happen reported to Hasan that “not a single Christian has entered Tarifa.” So either he was covering his ass and didn’t want to get into trouble, or he was completely oblivious to 5,000 men marching through his position. In either instance, the following day this erroneous report would have serious consequences.

October 30th … ‘twas a fine morning and the sort of weather that invigorates the soul and has you reaching for your halberd looking for a body to skewer.

The Christian war council decided to split up into two main forces and hit each of the Muslim hills simultaneously. And then they met the river and had to do some serious assed fighting, failing to cross in the center, but capturing a bridge on one flank. The fighting was tough, but the Christian forces were able to cross and start heading up the hill towards Abu Hasan’s camp.

Hasan was all “pffft, we’ve got this shit,” and had good reason to defend the hill extra hard, because he just happened to have his many wives there. As you do. When in battle. Take the family, nice day out and all. Maybe a picnic. Picnics and battles just go together so well.

And it’s at this point that the reinforced garrison from Tarifa appeared and smashed up the backside of the Sultan’s position. I’m guessing at this point that Hasan probably looked towards his commander from the night before and said “you lying little fucker,” but it’s somewhat by-the-by, because the entire camp was utterly smashed beyond recognition.

The Sultan was forced to withdraw off the hill, but in so doing saw that some distance away, isolated from the main army. The two locked eyes, started mad-dogging each other, and Hasan ordered an all-out attack on the king. Alfonso was all “Bitch, I will freaking pwn you!” and started to ride into melee while sticking out his arms and wiggling his body. No one knew what he was doing, but the trend would catch on about 700 years later.

Archbishop of Toledo, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, grabbed Alfonso’s reins and muttered “Sire, you’re a king, what the fuck are you doing?” and promptly led him away from the fight. Somewhere distant Hasan’s cries of “Yeeeaaaahhh bitch, mommy is protecting you!” haunted Alfonso’s ears.

The fight raged on until Christian forces sacking the rich Sultan camp looked up and thought “oo’eer, we probably should get back down there!” and it was with their arrival that the Muslims finally broke.

And the pursuit was RUTHLESS.

I’m talking almost 4 miles of you running for your life and tens of thousands of men pursuing you. FOUR MILES. No mercy was shown by the Christians and they butchered their way from the battlefield to the Guadamecí river. The Sultan’s wives were killed, kinfolk were captured (including his sister and son), and various Muslim celebs. It was carnage.

Hasan got away and that night sailed for Ceuta in a galley.

This was a disastrous defeat for the Marinids, forcing them to withdraw from Andalusia. And just as they had pounced on the Almohads years before, so too did an eastern faction of Arabian tribes rise up in southern Tunisia, thus losing them their eastern territories.

The decline of the Marinids had started.

More:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_R%C3%ADo_Salado

a lot of clearly reactionary or fundamentalist movements in history had class politics that were based on rebellions of lower-class or marginalized people but that doesnt mean you “excuse” the other aspects.

 like for example the Donatists were an early Christian heresy that are known for having an intolerant and absolutist morality which in general included the belief that no amount of penance can allow a priest who renounced Christianity under Roman duress to ever readminister the sacrements again and in some cases they even went so far as to say that no one who was coerced into performing pagan rituals after becoming a Christian could ever be redeemed. there was actually some class politics hidden under this because there was this perception with some people that societal elites were basically able to be wishy-washy with religion and could convert back and forth between Christianity and paganism depending on how they felt the political winds were blowing and that this was an excercise in societal privilege that people from lower classes werent able to access. this still doesnt mean the Donatists werent puritanical religious zealots that encouraged close-minded fundamentalist attitudes because they were not nice people but there was a material and societal basis for this theology to emerge. And there’s other examples in history of this sorta thing like the puritanical theology of the Almohad dynasty in al-Andalus is sometimes said to mark the end of the “Golden Age” of al-Andalus because of their harsh and fanatical morality but even there there was a basis going back a long time having to do with animosity towards Arab ruling elites who dominated the social and religious spheres.


anyway the reason im mentioning old ass and extinct religious movements is because when people point out that there is an economic basis for working class support of brexit or trump people will react in a knee jerk manner of “oh so youre excusing the racism” or “you know this only leads to you excusing their racism” or whatever and its like no you fuck the point is that these beliefs dont just fucking fall out of the sky and that there is a material reason for their existence and explaining something doesnt mean youre “excusing” it

anonymous asked:

Does the Islamic civilization and dynasties interest you? If so which one do you find the most interesting?

I am particularly interested in the Ummayyad Dynasty and later Islamic conquerors (Almohads and Almoravids) on the Iberian Peninsula. al-Andalus is a fascinating place, the political history is really interesting and the cultural history more so. It was culturally dynamic, economically powerful, and a mixture of many faiths. Once the centralized caliphate fell, the individual city states vying for power created their own centers of learning. These little city-states had interesting political histories. Some were tolerant, some were not, all were constantly fighting for little gains of land and power. It was from some of these cities that many modern European translations of ancient Greek and ancient Roman and Arabic thinkers come from.

I could go on, but here’s one of my favorite tidbits. There was a group called “mozarabs” living in al-Andalus who were Christians that spoke, wrote, and worshipped in Arabic. Their nickname, which eventually became what they called themselves, literally means “wanna-be-arabs.”