african-slaves

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J. Marion Sims is called “the Father of Gynecology” due to his experiments on enslaved women in Alabama who were often submitted as guinea pigs by their plantation owners who could not use them for sexual pleasure.

He kept seven women as subjects for four years, but left a trail of death and permanently traumatized black women.

Anarcha was one of the women Sims experimented upon. A detailed history of this monster is in Harriet Washington’s book, Medical Apartheid.

Sims believed that Africans were numb to pain and operated on the women without anesthesia or antiseptic. The procedures usually happened this way.

Black female slaves who were guinea pigs would hold one subject down as Sims performed hysterectomies, tubal ligation, and other procedures to examine various female disorders.

Sims also performed a host of operations on other slave populations. The following excerpt details his “practice” on enslaved infants.

Sims began to exercise his freedom to experiment on his captives. He took custody of slave infants and, with a shoemaker’s awl, tried to pry the bones of their skulls into proper alignment.

We can only imagine what they endured at the hands of Sims and what horror an enslaved woman must have felt at the news that she was being sent to him for treatment. Surely rumors must have run rampant among enslaved communities about what he did to women there. All over South Carolina, Sims has been honored and memorialized with statues and plaques. Buildings, hospitals, schools and streets bare his name. While it is impossible to negate the historical context of his racial, class and gender biases, shouldn’t we agree to apply some standard of humanity to those we choose to honor?

African slaves in Mexico

Angolan slaves made majority of the Africans in Mexico followed by São Toméan. During 1631 - 1640 Angolan slaves made 96.21% of the total African slave population in Mexico.

Christians, Blasphemers, and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century:


Bristol’s work is vital in that it is more attentive than earlier works have been to the African background of a population that was largely born in Africa, especially in focusing, using recent Africanist scholarship, on the appropriate areas of Africa. It is also important in that it pays full attention to the specific character of the seventeenth-century African cohort in Mexico that hailed from Christian Angola.

I don’t know why some white people think this is THEIR country.. Your ancestors invaded this country & slaughtered millions of Native Americans who lived here before these people came and brought Africans as slaves into this country and treat them like crap for years, then you want Latinos to go back to their countries when they do all the hard labor work while you sit back on your porch and drink your pinot grigio so you won’t break a nail. If you honestly think that immigrants are taking over jobs in America, then I feel really sorry for you because that just proves you’re too lazy to get a job of your own so what rights do you have to tell someone they can’t have a job yet you’re not willing to do that job either? This country was meant for people all over the world to come here to start a new life and live the AMERICAN dream, so what gives you the right to tell someone of color to get out and say we don’t “belong” here when you’re ancestors didn’t even live here in the first place?

Southernization and the Role of Slaves in Asia and America

                        

In Lynda Schaffer’s article, “Southernization,” she describes southernization and westernization as developments that occur in one geographic area that spread to other places to change them in similar ways.  At least one aspect of the southernization of Southern Asia led to what was arguably the darkest period in the history of the southern United States.  

Sugar became very important and valuable for trade after Indians developed  a process to make granulated sugar crystals out of sugarcane juice, making it much easier to store for long periods and transport great distances.  By the year 1000 C.E., sugar and cotton had become important crops for Southern Asia, contributing tremendous wealth to this region.   “The Arabs were the first to import large numbers of enslaved Africans in order to produce sugar.”*  At about the same time, cotton became used almost exclusively for clothing of the Chinese people as well as for canvas sales for ships.  The demand for and profitability of cotton became so great that African slaves were brought to Asia to plant and pick cotton as well. 

Hundreds of years later, plantation owners in the southern United States found that these crops grew well in the South and could bring similar wealth.  Unfortunately, many of these plantation owners in the South instituted a similar cruel practice of enslaving Africans to plant and cultivate these valuable crops for them.

Written by John Mathews for History Salon

Sources:

http://www.gettysburg.edu/dotAsset/2561604.pdf  (Accessed September 10, 2011).

*Shaffer, Lynda. “Southernization,”  Journal of World History, no. 5 (Spring 1994): 13. http://www.gettysburg.edu/dotAsset/2561604.pdf  (accessed September 10, 2011).

Source for picture: 

http://medias.photodeck.com/715ea728-3e18-11e0-89c2-1b52705de055/000731_medium.jpg  (Accessed September 10, 2011).

Muslim slaves in the Brazilian slave trade

“Gilberto Freyre noted the major differences between these groups. Some Sudanese peoples, such as Hausa, Fula and others were Muslim, spoke Arabic and many of them could read and write in this language. Take note that among Muslim slaves were brought from northern Mozambique. Freyre noted that many slaves were better educated than their masters, because many Muslim slaves were literate in Arabic, while many Portuguese Brazilian masters could not even read or write in Portuguese. These slaves of greater Arab and Berber influence were largely sent to Bahia. These Muslim slaves, known as Malê in Brazil, produced one of the greatest slave revolts in the Americas, when in 1835 they tried to take the control of Salvador, until then the largest city of the American continent, and the all of the New World . The event was known as the Malê Revolt. The most notorious slave rebellion occurred in 1835, when Muslim slaves tried to kill whites and mulattos considered traitors in Salvador, Bahia and free all slaves in Bahia.

Despite the large influx of Muslim slaves, most of the slaves in Brazil were brought from the Bantu regions of the Atlantic coast of Africa where today Congo and Angola are located, and also from Mozambique. In general, these people lived in either tribes, kingdoms or city-states. The people from Congo had developed agriculture, raised livestock, domesticated animals such as goat, pig, chicken and dog and produced sculpture in wood. Some groups from Angola were nomadic and did not know agriculture.”

taken from Wikipedia 

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Africatown- The small community of Africatown outside Mobile, Alabama was the home of the last Africans imported as slaves to the United States. In 1860 brothers Byrnes and Timothy Meaher concocted a plan to import slaves to the United States, despite the fact the importation of slaves had been outlawed since 1808. They succeeded in buying over 100 slaves from what is now Benin, Ghana, and Togo. Upon arriving in Mobile the Meaher brothers where caught and the slaves where confiscated, although the outbreak of the Civil War led to no charges ever being filed against them. Following the end of the Civil War, the freed slaves created their own community, continuing their language, religion and traditions; appointing a man named Charlie Poteet as their chief and Jabez as their medicine man. However by the 1940s, the last members of the original community had died and the community began to abandon it’s African traditions and assimilating into the general African-American community. Today Africatown is on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places, educating visitors on what life was like in the early community.

Note: In 1928, folklorist Zora Neale Hurston interviewed the members of the Africatown community, creating a short film which can be viewed here. The man first shown in the film is Cudjoe Kazoola Lewis, the last member of the original community to die, and his appearance here is believed to be the only moving image that exists in the Western hemisphere of an African who was part of the transatlantic slave trade

academia.edu
The Myth of “Irish Slaves” in the Colonies

Recent years have seen the marked growth of the “Irish slaves” narrative, which is itself a subset of the “white slavery” myth. This myth has always existed in ultranationalist and white supremacist circles, and their promotion of it frequently

For any and everyone that use the Irish to bash black people that talk about chattel slavery or the legacy of anti blackness in the western world. For any and everyone that use the Irish to downplay the conditions of African slaves and the event that came after chattel slavery ended. For any and every anti black “white” person that uses the Irish to perpetuate anti blackness and be complicit in it. 

Read

-trixstra

‘illegal immigrants shouldn’t be here!’

your ancestors weren’t saying that when they were importing millions of africans to be their slaves. *sips tea*

america.aljazeera.com
Amsterdam mayor: Black Pete character will change | Al Jazeera America

The blackfaced, Afro-wigged sidekick to Dutch Santa Claus will be phased out over concerns of racial insult

Because “tradition” might be the worst excuse for continued racism. "Tradition" suggests a capacity to change for the better, but a conscious refusal to do so.

I’m lookin’ at you, Confederate Flag-wavers…

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Voodoo became known when African slaves were taken from West Africa to Haiti.
It is possible that the name “voodoo” came from the french words “vous deux” simple translated in “two”.
This is for the believe in the two things.
Good and bad, life and death,…

The most clear form of Voodoo still is in Haiti.

The first Voodoo movie appeared in 1932. (The start of a wrong vision of Voodoo, just like what happened with Native Americans).

The first ’ picture’ is called a Veve and it represents Papa Legba, the Loa (God or a good spirit) of the Afterlife.

The second picture is a Voodoo market in Lomé, Togo.

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Spaniards, African slaves, and indigenous Indians in Colonial Mexico forged a unique ethnic blend known as ‘Afro Mexicans’

This multiple-part series will unravel the little-known history of how Mexico’s 15th-century assimilation of Spaniards, indigenous Indians, and African slaves into Afrakan Mexico,” eventually led to the founding of Los Angeles by Afro Mexicans and Mestizos in the 17th century when California was still under the rule of Mexico. Even though the Afro imprint in Mexico is unraveling more and more as time moves on, the reality of the truth is still largely mired in a Shadow History because the masses do not frequent libraries and this truth has never been taught as a history lesson in Mexico, much less as historic text in the U.S. To now, this invaluable historic truth has largely been available as scholarly works. The Compton Herald sought out this history, scaled down its volume from multiple scholarly sources, and now present it in nine parts for public consumption — Jarrette

THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE of ancient Spanish America were the Aztecs, Mayans, Olmecs, Toltecs, Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, who inhabited a geographical area encompassing present-day Florida and much of what is now the Western U.S., Mexico, and parts of the Caribbean. These ancient peoples comprised the pre-Columbian indigenous civilizations before the arrival of all-conquering Spain as a colonizer of the region prior to the 16th century.  These indigenous natives constituted modern-day Mexico’s “First Root.”Years following Spain’s conquest and colonization of the region — which included Central America, and the northern rim of South America, according to scholar/ historians, the indigenous population was all but decimated by previously unknown diseases from Europe. The remaining indigenous natives assimilated over time with the Spaniards — who were the “Second Root,” — producing a mixed race called mestizos, which eventually evolved as the most influential culture in the nation, dominating every facet of Mexican society in business and government to the present day.

Mexico’s race mixing did not end there with the Spaniards and indigenous culture. Though scant historical records exist about the acculturation of Africans in Mexico, the introduction of hundreds of thousands of African slaves — the ethnic “Third Root”into Mexico in the 14th and 15th centuries cannot be denied. This process of interracial mixing in Mexico became known as mestizaje.

But due to the suppressive efforts of the mestizo-dominant government through an inexact census, little is known of Mexico’s Third Root, or African ancestry as scholar/historians have come to identify Mexico’s African slave imprint, hence, Black Mexico


To a lesser degree, African-Mexicans also include zambanos, a mix of Africans and indigenous natives — more acculturation with scant documentation by the Mexican government due to the lack of investigative intrusion, analysis, and archiving.


Like America where White colonialists from England spearheaded the direction of the nation, the European colonial influence of Spain dictated the political and economic direction of the country with African and indigenous inroads minimal at best. The major difference is White settlers from England did not assimilate with America’s indigenous natives and African slaves who would come later, whereas the opposite was true in colonial Mexico.

The aforementioned history came painstakingly through the efforts of researchers and historians who traveled to the inner reaches of Mexico to locate the regions there bearing indelible imprints originating from across the Atlantic to West African shores. This multiple-part feature leans heavily on the scholarly work of historians here, and in Mexico to expose the shrouded history of African Mexico’s link to the African continent.

Photographer Tony Gleaton photographed visual evidence in a stunning photo essay of African Mexicans titled, “Africa’s Legacy In Mexico.” Images of the present day descendants of the African slaves brought to New Spain between 1500 and 1700 — are on display in the Smithsonian Museum as part of an exhibit titled, “Migrations in History,” which explores the nature and complexity of the movement of peoples, cultures, ideas, and objects.

  From 1982 through 1988, Gleaton traveled extensively in Mexico, eventually befriending the Tarahumara Indians of northern Mexico where he came and went for nearly two years before traveling to Guerrero and Oaxaca, photographing the people there, whose darkened faces, Gleaton said quietly testified of their African past.

“The photographs are as much an effort to define my own life, with its heritage encompassing Africa and Europe,” Gleaton wrote in an essay, “as it is an endeavor to throw open the discourse on the broader aspects of ‘mestizaje,’ — the assimilation of Africans and Europeans with indigenous [Mexicans]. I came to photograph this area just south of Acapulco, a place I have come to view simply as a present-day reminder of African Africa’s legacy in Mexico.”


Bobby Vaughn, professor of anthropology at Notre Dame de Namur University in Belmont, Calif. has amassed a photo collection as part of his studies of African-Mexicans of the Costa Chica regions of Guerrero, Mexico and Oaxaca, Mexico. Both areas have significant populations of African-Mexicans, who settled in the area as escaped slaves. Vaughn’s Web site and photo galleries report his extensive studies on the culture, history, and unique experience of Mexicans of African descent. He writes on his website: “One of the research questions that most interests me is ‘How do African people in Mexico understand and live their African identity — assuming they have a African identity at all?’ ”

The Spaniards were cruel taskmasters and drove the African slaves to work under horrendous conditions on the sugar plantations of coastal Veracruz. Attempting escape from their captors was the only viable option for the enslaved Africans. Successful escapees fled to the high country where jungle and canyons could conceal them. Indigenous natives also fled to these remote areas and joined forces with the escaped African slaves, which led to inter-mixing and the seed of the zambano culture

http://petitions.moveon.org/sign/banning-exonyms