“When you separate an entwined particle and you move both parts away from the other, even at opposite ends of the universe, if you alter or affect one, the other will be identically altered or affected.” -Adam
Abigail Adams: interracial relationships and immigration.
Everyone loves Abigail Adams, it is not difficult to conclude, and I do as well, however, I am a little concerned by the growing amount of people who seem to believe Abigail never did a single thing wrong in her life. She may of almost not done anything horrid but her views on certain aspects primarily concerning interracial relationships and immigrants are far from it. I have seen quite often historical women not being held accountable for their actions mainly, it seems, because they were women and facing injustices already for their sex. These women still held the same racist, xenophobic or sexist views we point to men of the time. It is a failure to recognize these regards especially those towards Abigail Adams.
While Abigail never owned a slave in her life and was far ahead of her time when it came to the institution–she still was racist. On the 18th of September 1785 penned from her current residence in London while her husband, John Adams served in diplomatic missions, Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her son-in-law William Stephens Smith. Having recently attended a London performance of Othello, Abigail Adams admitted her “disgust and horrour” at seeing the “Sooty” title character “touch the Gentle Desdemona.”
“I was last Evening however at Drury Lane and Saw for the first time Mrs. Siddons… She appeard in the tradegy of Othello, and acted the part of Desdemona. Othello was represented blacker than any affrican… I saw the sooty… [man] touch the fair Desdemona”
After the sentence above, she crossed out this text:
“but I So powerfull was prejudice that I could not seperate the coulour from the Man and by which means”
“That most incomparable Speach of Othellos lost half its force and Beauty, because I could not Seperate the coulour from the Man…”
To her sister, Elizabeth she wrote of the event:
“I lost much of the pleasure of the play from the Sooty appearance of the Moor… I could not separate the affrican colour from the man, nor prevent the disgust and hourror while filld my mind every time I saw him touch Gentle Desmodona.”
As you can see, even Abigail Adams who held a famous abhorrence for enslavement of slavery, still could not find in her self acceptance toward interracial relationships or discover a way she could put the races of these persons aside. Above she goes as far as to admit she could not separate the race from the character and held such a “powerfull” distaste at the performance that it ruined the entire night for her. It filled her with “disgust and hourror” to even witness a black touching a white.
After the Alien and Sedition Acts were striding through Congress during her husband’s presidency, she grew embittered over the published public scorn against him and the Acts. She wrote fervent letters in support of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Until Congress passed a sedition ill, she warned her sister-in-law that nothing would halt the “wicked and base violent and calumniating abuse” of the Republican papers.” She added that in “any other country, Bache [in reference to Benjamin Franklin Bache, grandson of the founder Benjamin Franklin who authored a famous Republican paper titled the Aurora before dying of yellow fever in 1798] and all of his papers would have been seized long ago.”
She hoped the Alien Act would be invoked to out the Swiss-born Republican Albert Gallatin, a leader in the House of Representatives after James Madison’s departure. She considered the immigrant Gallatin a traitor to his country. Abigail also distrusted immigrants, averting that “a more careful and attentive watch ought to be kept over foreigners.”
It is beliefs such as these that I frequently observe being swept under the rug. Abigail Adams was in no way pure and could not locate in herself a way to overlook race nor was she for immigrants, the very thing her country was founded upon.
June is GLBT Book Month! The LGBTQIA community is part of our nation’s great diversity and there are a ton of YA books that celebrate and support them. Whether it’s comedy, romance, fantasy, or just day-to-day life, these books are great reads!
Fan Art by Sarah Tregay
None of the Above by I.W. Gregorio
Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe by Benjamin Saenz
About a Girl by Sarah McCarry
Everything Leads to You by Nina LaCour
Will Grayson, Will Grayson by John Green and David Levithan
Tell Me Again How a Crush Should Feel by Sarah Farizan
Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky
The Bane Chronicles by Cassandra Clare
Not Otherwise Specified by Hannah Moskowitz
My Best Friend, Maybe by Caela Carter
One Man Guy by Michael Barakiva
More Happy Than Not by Adam Silvera
Ask the Passengers by A.S. King
Simon and the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli
“True Freemasonry is esoteric; it is not a thing of this world. All that we have here is a link, a doorway, through which the student may pass into the unknown. Freemasonry has nothing to do with things of form save that it realizes form is molded by and manifests the life it contains. Consequently the student is seeking so to mold his life that the form will glorify the God whose temple he is slowly building as he awakens one by one the workmen within himself and directs them to carry out the plan that has been given him out of heaven.”
their performance of ‘me’ at the royal albert hall was absolutely breathtaking so I thought I’d share it with you all, so the people who weren’t there could see this magical performance and for all those who were there to re-experience it x
The Houghton Mansion was once the home of former mayor of North Adams, Albert Charles Houghton. It is now used as a Masonic Temple, and is classed as a highly active paranormal location.
In 1914, the Houghtons were involved in a devastating car-crash that cost two of them their lives. Mr. Houghton arranged a trip to Vermont in their brand-new car, with their chauffeur, John Widders at the wheel. As they entered the state, Widders decided to drive around a horse and carriage that was blocking the narrow road. The car fell off an embankment, killing the daughter Mary, two other passengers, and Mr. Houghton ten days later. John Widders survived, but was plagued with guilt and committed suicide in The Houghton Mansion a fortnight later.
Now an empty shell, the mansion
is reportedly haunted by the spirits of Albert Houghton, his daughter, Mary Houghton, and their chauffeur, John Widders. People have reported disembodied voices and footsteps, shadow figures, and a feeling of sadness in Mary Houghton’s room. A notable haunt is the apparition of a little girl in the basement, who has no relation to the family, that is thought to be some sort of demonic entity.