alison faulk

anonymous asked:

I've had a lot of instances lately where I've felt a pull towards Freyja, but I don't know a lot about her. Could you share a little bit about her to help with my research??

Sæll (eða sæl) vinur,
(Hello friend,)

Unfortunately, Freyja seems to be quite allusive in our sources, especially in the Prose Edda. Her brother Freyr gets far more direct attention in them. In the sources that I am most familiar with, here is where she appears in them (from a database post I am currently working on):

  • Freyja: Vanir, Fertility Goddess (multiple roles):
    • The Prose Edda (Faulkes trans.):
      • Gylfaginning: pages 24, 29, 30, 35, (36), and 50.
      • Skaldskarpamal: pages 59, 60, 75-8, (85), 86, 94-5, 98-9, (119), and 157.
    • The Poetic Edda:
      • Seeress’s Prophecy: stanza 26 (kenning).
      • Grimnir’s Sayings: stanza 14.
      • Loki’s Quarrel: prose; stanzas 30 and 32.
      • Thrym’s Poem: stanzas 3, 8, and 11ff.
      • Oddrun’s Lament: stanza 9.
      • The Song of Hyndla: stanza 6.
    • Heimskringla:
      • Ynglinga saga: chapter 4 and 10.
    • Fornaldarsögur:
      • Bosi and Herraud: chapter 12.
    • Íslendingasögur:
      • Egil’s Saga: chapter 79.
      • The Saga of the People of Fljotsdal: chapter 26.

That list, of course, has not yet been completed, but it should still serve you and others rather well. I will provide some information directly in this post, though, because some of these texts are less easily accessible. I will also share the bits that contain the most helpful information contained in those texts.


THE PROSE EDDA: (1.)

Snorri Sturluson does not give us a lot of detail about Freyja, but he does provide a basis for us to work with. Honestly, the Prose Edda is a bit of a condensed snapshot of Norse mythology – a slice of time and a slice of place. Without spending too long on source-related debates, here is some of the most satisfying bits of information from that text:

  • Freyja is the daughter of Njord, and the sister of Freyr.
  • Freyja, along with Freyr, is “beautiful in appearance and mighty.”
  • Freyja is “the most glorious of the Asynjur (goddesses).”
  • Her dwelling is called Folkvangar.
  • Whenever she rides to battle, she takes half of the slain. The other half goes to Odin. (This is pretty big).
  • Her hall is called Sessrumnir, and it is “large and beautiful.”
  • She travels in a chariot drawn by two cats.
  • In terms of prayer, she is the most approachable goddess.
  • She is “very fond of long songs” and it is “good to pray to her concerning love affairs.”
  • She is married to Od.
  • She has a daughter named Hnoss, who is also beautiful.
  • Od went off to travel, and Freyja weeps because he is gone, and “her tears are red gold.”
  • Freyja has many names because of her travels in search for Od: Mardoll, Horn, Gefn, and Syr.
  • Freyja owns Bringsing’s necklace.
  • Freyja was once almost married off to a giant.
  • Freyja can apparently grant people a “falcon shape.” She does this for Loki when he must go retrieve Idunn.
  • Freyja is bold. She was the only one who was brave enough to serve drinks to a giant named Hrungnir.
  • Later Snorri includes more of her names: Thrungva and Skjalf. He also mentions a second daughter named Gersemi.

THE POETIC EDDA: (2.)

The reference in the Seeress’s Prophecy is a bit vague, but worth bringing up. I have not spent a considerable amount of time carefully contemplating the verse, but it clearly has an important role in Freyja’s story. I believe most internet it as how Freyja was given as a hostage to end the war between the Æsir and Vanir, but since I am not confident enough to say that as ‘fact’, I’ll just give you the stanza itself:

“Then all the Powers went to the thrones of fate,
the sacrosanct gods, and considered this:
which people had trouble the air with treachery,
or given Od’s girl to the giant race.”

Other information regarding Freyja in the Poetic Edda:

“Folkvang is the ninth, and there Fryja fixes
allocation of seats in the hall;
half the slain she chooses every day, 
and half Odin owns.” (Grim., 14)

  • Loki calls Freyja a witch, suggesting that she dabbles with magic. The Vanir, in general, have connections with magic.
  • Loki suggests that Freyja and her brother Freyr had an affair.
  • The “falcon shape” she can grant is also referred to as a “feather-shirt.” She loans this to Loki so he can help Thor retrieve Mjolnir. It allows the bearer to fly.
  • Freyja is often the object of undesired marriages, often with giants. Yet, she is also often independent and bold enough to object them.

Freyja plays a pretty central role in the Song of Hyndla, but the information about her is not very direct. It would be best to read this poem in its entirety before drawing any conclusions about Freyja from it.


HEIMSKRINGLA: (3.)

This is another work by Snorri Sturluson, but it is treated much differently than the Gylfaginning. From a down-to-Earth perspective, Snorri retells the tale of the gods in an earthly sense. Here are some of the portions about Freyja in Ynglinga saga:

“Njord’s daughter was Freyja. She was a sacrificial priestess. She was the first to teach the Æsir black magic, which was customary among the Vanir.”

There is also this:

“Freyja kept up the sacrifices, for she was the only one of the gods left alive, and she became the best known, so that all noble women came to be called by her name, just as now the name frúvur (‘ladies’) is used. Similarly everyone was called freyja (‘mistress’) of what she possessed, and húsfreyja (‘mistress of a household’) if she is in charge of a dwelling. Freyja was rather fickle. Her husband was called Od. Her daughters were called Hnoss and Gersimi. They were very beautiful. The most precious treasures are called by their names.”


FORNALDARSÖGUR: (4.)

These are sagas about legendary heroes and kings, and a great deal of mythological material gets tied up within them. There are likely others, but I do not have copies of all of them, so I am limited to knowing only of references made in my own small collection. I would share the reference for Freyja that appears in Bosi and Herraud, but it is not very satisfying. All that is said is that there was a toast to Freyja on a wedding night, but little more. Again, there are likely a few other Fornaldarsögur that contain information about Freyja, but they are not my specialty. In time I will hunt down more.


ÍSLENDINGASÖGUR: (5.)

These sagas are a bit different from the Fornaldarsögur. They are much ore realistically toned, in that there is much less supernatural activity taking place. They are still good sources for information, though! Even in terms of mythology. There is a decent amount of information preserved in these texts about rituals and practices associated with certain figures, such as Freyja. Of course, there are problems with the sources that need to be addressed before taking certain bits of information too far, but that is not a concern until you really start to dig and contemplate the text.

  • In Egil’s Saga, a woman named Thorgerd says this: “I have had no evening meal, nor shall I do so until I go to join Freyja.” 
    • This is interesting because it suggests that a woman, at least, can choose to go to Freyja after death. Given further context, there may be a way that she suspects she might be able to make this happen, but regardless there seems to be an acceptance that Freyja has privilege over dead, and not just the half she gets that are slain in battle. Food for thought.

The information in The Saga of the People of Fljotsdal is even less fulfilling, at least when looking to learn more about Freyja herself. If you are interested in the attitudes of Icelanders in regards to conversion, then more information awaits you in the saga.


In the end, there really is not much else to be found regarding Freyja. Most of what we know comes from the Eddas, but there is information scattered around elsewhere. I have not even included archaeological materials and runestone in this situation, but that is because I am a medieval literature kind of guy. Despite the lack of information, I hope what I have shared with you turns out to be helpful in some way or another. Surly something will be of interest to you.

Otherwise, I hope for the best in your endeavors. Freyja is a rewarding subject.

Með vinsemd og virðingu,
(With friendliness and respect,)
Fjörn


FOOTNOTES:

1. Snorri Sturluson, Edda, translated by Anthony Faulkes. (repr., 1987; London: J.M. Dent, 1995). Online version. All specific references are contained above, at the beginning of this post.

2. Carolyne Larrington trans., The Poetic Edda. (repr., 1996; Oxfrod: Oxford University Press, 2014). All specific references are contained above, at the beginning of this post.

3. Snorri Sturluson, Ynglinga saga, in Heimskringla, Volume I: The Beginnings to Óláfr Tryggvason, 2nd ed., translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes. (London: University College London, 2016). All specific references are contained above, at the beginning of this post.

4. If you are curious, this is the citation for the collection that I own: Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., Seven Viking Romances. (London: Penguin Books, 1985).

5. Bernard Scudder trans., Egil’s Saga, in The Complete Sagas of Icelanders: Including 49 Tales, Vol. I, edited by Viðar Hreinsson, Robert Cook, Terry Gunnell, Keneva Kunz, and Bernard Scudder, (Reykjavík: Leifur Eiríksson Publishing, 1997), 150. (Chapter 79)

4

Backstage at Lip Sync Battle: Joe with Anthony Thomas, the original choreographer of Rhythm Nation, dancers and make-up artists [1, 2, 3, 4]

And here is what Joe wrote on FB about his preparation:

First thing I did after deciding to do Rhythm Nation was email my ol’ friend Jenna Dewan Tatum. She danced on stage with Janet herself, did this song every night on tour. She hooked me up with two friends of hers, Alison Faulk and Teresa Espinosa, who were both dancers on that same tour. They were awesome teachers. They even got in touch with the music video’s original choreographer, Anthony Thomas, who came over, polished my moves, and told me all about the intended spirit of The Nation. It was really a better prep processes than I probably deserved. Huge thanks to all!

thekinderbeast  asked:

I saw a documentary recently, in which they said, Iceland became Christian basically because Denmark became Christian and imprisoned every Iceland not der on it's soil, sending an ultimatum to Iceland, that they would execute them, if Iceland wouldn't convert. A heathen law man, respected by Christians and Heathens alike, was in the end asked to decide. After some days he decided that Iceland should become Christian by name but in private every Icelander was free to do whatever. Can you confirm?

Sæl vinur,
(Hello friend,)

For the most part, yes, but also not exactly, because we should add a dash of ‘it’s complicated’ just to be safe. Allow me to briefly retell the story:

All of the parts are correct, but the interpretation of all those parts together is up for some debate. After all, documentaries are not exempt from having a bias, and not in the sense of having an agenda, but just because it is simply human nature to have certain inclinations. I suppose it is better to say that the documentary may have made some claims or assumptions that could be seen from various perspectives, and every interpretation is but one perspective out of many. I am finding myself being carried away in a moment of philosophical contemplation, so I digress (my apologies, but, in my defense, those are things we ought to think and talk about).

Anyway, Iceland was indeed pressured by Norway and not exactly Denmark. To be more specific, though, it was King Olaf Tryggvason who truly pressured the Icelanders, especially after his missionary, Thangbrand, returned from there with little success in 999.(1.) After this, the king not only imprisoned Icelanders as hostages (not a ton, mind you), but he also closed off Norwegian ports to Icelandic merchants.(2.) Now this was a big deal. Iceland was an island, after all, which meant that many goods needed to be imported. I would argue that it was not only the pressure from executing hostages that placed an ‘ultimatum’ on Iceland, but the economic strangling that King Olaf placed around their necks.

Yet, there were hostages, and they were the often the “sons and daughters of prominent Icelandic pagans.”(3.) Furthermore, King Olaf did threaten to “maim or kill [them] unless Iceland accepted Christianity.”(4.) Yet, this, as I mentioned above, was not the only force creating pressure. Believe it or not, there were already Christian Icelanders, some of which were fairly prominent, too.(5.) Why would they need to care about someone else’s family members? Unless they had some sort of bonds through kinship, they didn’t. 

There was something else on the line here, though. An aspect of Iceland’s foreign policy was to maintain a good relationship with Norway for two reasons: family and economic ties.(6.) Many Icelanders, whether pagan or Christian, had family in Norway, and therefore would prosper from continued positive relations. Furthermore, as already mentioned, Norway was Iceland’s major trading partner, and a falling through would be devastating on the economic front.

As for the “heathen law man,” his name was Thorgeir Thorkelsson, a chieftain (goði) from the farm of Ljósavatn in the Northern Quarter.(7) Most of what the documentary seems to have said pans out to be true, although his motives are, you guessed it, up for debate. Various accounts do agree, though, that he was indeed the Lawspeaker to make this decision.(8.) Here is an account from Njal’s Saga:

“Thorgeir lay for a whole day with a cloak spread over his head, and no one spoke to him. The next day people went to the Law Rock; Thorgeir asked for silence and spoke: ‘It appears to me that our affairs will be hopeless if we don’t all have the same law, for if the law is split then peace will be split, and we can’t live with that. Now I want to ask the heathens and the Christians whether they are willing to accept the law that I proclaim.’” 

They all assented to this. Thorgeir said that he wanted oaths from them and pledges that they would stick by them. They assented to this, and he took pledges from them.

‘This will be the foundation of our law,’ he said, ‘that all men in this land are to be Christians and believe in one God - Father, Son and Holy Spirit - and give up all worship of false idols, the exposure of children, and the eating of horse meat. Three years’ outlawry will be the penalty for open violations, but if these things are practiced in secret, there shall be no punishment.’

All of these heathen practices were forbidden a few years later, so that they could neither be practiced openly nor in secret.” (9.)

He was indeed a heathen, and he did, as illustrated above, for some unknown reason, deem that Iceland should adopt Christianity. It is also true that heathen practices were allowed afterwards, but not indefinitely. In Ari Thorgeirsson’s Íslendingabók, he says this about what happened afterwards:

“And he (Thorgeir Thorkelsson) brought his speech to a close in such a way that both sides agreed that everyone should have the same law, the one he decided to proclaim. It was then proclaimed in the laws that all people should be Christian, and that those in this country who had not yet been baptised should receive baptism; but the old laws should stand as regards the exposure of children and the eating of horse-flesh. People had the right to sacrifice in secret, if they wished, but it would be punishable by the lesser outlawry if witnesses were produced. And a few years later, these heathen provisions were abolished, like the others.” (10.)

So, given that account, people were “free to do whatever,” but only during this period of transition. Now, we may enter the realm of reasonable probability, but that, of course, comes with its limitations. Still, we can assume that it was quite possible that people still remained heathen for quite some time, yet this would have been difficult, mainly due to social pressures. It may have been more likely that some families retained their heathen traditions in somewhat of a hybrid religious state, in which they worshipped both Christ and the old gods. This was actually not unheard of. In Landnámabók, the Icelandic Book of Settlements, a man named Helgi the Lean is described as such:

“Helgi’s faith was very much mixed: he believed in Christ but invoked Thor when it came to voyages and difficult times.” (11.)


My final judgement is to say that this documentary was correct, of course, but not an ‘absolute truth’ on the matter. Besides there not being such a thing as an ‘absolute truth’, especially in regards to history, the documentary only provided one telling of a complicated tale; there were quite a few complications likely not discussed in the documentary. 

After all, there was more going on behind the scenes back when King Olaf was taking hostages. Furthermore, although Thorgeir allowed heathens to continue practice, this was only a temporary condition. Yet, even so, we do not truly know the reality that was in place. All we have are generalized accounts that tell us the ideal or legal standpoints. Let us not forget, either, that these very sources were written by the ‘winning’ party. As I said when I began this post, we all have a bias, whether we like it or not. There is no shame in this, but it must be known to properly handle the sources that we are given.

My advice, then, is to understand that documentaries, and even many works of academia, often only grant you one version of the story. Even the version I have told above leaves out certain details that honestly need consideration. Still, the documentary was not wrong, but there are always many levels of intricacy that truly need consideration before we can fully understand any given situation. 

Anyway, I truly am grateful that you asked this question. It was a pleasure to respond to it, and I do hope that you and many other prospers from my insights.

Með vinsemd og virðingu,
(With kindness and respect,)
Fjörn


FOOTNOTES:

1. Jesse L. Byock, Viking Age Iceland. (London: Penguin Books, 2001), 299.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. I could talk about this for quite a while, but it would take us further from the question at hand than we ought to wander, at least for the time being.

6. Byock, 299.

7. Ibid., 300.

8. Ari Thorgeirsson’s Íslendingabók, chapter 7, and Njal’s Saga, chapter 105, give good accounts of this, and arguably with slightly different motives.

9. Robert Cook trans., Njal’s Saga, in The Complete Sagas of Icelanders, vol. III, edited by Viðar Hreinsson, Robert Cook, Terry Gunnell, Keneva Kunz, and Bernard Scudder. (Reykjavík: Leifur Eiríksson Publishing, 1997), 127-8. (Chapter 105, pages 180-1 in the Penguin edition)

10. Ari Thorgeirsson, The Book of the Icelanders: Íslendingabók, translated by Siân Grønlie, edited by Anthony Faulkes and Alison Finlay. (London: University College London, 20016), 9. (Chapter 7)

11. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards trans., The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók. (repr., 1972; Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 97. (Chapter 218)

gospel-of-yggdrasil  asked:

Greetings, I am searching for sources exploring the slow process of Christianization of the north lands and the resulting unique brand of Christianity; can you recommend any resources? Thanks-in-advance

Komdu blessaður (eða blessuð), vinur minn!
(Come blessed, my friend!)

I deeply apologize for the length of time that I have made you wait for this response. May your patience be thanked and rewarded. I will stay true to your wishes in this request, and so I shall provide you a plentiful amount of sources to explore, but leave them untainted by my commentary. Hopefully I am able to offer resources that you are not already aware of.

I have categorized the following sources by geographical relevance, but also by source type (primary versus secondary); they are not listed in particular order beyond that (i.e. alphabetical, chronological, etc). I have also offered links to each source, either to where it can be bought, or to where it can be freely read. I must also mention that, although I am singling out Christian-related sections of larger works, you would benefit greatly from also understanding the non-religious aspects of these societies, which inevitably played a considerable role in the formation of unique brands of Christianity.

Regardless of what sources I have not included (for I cannot possibly included everything), these 26 sources, both primary and secondary, should keep you busy for a while. I recommend you read them carefully and keep in mind the inherent bias and perspective being told. Also, in regards to further research beyond these 26 works, I highly recommend investigating not only the scholars directly involved, but also the footnotes and works that they have used in constructing these sources. Such a process will surely lead you to even more resources to discover.


ICELAND:

Primary Sources:

  1. Ari Thorgilsson, The Book of the Icelanders, translated by Siân Grønlie (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2006), 3-34. See also pages ix-xxix for historical background regarding Ari and this work. You will also notice that this source includes the source mentioned below.
  2. Ari Thorgilsson, The Story of Conversion, translated by Siân Grønlie (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2006), 35-74. See also pages xxx-xliv for historical background.
  3. “The Journey of Abbot Nikolas Bergsson from Iceland to Jerusalem,” in The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, edited by Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014), 416-21.
  4. Andrew Dennis, Peter Foote, and Richard Perkins trans., “Christian Laws Section,” in Laws of Early Iceland: Grágás I (repr., 1980; Winnipeg, CA: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 23-52.
  5. Helen Carron trans., Clemens saga (The Life of St. Clement of Rome) (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2005).
  6. Kellinde Wrightson ed., Fourteenth-Century Icelandic Verse on the Virgin Mary (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2001).
  7. Ármann Jakobsson and David Clark trans., The Saga of Bishop Thorlak (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2013).

Secondary Sources:

  1. Gunnar Karlsson, “Christianization,” “The Church,” “The Victory of the Church,” “Reformation,” and “Lutheran Society,” in The History of Iceland (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), 33-37, 38-43, 96-99, 128-33, and 134-37.
  2. Jesse L. Byock, “A Peaceful Conversion: The Viking Age Church” and “Bishops and Secular Authority: The Later Church,” in Viking Age Iceland (Penguin Books, 2013), 292-307, 324-40.
  3. Dag Strömbäck, The Conversion of Iceland, translated by Peter Foote (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 1975).

NORWAY:

Primary Sources:

  1. Snorri Sturluson, Ólafs saga Tryggvassonar, in Heimskringla, Vol. 1: The Beginnings to Ólafr Tryggvasson, second edition, translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2016), 137-233.
  2. Snorri Sturluson, Ólafs saga Helga, in Heimskringla, Vol. II: Ólafr Haraldsson (the Saint), translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2014).
  3. Snorri Sturluson, Magnússona saga, in Heimskringla, Vol. III: Magnús Ólafsson to Magnús Erlingsson, translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2015), 145-169. See chapters 3 through 13 for the travels of King Sigurd (Jerusalem-Farer) to Jerusalem. For this section, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 408-16.
  4. The Saga of Hallfred the Troublesome Poet; written in Iceland, but largely concerning events in Norway — keep the bias and perspective in mind, though! See Diana Whaley, Sagas of Warrior-Poets (Penguin Books, 2002), for an easily accessible copy.
  5. Devra Kunin trans., A History of Norway and The Passion and Miracles of the Blessed Óláfr, edited with an introduction and notes by Carl Phelpstead (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2001).

SWEDEN:

Primary Sources:

  1. Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, translated by F.J. Tschan and with new introduction by T. Reuter (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 208-10, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 406-7.

DENMARK:

Primary Sources:

  1. Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, translated by F.J. Tschan and with new introduction by T. Reuter (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 49-51, 55-57. This source concerns the conversion of the Danes under Harald Bluetooth, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 383-86. For more about the Church of Norway, see pages 214-15 of Bremen.

ALL (GENERAL):

Primary Sources:

  1. C.H. Robinson trans., Anskar: The Apostle of the North, 801-865, translated from the Vita Anskarii by Bishop Rimbert his fellow missionary and successor (London 1921); revised by P.E. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, 2nd ed. (Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2004), 407-40. The sections most relevant to the North can also be found in The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 372-83.

Secondary Sources:

  1. John Haywood, “The Early Scandinavian Church” in The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Viking Age (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 132-33.
  2. Margaret Cormack, “Christian Biography,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 27-42.
  3. Katrina Attwood, “Christian Poetry,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 43-63.
  4. Svanhildur Óskarsson, “Prose of Christian Instruction,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 338-52.
  5. James C. Russel, The Germanization of Early Medieval Christianity: A Sociohistorical Approach to Religious Transformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).
  6. Sverre Bagge, Cross and Scepter: The Rise of the Scandinavian Kingdoms from the Vikings to the Reformation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014).
  7. Anders Winroth, The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011). See him and a few of his other works on this page.
  8. Tracy Marie Legel, “The introduction of Christianity into Scandinavia, Iceland, and Finland” (2006). Electronic theses and Dissertations. Paper 810.

Unfortunately my academic bias does show a bit in this list, for I am primarily a historian of Iceland (and thus also of Norway), which is why most of the resources that I know about are for those regions specifically (but also where much of our native literature survives from). I also have not included other potential areas for research that you may find useful, such as several sections of sagas that concern religion and conversion. I omitted these potential resources because it would be far too expensive for you to acquire those sagas just to read a small portion of the overall tale. One such example would be The Tale of Thorvald the Far-Travelled, which I have personally used in a paper regarding Christian attitudes about feud and similar violent behavior in Iceland. It is not easy, however, to obtain an English translation of that work, and so it would not be fruitful for me to include it.

I have also not included several articles that have been written by scholars, for I cannot assume that you have proper access to such academic journals. I could, however, provide you with a few of their names if you believe that would be useful for you — but do feel free to investigate any of the scholars above for even more resources!

I also must admit, for the sake of friendly conversation, that this is a subject that has grown more prevalent in my mind recently. It cannot be helped, for I too find the introduction of Christianity to the medieval North to be a fascinating subject. That said, I do hope for the best in your studies; I’d be open to discussion if you ever felt the need or desire to do so.

I hope for the best in your research, and may you be enlightened by whatever wisdom that may befall you in such a quest.

Bonā fidē,
(In good faith,)
— Fjörn

Then Matt Bomer — you just instantly fall in love with him the moment he looks at you. He has a musical theater background and has that insane voice, so we wanted to find movement that was really sexy but also felt slightly stylized so we could show off what he’s capable of.
—  Alison Faulk on Matt Bomer I Magic MIke XXL [x]