agostino-tassi

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Artemisia Gentileschi
1593- 1692 - Female Baroque Painter

(Both Artemisia & her father, Orazio, are at the Getty Center)

In photo: the Judith & Holofernes series & the Penitent Magdalene

Artemisia Gentileschi was born in Rome on 8 July 1593, the eldest child of the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi. Artemisia was introduced to painting in her father’s workshop, showing much more talent than her brothers, who worked alongside her. She learned drawing, how to mix color and how to paint. Since her father’s style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period, her style was just as heavily influenced in turn

She was one of the greatest of Caravaggesque painters and a formidable personality. She was precociously gifted, built up a European reputation, and lived a life of independence rare for a woman of the time. Born in Rome, she worked mainly there and in Florence until she settled in Naples in 1630 (she also visited her father in England in 1638-40).

The Rape:
In 1612, despite her early talent, Artemisia was denied access to the all-male professional academies for art. At the time, her father was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino della Rose inside the Pallavicini Rospigliosi Palace in Rome, so Orazio hired the painter to tutor his daughter privately. During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia. Another man, Cosimo Quorlis had helped Tassi with the rape. After the initial rape, Artemisia continued to have sexual relations with Tassi, with the expectation that they were going to be married. However, Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia after he heard the rumour that she was having an affair with another man. Quorlis had threatened that if he could not have her, he would publicly humiliate her. Orazio pressed charges against Tassi only after he learned that Artemisia and Tassi were not going to be married. Orazio also claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household. The major issue of this trial was the fact that Tassi had deflowered Artemisia. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges.

In the ensuing 7-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi had planned to murder his wife, had enjoined in adultery with his sister-in-law and planned to steal some of Orazio’s paintings. During the trial, Artemisia was given a gynecological examination and was tortured using thumbscrews. Both procedures were used to corroborate the truth of her allegation, the torture device used due to the belief that if a person can tell the same story under torture as without it, the story must be true[Citation Needed]. At the end of the trial Tassi was sentenced to imprisonment for one year, although he never served the time. The trial has subsequently influenced the feminist view of Artemisia Gentileschi during the late 20th century.

In Florence, Artemisia enjoyed huge success. She was the first woman accepted into the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (Academy of the Arts of Drawing). She maintained good relations with the most respected artists of her time, such as Cristofano Allori, and was able to conquer the favours and the protection of influential people, starting with Granduke Cosimo II de’ Medici and especially of the Granduchess Cristina. She had a good relationship with Galileo Galilei with whom she remained in epistolary contact for a long time.

In 1638 Artemisia joined her father in London at the court of Charles I of England, where Orazio became court painter and received the important job of decorating a ceiling (allegory of Trionfo della pace e delle Arti (Triumph of the peace and the Arts) in the Casa delle Delizie of Queen Henrietta Maria of France in Greenwich). Father and daughter were once again working together, although helping her father was probably not her only reason for travelling to London: Charles I had convoked her in his court, and it was not possible to refuse. Charles I was a fanatical collector, willing to ruin public finances to follow his artistic wishes.

While in Florence, Artemisia and Pierantonio (her husband) had four sons and one daughter. But only the daughter, Prudenzia, survived to adulthood — following her mother’s return to Rome in 1621 and later move to Naples. After her mother’s death, Prudenzia slipped into obscurity and little is known of her subsequent life.

……You can see paintings by her and her father at the Getty Center. My favorite thing about Artemisia, is her use of color. Note the saturated colors of red, blue and yellow -lush, deep and bold.

artemisia gentileschi tarihte canına okunmuş binlercesinden sadece biridir. tecavüze uğradığı zaman 20 yaşında olan artemisia tecavüzcüsünü öldürmeye kalkmış ancak sadece adamın göğsüne bir çizik atabilmiştir. ardından olay mahkemeye yansır ancak tecavüzcü ufak bir ceza alarak olaydan sıyrılınca artemisia hıncını başka bir yolla almaya karar verir. hemen romadan ayrılıp napoliye gider. 

romada muhtemelen caravaggio'nun judith beheading holofernes tablosunu görmüştü artemisia ancak o kendi tablosunu yapacaktı. tablosunda judith'i birebir şekilde kendisi olarak, holofernesi de tecavüzcüsü agostino tassi olarak çizer. tabloda büyük bir soğuk kanlılıkla ve hatta hafiften zevk alan bir şekilde judith holofernesin boğazını kesmektedir. böylece ibreti alemlik bu tabloda judith olarak görünen artemisia'nın acısı, bu resme her bakan tarafından hissedilecek ve bu hisle holofernesin o pörtleyen gözlerine acımayacaktı. çünkü herkes hikayeyi biliyordu.kimse kimseyi bu şekilde öldürmek istemezdi. mutlaka bir neden olmalıydı. neden de zaten belliydi. tablonun yapılmasından kısa bir süre sonra agostino tassi artık onursuz bir adam olarak anılacaktı. adalet onu aklamıştı ama etrafındakiler bu konuda pek emin değildi. onurunu kaybeden bir kadına karşılık onurunu kaybeden bir adam.

Buon compleanno alla pittrice italiana Artemisia Gentileschi (Roma, 8 luglio 1593), figlia di Orazio e, probabilmente, la più illustre delle figure femminili nel panorama della storia dell'arte.

All'indiscussa abilità tecnica, legata alla corrente del caravaggismo che contribuì a divulgare anche a Napoli, Artemisia è nota anche per le sue vicende giudiziarie: stuprata dal pittore Agostino Tassi nel 1611, si conservano gli atti del processo nel quale la pittrice dichiara:

« Serrò la camera a chiave e dopo serrata mi buttò su la sponda del letto dandomi con una mano sul petto, mi mise un ginocchio fra le cosce ch'io non potessi serrarle et alzatomi li panni, che ci fece grandissima fatiga per alzarmeli, mi mise una mano con un fazzoletto alla gola et alla bocca acciò non gridassi e le mani quali prima mi teneva con l'altra mano mi le lasciò, havendo esso prima messo tutti doi li ginocchi tra le mie gambe et appuntendomi il membro alla natura cominciò a spingere e lo mise dentro. E li sgraffignai il viso e li strappai li capelli et avanti che lo mettesse dentro anco gli detti una stretta al membro che gli ne levai anco un pezzo di carne»

(Eva Menzio (a cura di), Artemisia Gentileschi, Lettere precedute da Atti di un processo di stupro, Milano, 2004)

Nel dipinto “Susanna e i vecchioni” si tende a leggere riflessi della triste vicenda che vide coinvolto anche suo padre Orazio.

Nell'immagine: Artemisia Gentileschi, “Susanna e i vecchioni”, Pommersfelden, Collezione Graf von Schönborn.

 

Agostino Tassi  -  "Landscape with a Scene of Witchcraft"

oil on canvas , ca. 1620-1644

witch seated in a landscape and accompanied by a monster is casting spells with macabre objects, including a human skull. Tassi specialized in the representation of landscapes and architecture. In this painting, he has imagined the forest as a place beyond civilization where demonic powers can be unleashed. The belief in witchcraft was common during Tassi’s time. In romance poetry, witches were often described as beautiful and seductive creatures, and Tassi painted his image in this vein

Artist Highlight: Artemisia Gentileschi

Born to another famous Baroque painter: Orazio Gentileschi. Artemisia’s mothers died when she was 12.  Trained under her father Orazio was a well known painter who often traveled for commissions. While away from home he hired a chaperone for his daughter, Agostino Tassi.  While Orazio was away in May 1611, Tassi attacked and raped Artemesia. Promising to marry her she later consented to a sexual relationship - however, Tassi was already married and this affair and attack lead to a tarnished reputation for the Gentileschi family.  Orazio brought a lawsuit against Tassi who was convicted of rape, however he never served a sentence.

Eventually she married a small Florentine painter and had four children.

Today she is known as the most famous women 17th century painter. As well as the first female member of the Accademia del Disegno (thus reciveing Medici patronage)

(facts via Robert Neuman’s Baroque and Rococo Art and Architecture book)

Artemisia Gentileschi: la rivalsa dell'arte

Artemisia Gentileschi: la rivalsa dell’arte

Artemisia Gentileschi, Giaele e Sisara, 1620

Una Giuditta sanguinaria che, senza alcuna pietà, taglia la gola al despota, il generale assiro Oloferne; una Sisara, dalle robuste braccia, che ficca a martellate un grosso chiodo nella tempia di Giaele addormentato; una scaltra Dalila che si accinge a tagliare i riccioli bruni di Sansone; personaggi maschili a cui Artemisia Gentileschi dedicò tutto…

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Art is Magic, Ch.15 : Landscape as an independent genre - Claude Le Lorrain

As I previously mentioned, a couple of wizartists decide to escape the Academy from its founding moment because of Simon Vouet’s refusal to admit Landscapes as one of the official genres taught in his institution.

Among them, two friends leave France to settle down in Italy: Moïse Valentin (a very realistic painter, whose style is extremely close to Caravaggio’s) and Claude Gellée, who is known in most scholastic circles under his nickname, “Le Lorrain” (since he came from the Lorraine region of France).

Claude Gellée starts his artistic training with his brother Jean, who was a Master Engraver. Under his tutelage, he manages to produce a small Artist’s Stone at a young age, and the two brothers work on engraved ornaments.

Traveling through Italy, his Stone in his pocket with his pencils, Claude starts studying landscapes with the German miniaturist Goffredo Wales, before joining the workshop of Agostino Tassi in Rome.

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