african-slaves

Fun fact: Tenochtitlan fell in 1521. From 1603 onwards, large numbers of honest-to-god fricking Japanese Samurai came to Mexico from Japan to work as guardsmen and mercenaries. 

Ergo, it would be 100% historically accurate to write a story starring a quartet consisting of the child or grandchild of Aztec Noblemen, an escaped African slave, a Spanish Jew fleeing the Inquisition (which was relaxed in Mexico in 1606, for a time) and a Katana-wielding Samurai in Colonial Mexico.

independent.co.uk
African Union condemns US for 'taking our people as slaves' but not as refugees
The head of the African Union has criticised Donald Trump’s ban on immigration from some Muslim-majority countries, saying it presents “one of the greatest challenges” for the continent. As representatives of the AU’s 53 member states met in Addis Ababa for a two-day summit, the chief of its commission said the bloc was entering “very turbulent times” after the US President’s election.

i just said “OH SHIT” out loud. there it is. 

African slaves in Mexico

Angolan slaves made majority of the Africans in Mexico followed by São Toméan. During 1631 - 1640 Angolan slaves made 96.21% of the total African slave population in Mexico.

Christians, Blasphemers, and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century:


Bristol’s work is vital in that it is more attentive than earlier works have been to the African background of a population that was largely born in Africa, especially in focusing, using recent Africanist scholarship, on the appropriate areas of Africa. It is also important in that it pays full attention to the specific character of the seventeenth-century African cohort in Mexico that hailed from Christian Angola.

youtube

A Vanishing History: Gullah Geechee Nation

On the Sea Islands along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia, a painful chapter of American history is playing out again. 

These islands are home to the Gullah or Geechee people, the descendants of enslaved Africans who were brought to work at the plantations that once ran down the southern Atlantic coast. After the Civil War, many former slaves on the Sea Islands bought portions of the land where their descendants have lived and farmed for generations. That property, much of it undeveloped waterfront land, is now some of the most expensive real estate in the country.

But the Gullah are now discovering that land ownership on the Sea Islands isn’t quite what it seemed. Local landowners are struggling to hold on to their ancestral land as resort developers with deep pockets exploit obscure legal loopholes to force the property into court-mandated auctions. These tactics have successfully fueled a tourism boom that now attracts more than 2 million visitors a year. Gullah communities have all but disappeared, replaced by upscale resorts and opulent gated developments that new locals — golfers, tourists, and mostly white retirees — fondly call “plantations.”

Faced with an epic case of déjà vu, the Gullah are scrambling for solutions as their livelihood and culture vanish, one waterfront mansion at a time.

Beyond the obvious beauty and grace of our First Lady, one must consider the historic importance of this photo. Our history books sweep under the rug the fact that the White House was built by African American slaves. For the next 150 years the majority of the serving staff of the so called “people’s house” were African American. In 1901 Booker T. Washington was the first African American to be received there as a guest by Theodore Roosevelt, to the horror of Washington society. They are all at last vindicated in our first African American first family. Note…It is my humble opinion that no matter what family should occupy the White House after January 2017, and the following generations for that matter, they will never equal the style, debonair, and class as that of the Obamas.


Black Brits/Africans vs. African Americans

The whole Black Brits/Africans vs. Black Americans is utterly unfounded. I’m not sure if Blacks from London are jealous or something but there’s no other place in the world that produced the caliber of Black conscious civil rights leaders and movements the way America did. It’s not up for the debate, if we’re talking about numbers, the list of Black revolutionaries and movements from America are way higher than anywhere else, not only higher but massively successful as well (I can name about 25 from off the top of my head rn). This is so much so, that African natives would often study under African Americans, such as Professor William Leo Hasberry who was the teacher of Nigeria’s first President Nnmadi Azikiwe. African politicians and intellectuals would often come to America and study at Black founded Universities for education. Speaking of which the literacy rate amongst Black Americans is higher than anywhere else.

The truth is, all this argument trying to belittle African Americans have been bait traps because when you switch the narrative to African Americans, all of a sudden everyone can get on board, and we forget that for centuries Arabs enslaved East Africans and that populations of Arab nations consist of East Africans that are descendants of slaves. We forget that slaves were also sent to other parts of the world such as the Caribbean…

White supremacist don’t divide Blacks by nations, a Black is a Black to them and we all from Africa, yet on Twitter, as concentrated of a forum it is, we choose to divide ourselves & most of the hate I see is from Africans and Black Brits. I’ve seen really disturbing posts generalizing Black Americans as being ignorant of foreign politics. I post all this to say that these twitter beefs are extremely annoying (and not even accurate on most levels) and cause further division and is a distraction that is exactly what makes the enemy happy because when we divide ourselves it’s easier for them to get their way.

This is how many Black revolutionaries were killed and how many movements fell. Stay woke and don’t further divide yourselves. Coming together as allies kills the enemy who seek to keep all people of African descent down. All of our aims are liberation ✊🏾

theguardian.com
Migrants from west Africa being ‘sold in Libyan slave markets’
UN migration agency says selling of people is rife in African nation that has slid into violent chaos since overthrow of Gaddafi
By Emma Graham-Harrison

West African migrants are being bought and sold openly in modern-day slave markets in Libya, survivors have told a UN agency helping them return home.

Trafficked people passing through Libya have previously reported violence, extortion and slave labour. But the new testimony from the International Organization for Migration suggests that the trade in human beings has become so normalised that people are being traded in public.

“The latest reports of ‘slave markets’ for migrants can be added to a long list of outrages [in Libya],” said Mohammed Abdiker, IOM’s head of operation and emergencies. “The situation is dire. The more IOM engages inside Libya, the more we learn that it is a vale of tears for all too many migrants.”

America. If we look at the founding documents of America — the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights — they paint a picture of a beloved community. But every time throughout American history, when the majority of the people have tried to mold America into a beloved community, there’s always been a group of people who were in opposition.

So when America was founded, it was founded on the backs of enslaved Africans and the genocide of Native Americans. After a while, people got together and said, ‘Well, we’ve eliminated the Native Americas, and pushed them onto reservations, but we still have these African slaves here and we need to free them.’

So a group of people came about called abolitionists who opposed slavery, and other people fought them. The result, ultimately, was the Civil War. And then after the Civil War was the Reconstruction, and there were people who opposed that. That’s how we got domestic terrorist groups and racist laws here in America. And this continued right on down through the centuries until the modern era. And the modern era is what brings us here and now.

Because in the 20th Century, there were two, very important years: 1964 and 1965. In the year 1964, a law was enacted called the Civil Rights Act. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965. And then that was followed by the Immigration and Naturalization Act, opening up the doors of America for people from around the world — not just Europeans, but people who were Africans, people who are Arabs, people who are Southern Asians.

As a matter of fact, that 1965 law, and the opening of the doors, is how most of you got here.

So why do I mention this? I mention it because we are now in an era of oppositional designs to those two very important years. Right now, and for the past few years, there are a group of people in America who have been pushing back against Civil Rights Laws, who have been pushing back against the gains made in the area of voting rights, and now they’re pushing back against immigration.

So now we who are Muslims, Christians, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and people of other faiths in America, we stand in opposition to their opposition. They push back, we fight back. And if the people in power are not careful, they’re going to unleash the greatest demonstration of non-violent resistance in American history. Because the people in America are not going to stand for being taken back.

 Imam Talib Abdur-Rashid of the Islamic Brotherhood in Harlem in a sermon at a protest at JFK airport on Friday. Read his full sermon

follow @the-movemnt

What if America isn’t better than that? What if this was America all along?

Not the America that welcomed immigrant “huddled masses,” but the America that kidnapped African slaves and made them build a country, brick by brick and cotton field by cotton field. Not the America that lets women work and dress and worship as they please, but the America in which a man who sexually assaults one of them can be imprisoned for only three months. Not the America pulled along by hope but the America pushed along by aggression.

The people who were truly shocked by the outcome are those who have never experienced certain behaviors of the citizenry. Good men don’t realize that when women are walking alone, every single block can feel like a gantlet of harassment. It’s no wonder they don’t realize this — bad men make sure to treat women politely when women are accompanied by male friends. Good white people don’t fully understand why people of color fear encounters with the police, because the police have been mostly kind to them.

vanityfair.com
American Gods: Exclusive First Look at Mr. Nancy as Orlando Jones Talks Anansi Boys Spin-Off
Inside the mind of the African trickster god.
By Joanna Robinson

“Like many self-described “nerds,” actor Orlando Jones came across Neil Gaiman’s sci-fi/fantasy classic American Gods well before Starz decided to turn it into a series from genre TV buffs Michael Green and Bryan Fuller. But despite his Gaiman love, Jones never expected in his wildest dreams he’d land the role of Mr. Nancy/Anansi—one of the book and show’s many imported old-world deities vying for the increasingly fractured attention span of modern-day Americans. And Jones is attacking the role of the arachnid African trickster god with all the glee you would expect from a true fan. Mr. Nancy/Anansi is the only one of Gaiman’s American gods so far to warrant a spin-off novel—2005’s Anansi Boys—and speaking with Vanity Fair, Jones reveals his character might get the TV spin-off treatment as well. 

“But that’s all putting the cart well before the horse. American Gods has yet to premiere its first episode on Starz—but when it does, at the end of April, it’s Jones’s character who gets the splashiest intro. Fans of the novel will remember the “Coming to America” vignettes peppered throughout Gaiman’s book that explore how—over centuries of belief—immigrants have brought various gods to American shores. In the show, these vignettes become pre-credits cold opens plunked at the front of most episodes. Jones’s Mr. Nancy lucks out with the most memorable of those stories, set on board an African slaving ship bound for American shores. 

“With a fiery, showstopping speech, Anansi—clad in an anachronistically sharp plaid suit and occasionally morphing into his spider form—uses the full force of his charismatic power of persuasion to inspire an uprising among his followers. It‘s both incredibly socially relevant and one of the most memorable introductions a TV character has had in a long time. As Jones explains, it may also be a hint of much more Mr. Nancy to come.”

Hoodoo =/= Voodoo
  • Hoodoo= various eclectic forms of African American witchcraft that draws from traditional African, Native American and even Christian religious and spiritual practice. Also commonly known as root work  and conjuring.
  • Voodoo=a religion based around the West African Vodun tradition brought by West African slaves involving specific deities and religious ceremonies and worship.  Priests and priestesses would invoke these deities to perform spells and magic for their clients and followers.

Voodoo is a closed religious practice (though I know that there are priests in the US who teach and initiate interested parties.)

Hoodoo is a term for various magical practices from many religious backgrounds and can be studied and practiced by any interested party, though I would be sure to check your sources as with all magical research.

Jordan Anderson or Jourdon Anderson (1825 – 1907) was an African-American former slave noted for a letter he dictated, known as “Letter from a Freedman to His Old Master”

It was addressed to his former master, Colonel P. H. Anderson, in response to the Colonel’s request that Jordan return to the plantation to help restore the farm after the disarray of the war. It has been described as a rare example of documented “slave humor” of the period and its deadpan style has been compared to the satire of Mark Twain.

Dayton, Ohio, August 7, 1865

To my Old Master, Colonel P.H. Anderson, Big Spring, Tennessee

Sir: I got your letter and was glad to find that you had not forgotten Jourdan, and that you wanted me to come back and live with you again, promising to do better for me than anybody else can. I have often felt uneasy about you. I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this for harboring Rebs they found at your house. I suppose they never heard about your going to Col. Martin’s to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable. Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. It would do me good to go back to the dear old home again and see Miss Mary and Miss Martha and Allen, Esther, Green, and Lee. Give my love to them all, and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world, if not in this. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital, but one of the neighbors told me Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.

I want to know particularly what the good chance is you propose to give me. I am doing tolerably well here; I get $25 a month, with victuals and clothing; have a comfortable home for Mandy (the folks here call her Mrs. Anderson), and the children, Milly Jane and Grundy, go to school and are learning well; the teacher says Grundy has a head for a preacher. They go to Sunday-School, and Mandy and me attend church regularly. We are kindly treated; sometimes we overhear others saying, “Them colored people were slaves” down in Tennessee. The children feel hurt when they hear such remarks, but I tell them it was no disgrace in Tennessee to belong to Col. Anderson. Many darkies would have been proud, as I used to was, to call you master. Now, if you will write and say what wages you will give me, I will be better able to decide whether it would be to my advantage to move back again.

As to my freedom, which you say I can have, there is nothing to be gained on that score, as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost- Marshal- General of the Department of Nashville. Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you are sincerely disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you. This will make us forget and forgive old scores, and rely on your justice and friendship in the future. I served you faithfully for thirty-two years and Mandy twenty years. At $25 a month for me, and $2 a week for Mandy, our earnings would amount to $11,680. Add to this the interest for the time our wages has been kept back and deduct what you paid for our clothing and three doctor’s visits to me, and pulling a tooth for Mandy, and the balance will show what we are in justice entitled to. Please send the money by Adams Express, in care of V. Winters, esq., Dayton, Ohio. If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past we can have little faith in your promises in the future. We trust the good Maker has opened your eyes to the wrongs which you and your fathers have done to me and my fathers, in making us toil for you for generations without recompense. Here I draw my wages every Saturday night, but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the Negroes any more than for the horses and cows. Surely there will be a day of reckoning for those who defraud the laborer of his hire.

In answering this letter please state if there would be any safety for my Milly and Jane, who are now grown up and both good-looking girls. You know how it was with poor Matilda and Catherine. I would rather stay here and starve, and die if it comes to that, than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters. You will also please state if there has been any schools opened for the colored children in your neighborhood, the great desire of my life now is to give my children an education, and have them form virtuous habits.

P.S.—Say howdy to George Carter, and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me.

From your old servant, Jourdan Anderson

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordan_Anderson

The Loyalist and African American Escape from Yorktown

On the 19th of October 1781, Washington won his most famous victory following the capitulation of the Crown Forces garrisoning Yorktown, Virginia. For Earl Charles Cornwallis and his fellow officers, defeat meant bitter embarrassment and shame. For their British and Hessian soldiers it meant the same, coupled with the potential of spending the rest of the war in the miserable conditions of an American prison camp. For the Loyalists and African Americans, however, the defeat spelled the potential for death or enslavement. 

Cornwallis was well aware of this, and sought immunity for Loyalists as part of the tenth article of capitulation. Washington refused this article, leaving Cornwallis with no choice other than to abandon formal attempts to negotiate his allies to safety. The British, however, did not give up on more clandestine means of escape. Washington permitted that a single British sloop, the Bonetta, be allowed to sail to British-held New York without being searched, for the purpose of carrying dispatches. Numerous African Americans and Loyalists were smuggled onboard. The ruse was almost discovered where a Patriot commander, General Nelson, demanded he be allowed to inspect the sloop for blacks and “enemies of the state.” Nelson’s French allies, however, insisted that he adhere to the articles of capitulation, and let the sloop go. It reached New York safely, though “guards were placed along the shore to prevent runaways from escaping to the ship, although it was feared many were already hidden onboard.” The Governor of Virginia also wrote angrily to Cornwallis, claiming ‘negroes are attempting to escape by getting onboard the Bonetta… [where] they will endeavour to lie concealed from your lordship until the vessel sails.’ It is not known if Cornwallis ever replied. Washington himself was only able to recover two of the slaves who had fled his plantation. 

The British also hit upon another ingenious means of smuggling ex-slaves to freedom. Under the articles, officer’s servants were not to be separated from their masters, and were allowed to travel with them on parole, and subsequent freedom. An eyewitness recorded that the ships bearing the British officers were “packed together, with two servants to each officer.” Another commented on fifty men and women “whose faces were hidden” - Americans who had deserted the Revolutionary cause, and knew they faced the potential of execution if caught. 

Cornwallis was known to have 4000 or 5000 black recruits at Yorktown and Portsmouth. Smallpox killed about sixty percent of those that caught the disease, but in this case some were inoculated against it, so perhaps half the runaways were spared, though wounds and typhus also took a huge toll. Maybe 2000 survived. It is impossible to establish what happened to them. A proportion of the survivors, perhaps half, must have been forced back into slavery.

theloveofyou  asked:

Is this not all the same if a black african girl were to be dating someone from the Middle East? It's all the same stuff, isn't it?

I think this is a really interesting question actually, because it implicitly tries to compare and contrast the effects of the Arab slave trade with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Are the power dynamics of a black African woman dating an Arab guy in the Middle East similar to that of a white guy in the US or Europe dating a black woman from their country?

(Image description: Egyptian slavemaster and Waswahili slave)

What we do know is that the Arab slave trade predated the European trans-Atlantic slave trade by several hundred years. We also know that there is a very long history of a complete denigration and dehumanization of black people in Arab countries. In Islam, it was illegal to enslave a member of faith. But black skin was so associated with slavery in the Arab world that these rules were regularly bypassed to enslave Muslim Africans anyway. Also, most of those enslaved were African women who were sold into sex slavery for Arab men.

The poetry and writings of Antarah ibn Shaddah, a black pre-Islamic folk hero confirm that antiblackness in some form or other in the Arab world is entrenched and goes back far more than a millenium. Born in 525 AD to a noble Arab tribesman and an Ethiopian slave woman, Antarah was subjected to regular humiliation, including the betrayal of his father who denied his paternity and considered him to be another slave living in his household. It was only much later in his adult life that his father acknowledged his paternity and liberated him from slavery. And the legacy of this dehumanizing antiblackness continues to this day in the Arab world. More than 200,000 South Sudanese were enslaved during the Second Sudanese war alone. 150,000 Ethiopians were just deported on a whim by the Saudi Arabian government. And black Africans are regularly subjected to dehumanizing treatment and brutality across the Arab world

(Image description: Arab captors with black Zanzibar workers)

In all it is estimated that at least 8 million Africans were subjected to the Arab slave trade. Other estimates range north of 20 million. These numbers are comparable to those of the trans-Atlantic slave trade depending on the scholars you read. There are large black communities in the Arab world today as a legacy of this slave trade and recent migration. Numbers of descendants from original slaves were limited by an incredibly high death rate and the fact that black African male slaves were regularly castrated and made into eunuchs for their Arab masters. Black people in the Arab world include former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, who was of Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian ancestry

(Image description: Portrait of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat)

Sadat was regularly ridiculed as being “Nasser’s black poodle” and people insisted that he “did not look Egyptian enough.” All despite the fact that Arabs didn’t colonize Egypt until the 600s AD and so could be identity checked themselves by black Egyptians. 

If you would like to see more examples of the rampant antiblackness in the Arab world, see these tweets.

Within the Arab world today Arab supremacy is a basic fact of life with incredibly dehumanizing effects on black Africans and indigenous Amazigh peoples in particular. And especially when we consider the fact that the Arab slave trade targeted black African women especially for sex slavery, the parallels in the power dynamics between a black woman and white man in the West and a black African woman and an Arab man within the Arab world today are likely a lot more similar than one might realize at first glance.

No one cares about black men more than black women and
Noone cares about black women more than black women
—  Black Matriarchal Martyrdom & The Awakening, Black Patriarchal Individualism & Inevitable Self Genocide by Honey Williams