Boys with masks that they carved themselves. Akpa district, Nigeria, 1974. Photo: S. L. Kasfir. Among the Idoma there is no formal instruction in carving. Such knowledge is acquired in a piece-meal fashion from boyhood, by watching a village sculptor at work.

Sidney Littlefield Kasfir. Artists’ Reputations: Negotiating Power through Separation and Ambiguity. African Arts, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring, 2000), pp. 70-77+96.