airways disease

Emphysema due to smoking tends to cause bulla formation in the upper lobes, whereas if it is due to an inherited a1-antitrypsin deficiency, it tends to occur in the lower lobes. 

Smoke rises. 

The two guys at the bottom are wearing jeans because, y'know, it’s a genetic condition. 

On the Trans service debate

You obviously know nothing about the military if you’re upset or surprised that Trans individuals are not deemed acceptable for service. Many trans people suffer from dysphoria, require medication, take estrogen/testosterone, some may feel the need to bind or have other habits that can impede in physical service. And don’t forget, the military still aren’t fully accommodating towards women, how do you expect the armed forces to magically sort out the entire mess that would come with Trans individuals. We haven’t even sorted out how we’re going about all this with public bathrooms. But yeah its a great idea to just throw them all into service and war, we can just figure it out later right?
I hate trump too but seriously, its not a good idea, at least at this time, and hey there’s a lot larger groups who have been barred from enlistment.

“Enlistment standards for joining the military include:

-Citizenship. You must be a US citizen or be a permanent immigrant with a green card.Age. No one younger than 17 and older than 42 may enlist. Each section of the military also has its own specific guidelines.
-Credit and finances. You must not have serious amounts of debt or have a history of credit issues.
-Single parents and applicants with dependents are usually disqualified. If you have dependents at all, you will need to show adequate support for them.
-If you are married to a military member and have children, you will be unable to join.
-Education. Applicants generally must have a high school diploma. In some cases a GED is accepted, and in very rare cases people without schooling are accepted.
-Drug and alcohol dependency, use or involvement can disqualify you.
-Medical disqualifications. Any serious mental or physical illness or trait can disqualify you from joining.
-You must be physically fit.
-Criminal history. Any offense that results in conviction is usually disqualifying.
-Sexual conduct. Deviant sexual behavior will disqualify you from joining.
-Height standards. You must be between 60-80 inches tall for men and 58-72 inches tall for women.

The military can also reject you for any other reason not listed above. Remember: serving is a privilege; not a right.”

“Miscellaneous Disqualifying Conditions

Frequent motion sickness
Being an organ transplant recipient


History of large benign tumors anywhere in the body
Auditory canal
Bone, if trauma prone
Anywhere in nervous system

Any malignant tumor (present or removed).
Any tumor that affects duty performance ability


Chronic hives (urticaria)
Scarring, if it interferes with ability to use equipment or wear uniform
Extensive, resistant fungus
Chronic, resistance eczema
Severe acne


Suicidal behavior
Any history of psychosis
Anything beyond mild stuttering/stammering
Frequent and persistent sleepwalking
Frequent and/or recurring encounters with law enforcement
Personality disorders manifest by drug or alcohol addiction
Inability to adjust in work, school, or home environments
History of drug/alcohol dependence

Neurological Disorders

Sleeping disorders
Meningitis associated head injury (within five years)
Epilepsy (after age of five)
Multiple sclerosis
Intellectual deficit
Head injury resulting in unconsciousness/amnesia
Congenital malformations
Brain hemorrhage


Chronic rhinitis (allergies)
Uncontrolled hay fever
Deviated/perforated septum


Perforated hard palate

Chest and Lungs

Acute, chronic beyond mild disease (pneumonia, bronchitis, etc.)
Asthma (any age)
Removal of any part of lung
Mastectomy (females)
Tuberculosis (within 2 years or two or more times)

Heart, Vascular Conditions

High blood pressure if requiring medication or dietary regulation
Heart disease

Head and Neck

Depressed skull fracture/s
Loss or removal of any part of skull


Bed wetting
Missing a kidney
Kidney stones (within one year or occurring more than twice, or current)

Genitourinary (Females)

Congenital absence of uterus
Acute or recurring infections
Vulva, condyloma accuminatum, dystrophic conditions
Vagina, congenital abnormalities that interfere with physical activity
Painful periods
Surgery induced menopausal symptoms
Irregular, or no periods
Genitourinary (Males)

Missing both testicles
Undescended testicles
Urethritis, if chronic or acute


Absence of lens
Lens implant
Scarred cornea
Double vision
Requirement of contact lenses
Opacity of cornea or lens
Night blindness

Back and Spine

Symptomatic (healed) fractures
Ruptured disc
Recurring back pain
Scoliosis (curving of the spine), if severe
Congenital deformities

Orthopedic, extremities

Soft/softening of bones, osteoporosis
Scars, if problematic, adherent, painful
Plantar fasciitis, resistant to treatment
Weakness of or paralysis of muscles

Amputation of big toe, hand, arm, foot, leg, more than 1/3 or distal part of thumb, one joint on 2+ fingers (except little finger), two joints on index, middle, or ring fingers
Fractures of any ‘major’ bone within 6 months
Improperly healed fracture
Metal implants for fracture repair
Beyond moderate arthritis
Knee cartilage torn (unless surgically corrected more than 6 months prior)
Unstable, deranged joints
Knee ligament surgery

Endocrine/Metabolic Conditions

Most of em, other than low thyroid that’s medically controllable.

Ears and Auditory

Acute, chronic canal infection
Missing an (or both) ears
Acute mastoiditis
Acute or chronic middle ear infections
Perforated eardrums
Hearing loss caused by eardrum scarring (+20dB loss)
Canal tumors
Smallness or closing of eardrums
Meniere’s syndrome


Braces or other ortho gear, acceptable in DEP (Delayed Entry Program) but must be removed prior to active duty.
Inability to eat ordinary food

Blood, Blood-Forming Tissue Disease

Anemia, unless correctable
Bleeding or clotting disease
Enlarged spleen
Immunodeficiency disease
Low white blood cell count


Hay fever, skin allergies
Asthma, reactive airway disease, exercise induced spasms, asthmatic bronchitis (any age)
Allergic manifestations, history of life-threatening responses to stinging insects, history of moderate to severe reactions to foods, spices, or food additives.

Abdominal, Digestive Sytem

Splenectomy (unless due to trauma)
Scars showing bulging or herniation, interfering with ability to perform, or causes pain
Resection of any part of digestive tract
Prolapse or stricture of rectum
Acute or chronic pancreas disease
Hernia, if present
Hepatitis within 6 months
Symptomatic hemorrhoids
Current gallstones
Fistula in anus
Abdominal surgery within two months”

But please, lets allow the minuteTrans community to push themselves into the spotlight again. They come first.

From @dknc3:

Here is my take on Elia’s medical issues. They could all easily be traced to her prematurity which can cause a variety of long-term problems. First of all, a preterm baby in Westeros would have to be over 32 weeks because a younger baby would not have lungs developed enough to survive without modern medicine. In fact, a baby under 34 weeks would probably not have enough lung power to make it. This means Elia, if she were considered very premature, was probably a 34 to 36 weeker. So she missed out on a third to a half of the third trimester. 

EVERY preemie, even those born close to term has lungs that are not as mature and resilient as a full term infant’s. So if she gets any respiratory infections in the first year or so of her life, she’s gonna get a lot sicker than a kid who cooked for 40 weeks would. This can lead to long term scarring in the airways and lifelong respiratory diseases like asthma.  There are a few herbals that legitimately help with bronchispasm which theoretically could have been known to maesters and healers which would have helped Elia ease her symptoms if she had asthma and allow her to live into adulthood, etc., but nothing like the bronchodilators or steroids we have now–so she definitely would have had restricted activity level and pregnancy would have been difficult.

One important thing that takes place late in pregnancy is the transfer of minerals like iron and calcium from mother to baby. So all preemies tend to be born with some degree of deficiency in these things. Iron deficiency causes anemia and calcium deficiency causes problems with weak bones. All preemies receive supplements now. But of course supplements wouldn’t exist in Westeros so it would be hard for a preterm baby to climb out of the hole they start and where these minerals are concerned.

Her small size would put her in a nutritional hole as well. Smaller bodies have a greater surface area compared to their total mass so simply maintaining body temperature requires a lot of energy. That’s why premature babies get put in Isolettes, once called incubators. It helps decrease the caloric requirements of the babies which is important because they aren’t great at eating. Being born in Dorne was probably a help to Elia’s survival at least because at least it’s easier there to keep warm there than in Winterfell! Except for Catelyn’s chambers maybe. :-D

If Elia couldn’t latch to a breast, she had no infant formula, feeding tubes, or even bottles with rubber nipples.  The best that could be done is for someone to express breast milk and use something like a rag to drop it into her little mouth. You could possibly maintain her with that, but you are not catching up on calories, minerals or other nutrients.

So she’s set up for long term poor growth, anemia, brittle bones and a whole slew of health problems related to early childhood poor nutrition.

Equine Respiratory - NAVLE Review #5

Originally posted by kimblewick

Most Common Respiratory Diseases of Horses: 

Common Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases:

Viral Diseases:

  • Equine influenza (2-3 years olds); high fevers, rapid spread
  • Equine Herpes Virus -1 (weanling/yearlings): causes respiratory, CNS, and abortions in last trimester

  • Equine Herpes Virus- 4 (weanling/yearling): primary respiratory infection


  • Streptococcus equi. Sub. equi. “Strangles” (young horses): Can form Chondroids and horses can become persistent carriers

Originally posted by gifsboom

Common Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases

  • Rhodococcus equi “Foal pneumonia”:  intracellular bacteria, common treatment Erthromycin + rifampicin
  • Pleuritis “shipping fever”: mixed viral and bacterial component


  • Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage: common in high intense sports, racing, eventing
  • Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) “Heaves”: common in older, stabled horses, neutrophilic inflammation
  • Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD): common in young, athletic horses, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, or mast cell inflammation