algeria war


The Battle of Algiers is still one of the only works of war cinema that thoroughly understands the architectural character of a city in combat, at once meticulously structured (through checkpoints, barriers, and routine patrols) and conspicuously impromptu (through the increased presence of bombed-out structures, burning cars, and rubble piles). The familiar layout of Algiers, with its automobile-lined boulevards, neoclassical structures, and wide open spaces, begins to readjust before our very eyes into an arena of chaos, debris, and collateral casualties. Watching the film now, after so many other popular films and latter-day television series have faithfully duplicated its look and feel, it is all too easy to take for granted just how revolutionary a filmmaking document Pontecorvo had created, a visual groundbreaker made all the more monumental for the atypical coherence of its storytelling.”


“Ici on noie les Algériens” - “Here we drown Algerians

-Graffiti on the Saint-Michel Bridge, after the massacre

The Paris Massacre of 1961

In 1961, France found itself embroiled in a fierce counter-revolutionary war against its colony of Algeria. The war started in 1954, and as it dragged on, anti-Algerian laws and attitudes seeped into mainland France. In retaliation of the brutal suppression of the Algerian independence fighters, several police buildings were bombed in Paris. French police began to ruthlessly target Parisians with Algerian backgrounds; other minorities, like Moroccans, Tunisians, Spaniards, and Italians, were sometimes targeted out of ignorance. Those stopped by police were met with harsh interrogation and outright violence - a disturbingly common method used by French police was to beat, handcuff, then throw a suspect into the Seine, effectively executing them through drowning. Established law followed this trend, and by 1961, it was illegal to merely protest against the Algerian War.

On October 5th, a general curfew of 8:30 PM was enforced against all “Algerian Muslim workers,” “French Muslims” and “French Muslims of Algeria.” Pro-Algerian movements urged Parisians to protest this curfew on the night of the 17th. French police responded by mobilizing some 8,000 + police officers and riot suppression specialists and blocking access to the capital by severing all routes of ingress and egress. Out of the 150,000 Parisians who had Algerian backgrounds, about 40,000 assembled to protest on the night of the 16th. French police cracked down, arresting some 11,000 of the protestors.

However, some 4,000 protestors avoided arrests and were able to peacefully protest on the Grand Boulevards. Stopped by police at the Opéra de Paris, the protestors turned around and reversed their route.

The massacre began shortly after. Near the Rex Cinema, police open fired on the crowd with live ammunition, then charged. A similar scene unfolded on the Neuilly-sur-Seine, with protestors being shot and beaten without cause. French police began to throw dead or unconscious protestors into the Seine, sometimes within sight of the Notre-Dame.

Other protestors were arrested and brought to different locations, like the Palais des Sports, Stade Pierre de Coubertin, or various police headquarters. For almost a week, the prisoners were beaten and tortured, or outright executed. French police who carried out the acts were noted to have stripped all identification off of their uniforms. Bodies and half-alive prisoners were dumped into the Seine at night.

For weeks, bodies washed up on the banks of the Seine. The entire massacre was deliberate and planned, penned and ordered by the head of the Parisian Police, Maurice Papon. Papon would receive the Legion of Honour from Charles du Gaulle later that year.

France never officially recognized the existence of the massacre until nearly four decades later, in 1998. However, official statements only mentioned 40 dead, when other estimates place the toll at closer to 200.

In 1998, Maurice Papon was first convicted of crimes against humanity due to his aiding in the deportation of French-Jewish citizens during the Vichy Regime. In 1999, he was also found guilty of perpetuating the 1961 massacre. He lost all rank and decorations, including his Legion of Honour, but was released in 2002 on the grounds of ill-health.





Gizli ellerin Arap coğrafyası üzerinde oynadığı ve yüksek oranda istediklerine kavuştuğu bir operasyonun adıdır ARAP BAHARI.

2011′den sonra Arap coğrafyasında ne kan durdu ne gözyaşı.

Her sabah güneş doğduğunda istikrarsız ve ipleri gizli güçler tarafından tutulan kukla hükümetler ile geleceğe dair hayallerine kelepçe vurulmuş bir coğrafya.


eyepatchhaise  asked:

the presidental duel thing is on snapchat story. lepen is so full of herself

she’s the goddamn worst and I’m still so upset.

CW: Islamophobia, Homophobia, Antisemitism 

Among other things:

-All her sentences started with her trying to say Macron sucked, instead of defending her programs, it was all about “your program is bad because I say so”

-She wants to get out of Europe. Doing a Frexit like she says.

-She argues that the UK is doing better now that they are out of the UE

-She said that we should come back to Francs (our previous currency) because as the UK proved, they’re doing better now that they’re not using the Euro anymore (they… never used the Euro, Marine. Marine wake up.)

-She said that while it’s important we come back to Francs for “national pride”, “French people aren’t affected by it being Euro or Francs”. While guess what, yes we are, it’s our economy we’re talking about. 

-She basically dared to let us “try her” as a president

-She lied the whole time. The. whole time.

-She mentioned a Muslim guy who //allegedly// supported Macron and said Macron was trash over it because therefore he encouraged antisemitism, homophobia and misogyny. Which is big from a well known antisemitic person, who planned to go back on the gay marriage  and make law against LGBT+ people, and who is anti-abortion. And also which makes no sense whatsoever.

-She’s extremely racist and xenophobic and her anti-immigration politics are terrible, she wants to throw out anyone out of the country

-She kept bringing terrorist attacks and Muslims up in hateful ways, all the time, even on topic where it shouldn’t be mentioned. 

-When talking about the problems about education, the only thing she really had to say was that “we can’t allow people to wear veils in university and allowing so is making you terrible”

-Macron went in Algeria a few days prior to apologize about the Algeria War and called it a Crime Against Humanity, which it was and France was wrong okay. Lepen got angry at him and brought it up saying that putting the blame on France was a blasphemy and that you cannot say France is criminal if you want to represent it. (I will also add that it is a well known fact that her father, the founder of her party, tortured people during the Algeria War. He’s a war criminal. She can shut the fuck up.)

-To which Macron brought up what Lepen said a few days before: She argued that the Vel d’Hiv’s rafle (how, during WWII, under the Vichy Regime, Pétain ordered to get all the Jewish people living in the South, Men, Women and Children alike, and send them all in the Concentration camps, also taking into account the nazis only asked for the Men which resulted in countless of Women and Children being killed to be disposed of) - was not France’s fault and it wasn’t our responsability.

-To which Lepen replied that “France was in London during that time so it’s not our fault” (and guess what it fucking was. It’s not because some people of the Resistance was in London that it excuses what we did in FRANCE)

-She said that France used to be great but now we are “submissive” to Germany and the USA and that we have to go back to the glory days were we were admirated because we were France (so what time? When were we better? Because the time we were “world leaders” we weren’t that great. Marine. Marine shut the fuck up.)

-She kept insulting and interrupting Macron and then argued he was the one who kept insulting and interrupting her. 

-Taking into account that she stole 3 millions of Euro to the UE recently and refused to go to the Court when she was convocated about it, she called the Justice System in France to be not correct. To which Macron had to reply to her that if she went to her convocations maybe we would take her seriously.

-(he also said that “Sorry Miss Lepen, but France deserves so much better than you” and I’m thanksful for that. He’s not that great himself but look. Nothing is as bad as //Her//)

-She did this to interrupt Macron when he was talking about how there were problems in her party was and she was like “brrr raise the social network, everything’s bad”

-She mentioned that using our money to “heal immigrants” was to be irrespectful to any national pride and that we were failing French people, somehow. 

(and as a “fun” fact, there had been a terrorist attack a few days ago in Paris, a policeman was killed, but otherwise it was all. When the attack happened, the FN (her party) used it as a way to again, fuel their own agenda of hatred against all of this - until the policeman was buried and his husband made an ellogy for him, ending it by saying he loved his husband. To which JM Lepen, Marine’s Father (you know, the war criminal) said that it was truly shameful from France to honor “this kind of people”. that’s the kind of things she thinks as well. Let’s not forget that.)

And that’s just the things I noted down out of pure anger at some point because what the hell.

The Journalists themselves couldn’t take it anymore and when it was done, they mentioned it was the worst debate they’ve ever seen since the begining of the Vth Republic. Because instead of talking about solutions, it was all about attacks and nothing about real programs. They called Lepen childish and unprofessional. 

 And yet still, apparently still 40% of the people who watched the debate were convinced by her. 

I want to burn my eyes over how bad it was. It was seriously so cringeworthy. She’s arrogant, full of herself, hateful, encouraging to hate, dangerous, with no notion of economy (none of her plans makes sense on an economical standpoint) and it’s all about justifying her own hateful agenda. 

So ye that’s basically a summary of what I’ve been screaming about in French all night. It’s not that great. 

God I’m looking forward those elections to be over and I really hope we don’t screw up and elect //her//

A soldier of the Polisario Front holds her child and a rifle during training in the Western Sahara, December 1978. The Polisario are a Sahrawi liberation movement who fought against Moroccan control of the Western Sahara from the 1970s to early 1990s. Female soldiers were key to defending the the Tindouf refugee camps during the conflict and today the women’s wing of the Polisario contains around 10,000 members. 

“Our house used to be the place where Algerian Freedom Fighters used to come for food during the Algerian Revolution. Back then, helping or assisting any fighter would instantly result in a death sentence by the French occupiers, but my father felt he had a moral obligation to help them. He was not able to join the fight, but he wanted to participate in any way possible. He died back in 1994 without ever asking for anything in return for the services he gave to his fellow Algerians.

I remember I used to wake up in the middle of the night on the sound of many people talking inside the house. I walk into the living room to see many faces that I never saw before. My mother used to fire up the Tajine (The thing we use to make our unique bread. It is not the same as the Moroccan Tajine and it has a completely different design and purpose) and starts making K’sra (Our traditional bread) for all those men. I was the one doing the waiter part serving them the K’sra and Cow’s milk.

They looked scary but I never felt afraid of them. For some reason I was comfortable to see them. I was too young to understand the whole revolution concept but I knew these men were doing the right thing. The French soldiers used to look all clean but they scared us more because we knew they never come unless they want to kidnap someone or destroy our little resources”

While we’re on the topic of white devilry here’s something I’ve wanted to talk about for a while.

So all of the Europeans justified their imperialism under the guise of ‘we’re civilizing these people’, right?  And the French moreso than most, they developed a very centralized colonial administration nominally aimed at bringing the peoples of Africa and Asia out of their presumed pre-modern state.  And teaching French was (again nominally) the largest part of this, since education and economic development was supposedly a large part of the French colonial project.

However, in 1956 (two years before the collapse of the Fourth Republic over the war in Algeria and six years before Algerian independence) it was found that, in Algeria (the most 'developed’ and intensively colonized place in Africa)

“[The Tillion Report found] about three quarters of the Muslim population was illiterate in Arabic, and ninety percent in French.  Although France appeared to be spending more on Algeria, in real terms - because of the depreciation of the Franc - the sum earmarked for 1953 had not exceeded that for 1913.” (Alistair Horne, A Savage War Of Peace, page 110)

That is that the crown jewel of France’s civilizing mission featured a population where nine tenths were illiterate in the language which was supposed to be civilizing them.

Colonization is not, and has never been, about 'civilizing’.  The educational and developmental aspect has always been there to legitimize the actual function of colonies, which is economic domination.  If we use this as our lens of analyzing European imperialism, the fact that India’s GDP didn’t grow through the 19th century (despite being 'developed’ by the most developed country in the world) and that Algeria had mass illiteracy into the 1950s (despite being 'educated’ by a country which viewed education as its form of the white man’s burden) seems not like some weird factoid or contrarian piece of trivia, rather it works into the nature of imperialism.

Mod R


53 ans d’indépendance.

Honneurs à nos chouhada qui ont payé de leur vie pour que l’Algérie vive.

“Nous sommes chez nous. Nous ne pouvons aller ailleurs. C’est cette terre qui a nourri nos ancêtres, c’est cette terre qui nourrira nos enfants. Libres ou esclaves, elle nous appartient, nous lui appartenons et elle ne voudra pas nous laisser périr. L’Algérie ne peut vivre sans nous. Nous ne pouvons vivre sans elle."  Ferhat Abbas


The French MAS-36 bolt action rifle

By the mid 1930’s France’s stock of Lebel and Bethier rifles were beginning to show their age and obsolescence.  The French military wanted a new rifle that was shorter, more compact, and more importantly used a modernized rimless cartridge with a modern 5 round box magazine.  The government owned arms factory, Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne (MAS) created the MAS-36, a new bolt action rifle designed to bring the French Army into the modern era of warfare.

World War I was the dark ages when it came to bolt action rifle design in France. The official service rifle was the Berthier Mle 1907/15, which believe it or not utilized a 3 round magazine.  The Berthier was supplemented by the 1880’s vintage Lebel, an obsolete design which used an 8 round tube magazine which needed to be loaded one cartridge at a time. Although the Lebel was an aging design, French soldiers preferred its 8 round capacity to the Berthier’s pathetic 3 round capacity, despite the fact that it used an obsolete tube magazine. In the mid 1930’s it was high time for that the French adopted a new, modern bolt action rifle. The MAS-36 was designed with many of the mistakes of World War I in mind, and drew inspiration from other successful designs such as the German Mauser and British Lee Enfield.  It had  rear locking lugs that were resistant to dirt, new peep sights designed for common combat ranges, and a turned down bolt made to make working the action fairly easy. One interesting feature of the MAS-36 was its bolt handle, which was turned at a very sharp forward angle for a shorter and easier stroke action. Some soldiers, however, were not comfortable with this and bent the bolt into a more traditional angle.  Perhaps the most important feature of the MAS-36 was that it was chambered for 7.5x54 French, a new replacement for the older 8mm Lebel cartridge.  Overall while not pretty, the new rifle was accurate, tough, rugged, and reliable.

The MAS-36 was most notable for its use during World War II.  Unfortunately not enough could be produced to arm all French soldiers by the war’s start, so it served alongside the ancient Lebel and aging Berthier (both updated with a 5 round box magazine). A rare paratrooper carbine variant was also produced with a folding aluminum stock. After the fall of France the rifle was still used by Vichy French government, as well as Free French troops and resistance fighters.  Many were captured by the Germans and renamed the Gewehr 242f, which was used to arm some occupation forces, but mostly the Volksturm, Hitler’s civilian militia composed of old men and children.  After World War II the rifle continued to be used in France’s colonial wars, including Algeria and the Indochina China Wars.  By 1949 is was replaced with a semi-auto rifle called the MAS-49.