Al Idrisi, a Muslim geographer and cartographer was revered for his objectivity and attention to detail. Originally from Ceuta, Spain, al Idrisi was invited to the court of King Roger II in Sicily. There, he produced the Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. The Tabula Rogeriana would be unmatched in accuracy until Pietro Vesconte’s revision of the mappa mundi world map in 1321.
This copy of the Tabula Rogeriana is upside down since al Idrisi created maps with Africa north.