The tribe of Mangbetu people (central Africa/Congo) used to practice a tradition named “Limpodo’”. At birth the heads of babies were tightly wrapped with cloth in order to give their heads the elongated look. The practice began dying out in the 1950s with the arrival of more Europeans and westernization.

The skull elongation was a status symbol among the Mangbetu ruling classes at the beginning of the century and later evolved into a common ideal of beauty among the peoples of the northeastern Congo.

Source: here