algeria war

Tagged on the Saint-Michel Bridge in 1961: “Ici on noie les Algériens” (“Here we drown Algerians”). Dozens of bodies were later pulled from the River Seine

The Paris massacre of 1961 was a massacre in Paris on 17 October 1961, during the Algerian War (1954–62). Under orders from the head of the Parisian police, Maurice Papon, the French police attacked a forbidden demonstration of some 30,000 pro-FLN Algerians. Two months before, FLN had decided to increase the bombing in France and to resume the campaign against the pro-France Algerians and the rival Algerian nationalist organization called MNA in France. After 37 years of denial, in 1998 the French government acknowledged 40 deaths, although there are estimates of over 200.

The 17 October 1961 massacre appears to have been intentional, as has been demonstrated by historian Jean-Luc Einaudi, who won a trial against Maurice Papon in 1999 — the latter was convicted in 1998 on charges of crimes against humanity for his role under the Vichy collaborationist regime during World War II. Official documentation and eyewitnesses within the Paris police department indeed suggest that the massacre was directed by Maurice Papon. Police records show that Papon called for officers in one station to be ‘subversive’ in quelling the demonstrations, and assured them protection from prosecution if they participated. Many demonstrators died when they were violently herded by police into the River Seine, with some thrown from bridges after being beaten unconscious. Other demonstrators were killed within the courtyard of the Paris police headquarters after being arrested and delivered there in police buses. Officers who participated in the courtyard killings took the precaution of removing identification numbers from their uniforms, while senior officers ignored pleas by other policemen who were shocked when witnessing the brutality. Silence about the events within the police headquarters was further enforced by threats of reprisals from participating officers.

 

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The Battle of Algiers is still one of the only works of war cinema that thoroughly understands the architectural character of a city in combat, at once meticulously structured (through checkpoints, barriers, and routine patrols) and conspicuously impromptu (through the increased presence of bombed-out structures, burning cars, and rubble piles). The familiar layout of Algiers, with its automobile-lined boulevards, neoclassical structures, and wide open spaces, begins to readjust before our very eyes into an arena of chaos, debris, and collateral casualties. Watching the film now, after so many other popular films and latter-day television series have faithfully duplicated its look and feel, it is all too easy to take for granted just how revolutionary a filmmaking document Pontecorvo had created, a visual groundbreaker made all the more monumental for the atypical coherence of its storytelling.”

Read: BOTH SIDES NOW: ON THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION IN GILLO PONTECORVO’S THE BATTLE OF ALGIERS by Matthew Eng

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Marc Garanger’s photos of Algerian women in the 1960s (click to enlarge). These photos were used by the French to make identification cards for villagers, who were then moved into what were essentially concentration camps. Many women were forced to remove their veils for the photos; even today you can feel the defiance in their gaze. (Click here to learn more)

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Sergeants Uniform of the 3rd Regiment of Zouaves of the French Army dated 1915 on display at the Musée de l'Armée in Paris

Before the start of the First World War, the Zouave uniform was famous in many armies in the 19th Century from the United States (both Union and Confederacy) to the Papal Sates and Poland. By 1915 however the bright and flowing uniform of the Zouave was replaced with this khaki uniform. It was part of a gradual modernisation of the French army with the colourful uniforms of the 19th century were being replaced either with khaki or bluish grey.

Colonial troops such as the Zouaves from Algeria and other French colonies in Africa fought on the Western Front with men and women from all over the world. After the war in 1926 the French government erected the Grand Mosque of Paris, in recognition of the bravery of the Muslim soldiers who died defending France and its people. During the Second World War the mosque became a refuge for Jews escaping the Nazis and Vichy Republic.

Fun Fact 111

The French Foreign Legion marches slower than other French units at 88 steps-per-minute instead of 116 steps-per-minute. Although it is unclear why this tradition started, there is a popular belief that it started due to the need to preserve energy and fluids during long marches under the hot Algerian sun.

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53 ans d’indépendance.

Honneurs à nos chouhada qui ont payé de leur vie pour que l’Algérie vive.


“Nous sommes chez nous. Nous ne pouvons aller ailleurs. C’est cette terre qui a nourri nos ancêtres, c’est cette terre qui nourrira nos enfants. Libres ou esclaves, elle nous appartient, nous lui appartenons et elle ne voudra pas nous laisser périr. L’Algérie ne peut vivre sans nous. Nous ne pouvons vivre sans elle."  Ferhat Abbas

“Near Algiers, “Torch” troops hit the beaches behind a large American flag “Left” hoping for the French Army not fire on it.” 11/8/1942

Series: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Public Domain Photographs, 1882 - 1962Collection: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Public Domain Photographs, 1882 - 1962.

Operation “Torch”, the joint American-British invasion of Vichy French North Africa, began on November 8, 1942.  Most French forces put up only a mild resistance before capitulating and joining the Allied cause.

zizek is a broken clock, although i think that’s a relatively recent turn for him. he’s always been intentionally provocative, but i think a lot of his early work (particularly on the iraq war) was insightful and critical in a way that his work now absolutely not, and now he’s essentially and vocally the kind of right-lacanian he denounced 10-some years ago. anyway, this bit from an essay on the iraq war is really useful:

One can surmise that the US are well aware that the era of Saddam and his non-fundamentalist regime is coming to an end in Iraq, and that the attack on Iraq is probably conceived as a much more radical preemptive strike - not against Saddam, but against the main contender for Saddam’s political successor, a truly fundamentalist Islamic regime. Yes in this way, the vicious cycle of the American intervention gets only more complex: the danger is that the very American intervention will contribute to the emergence of what America most fears, a large united anti-American Muslim front. It is the first case of the direct American occupation of a large and key Arab country - how could this not generate universal hatred in reaction? One can already imagine thousands of young people dreaming of becoming suicide bombers, and how that will force the US government to impose a permanent high alert emergency state… However, at this point, one cannot resist a slightly paranoid temptation: what if the people around Bush KNOW this, what if this “collateral damage” is the true aim of the entire operation? What if the TRUE target of the “war on terror” is the American society itself, i.e., the disciplining of its emancipatory excesses?

On March 5 2003, on “Buchanan & Press” news show on NBC, they showed on the TV screen the photo of the recently captured Khalid Shakh Mohammed, the “third man of al-Qaeda” - a mean face with moustaches, in an unspecified nightgown prison-dress, half opened and with something like bruises half-discernible (hints that he was already tortured?) -, while Pat Buchanan’s fast voice was asking: “Should this man who knows all the names all the detailed plans for the future terrorist attacks on the US, be tortured, so that we get all this out of him?” The horror of it was that the photo, with its details, already suggested the answer - no wonder the response of other commentators and viewers’ calls was an overwhelming “Yes!” - which makes one nostalgic of the good old days of the colonial war in Algeria when the torture practiced by the French Army was a dirty secret… Effectively, was this not a pretty close realization of what Orwell imagined in 1984, in his vision of “hate sessions,” where the citizens are shown photos of the traitors and supposed to boo and yell at them. And the story goes on: a day later, on another Fox TV show, a commentator claimed that one is allowed to do with this prisoner whatever, not only deprive him of sleep, but break his fingers, etc.etc., because he is “a piece of human garbage with no rights whatsoever.” THIS is the true catastrophe: that such public statements are today possible.

We should therefore be very attentive not to fight false battles: the debates on how bad Saddam is, even on how much the war will cost, etc., are false debates. The focus should be on what effectively goes on in our societies, on what kind of society is emerging HERE as the result of the “war on terror.” Instead of talking about hidden conspirative agendas, one should shift the focus onto what is going on, onto what kind of changes are taking place here and now. The ultimate result of the war will be a change in OUR political order.

This is a very lucid point, and important imo for thinking about current-regime posturing re: the DPRK. 

Holy shit. So apparently Madrid’s arrested half the Catalonian government and de facto suspended Catalonia’s autonomy. That’s huge.

A very quick summary for those who don’t follow European politics: Catalonia is a Northern region centered around Barcelona, and they’ve been lowkey or highkey fighting with Spain for hundreds of years because Spain, like France, carried out a very aggressive nationalizaton policy which at times tried to downright erase minority cultures. Something else that’s complicated the relationship between Madrid and Barcelona is a) the fact Catalonia was fiercely anti-Franco in the Civil War and b) the fact Catalonia is a very rich region, which means many Catalonians feel they’re contributing more than their fair share to the country’s finances (this is mostly the same problem that Lombardy’s got with Italy, and why they started that whole ‘We’re actually Celts, so fuck off’ business). In Europe, the issue of minority cultures and what to do with them differs from country to country but never really went away, and it’s started to become more and more urgent in the wake of the economic crisis and Scottish Independence referendum. Catalonia had planned its own referendum for October 1st, and the regional government had declared it would go forward even if the Spanish constitutional court had deemed it illegal. Over the past week, police had confiscated political propaganda and voting materials - something that, as far as I know, is unprecedented and unsettling af - and today they went right ahead and arrested thirteen members of the regional government.

(And, I mean, I’d be more sympathetic towards Madrid fiercely defending its territorial integrity if they hadn’t just been trying for weeks to steal Gibraltar from the UK - pot and kettle, man - pot and kettle.)

What happens next? Who knows?

Do Catalonians want to be independent? As far as we know, they’re split on the issue - like in Scotland, voting forecasts predicted a 50-50 result.

Were they the ones bombing people? No, those were the Basques - and the question’s much more complicated than that, anyway.

Is this a left vs. right issue? Yes and no. The coalition in favour of the independence includes parties from both ends of the political spectrum, but it’s undeniable that the right wing party that’s currently governing Spain has contributed massively to the worsening of the relations between Barcelona and Madrid.

What happens if the referendum goes ahead anyway and Catalonia votes yes? A huge mess. The principle of self-determination and autonomy for minority group is part of the EU’s charter of fundamental rights, so it would be hard for any court to outright annul the result of the referendum. Furthermore, the concept of Spain as ‘indivisible’ is not enough either: France was considered legally indivisible from Algeria until the war, so. On the other hand, if Catalonia secedes that’s a legal precedent for the many regions which are unhappy with their respective countries - from Scotland to Lombardy to Corsica to some areas of the Balkans - so that’s a potentially dangerous domino effect waiting to happen. Plus - if Catalonia declared its independence and if that’s recognized by courts (which could take years), the region would automatically be out of the EU, and we’d need a yes from all EU countries to accept it back in; it’s hard to imagine a scenario that would convince Spain to do so.

So, yeah - I’ll be waiting for updates. Interesting times, and all that. 

A soldier of the Polisario Front holds her child and a rifle during training in the Western Sahara, December 1978. The Polisario are a Sahrawi liberation movement who fought against Moroccan control of the Western Sahara from the 1970s to early 1990s. Female soldiers were key to defending the the Tindouf refugee camps during the conflict and today the women’s wing of the Polisario contains around 10,000 members. 

eyepatchhaise  asked:

the presidental duel thing is on snapchat story. lepen is so full of herself

she’s the goddamn worst and I’m still so upset.

CW: Islamophobia, Homophobia, Antisemitism 

Among other things:

-All her sentences started with her trying to say Macron sucked, instead of defending her programs, it was all about “your program is bad because I say so”

-She wants to get out of Europe. Doing a Frexit like she says.

-She argues that the UK is doing better now that they are out of the UE

-She said that we should come back to Francs (our previous currency) because as the UK proved, they’re doing better now that they’re not using the Euro anymore (they… never used the Euro, Marine. Marine wake up.)

-She said that while it’s important we come back to Francs for “national pride”, “French people aren’t affected by it being Euro or Francs”. While guess what, yes we are, it’s our economy we’re talking about. 

-She basically dared to let us “try her” as a president

-She lied the whole time. The. whole time.

-She mentioned a Muslim guy who //allegedly// supported Macron and said Macron was trash over it because therefore he encouraged antisemitism, homophobia and misogyny. Which is big from a well known antisemitic person, who planned to go back on the gay marriage  and make law against LGBT+ people, and who is anti-abortion. And also which makes no sense whatsoever.

-She’s extremely racist and xenophobic and her anti-immigration politics are terrible, she wants to throw out anyone out of the country

-She kept bringing terrorist attacks and Muslims up in hateful ways, all the time, even on topic where it shouldn’t be mentioned. 

-When talking about the problems about education, the only thing she really had to say was that “we can’t allow people to wear veils in university and allowing so is making you terrible”

-Macron went in Algeria a few days prior to apologize about the Algeria War and called it a Crime Against Humanity, which it was and France was wrong okay. Lepen got angry at him and brought it up saying that putting the blame on France was a blasphemy and that you cannot say France is criminal if you want to represent it. (I will also add that it is a well known fact that her father, the founder of her party, tortured people during the Algeria War. He’s a war criminal. She can shut the fuck up.)

-To which Macron brought up what Lepen said a few days before: She argued that the Vel d’Hiv’s rafle (how, during WWII, under the Vichy Regime, Pétain ordered to get all the Jewish people living in the South, Men, Women and Children alike, and send them all in the Concentration camps, also taking into account the nazis only asked for the Men which resulted in countless of Women and Children being killed to be disposed of) - was not France’s fault and it wasn’t our responsability.

-To which Lepen replied that “France was in London during that time so it’s not our fault” (and guess what it fucking was. It’s not because some people of the Resistance was in London that it excuses what we did in FRANCE)

-She said that France used to be great but now we are “submissive” to Germany and the USA and that we have to go back to the glory days were we were admirated because we were France (so what time? When were we better? Because the time we were “world leaders” we weren’t that great. Marine. Marine shut the fuck up.)

-She kept insulting and interrupting Macron and then argued he was the one who kept insulting and interrupting her. 

-Taking into account that she stole 3 millions of Euro to the UE recently and refused to go to the Court when she was convocated about it, she called the Justice System in France to be not correct. To which Macron had to reply to her that if she went to her convocations maybe we would take her seriously.

-(he also said that “Sorry Miss Lepen, but France deserves so much better than you” and I’m thanksful for that. He’s not that great himself but look. Nothing is as bad as //Her//)

-She did this to interrupt Macron when he was talking about how there were problems in her party was and she was like “brrr raise the social network, everything’s bad”

-She mentioned that using our money to “heal immigrants” was to be irrespectful to any national pride and that we were failing French people, somehow. 

(and as a “fun” fact, there had been a terrorist attack a few days ago in Paris, a policeman was killed, but otherwise it was all. When the attack happened, the FN (her party) used it as a way to again, fuel their own agenda of hatred against all of this - until the policeman was buried and his husband made an ellogy for him, ending it by saying he loved his husband. To which JM Lepen, Marine’s Father (you know, the war criminal) said that it was truly shameful from France to honor “this kind of people”. that’s the kind of things she thinks as well. Let’s not forget that.)


And that’s just the things I noted down out of pure anger at some point because what the hell.

The Journalists themselves couldn’t take it anymore and when it was done, they mentioned it was the worst debate they’ve ever seen since the begining of the Vth Republic. Because instead of talking about solutions, it was all about attacks and nothing about real programs. They called Lepen childish and unprofessional. 


 And yet still, apparently still 40% of the people who watched the debate were convinced by her. 

I want to burn my eyes over how bad it was. It was seriously so cringeworthy. She’s arrogant, full of herself, hateful, encouraging to hate, dangerous, with no notion of economy (none of her plans makes sense on an economical standpoint) and it’s all about justifying her own hateful agenda. 

So ye that’s basically a summary of what I’ve been screaming about in French all night. It’s not that great. 

God I’m looking forward those elections to be over and I really hope we don’t screw up and elect //her//

“Our house used to be the place where Algerian Freedom Fighters used to come for food during the Algerian Revolution. Back then, helping or assisting any fighter would instantly result in a death sentence by the French occupiers, but my father felt he had a moral obligation to help them. He was not able to join the fight, but he wanted to participate in any way possible. He died back in 1994 without ever asking for anything in return for the services he gave to his fellow Algerians.

I remember I used to wake up in the middle of the night on the sound of many people talking inside the house. I walk into the living room to see many faces that I never saw before. My mother used to fire up the Tajine (The thing we use to make our unique bread. It is not the same as the Moroccan Tajine and it has a completely different design and purpose) and starts making K’sra (Our traditional bread) for all those men. I was the one doing the waiter part serving them the K’sra and Cow’s milk.

They looked scary but I never felt afraid of them. For some reason I was comfortable to see them. I was too young to understand the whole revolution concept but I knew these men were doing the right thing. The French soldiers used to look all clean but they scared us more because we knew they never come unless they want to kidnap someone or destroy our little resources”