african slave trading

theloveofyou  asked:

Is this not all the same if a black african girl were to be dating someone from the Middle East? It's all the same stuff, isn't it?

I think this is a really interesting question actually, because it implicitly tries to compare and contrast the effects of the Arab slave trade with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Are the power dynamics of a black African woman dating an Arab guy in the Middle East similar to that of a white guy in the US or Europe dating a black woman from their country?

(Image description: Egyptian slavemaster and Waswahili slave)

What we do know is that the Arab slave trade predated the European trans-Atlantic slave trade by several hundred years. We also know that there is a very long history of a complete denigration and dehumanization of black people in Arab countries. In Islam, it was illegal to enslave a member of faith. But black skin was so associated with slavery in the Arab world that these rules were regularly bypassed to enslave Muslim Africans anyway. Also, most of those enslaved were African women who were sold into sex slavery for Arab men.

The poetry and writings of Antarah ibn Shaddah, a black pre-Islamic folk hero confirm that antiblackness in some form or other in the Arab world is entrenched and goes back far more than a millenium. Born in 525 AD to a noble Arab tribesman and an Ethiopian slave woman, Antarah was subjected to regular humiliation, including the betrayal of his father who denied his paternity and considered him to be another slave living in his household. It was only much later in his adult life that his father acknowledged his paternity and liberated him from slavery. And the legacy of this dehumanizing antiblackness continues to this day in the Arab world. More than 200,000 South Sudanese were enslaved during the Second Sudanese war alone. 150,000 Ethiopians were just deported on a whim by the Saudi Arabian government. And black Africans are regularly subjected to dehumanizing treatment and brutality across the Arab world

(Image description: Arab captors with black Zanzibar workers)

In all it is estimated that at least 8 million Africans were subjected to the Arab slave trade. Other estimates range north of 20 million. These numbers are comparable to those of the trans-Atlantic slave trade depending on the scholars you read. There are large black communities in the Arab world today as a legacy of this slave trade and recent migration. Numbers of descendants from original slaves were limited by an incredibly high death rate and the fact that black African male slaves were regularly castrated and made into eunuchs for their Arab masters. Black people in the Arab world include former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, who was of Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian ancestry

(Image description: Portrait of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat)

Sadat was regularly ridiculed as being “Nasser’s black poodle” and people insisted that he “did not look Egyptian enough.” All despite the fact that Arabs didn’t colonize Egypt until the 600s AD and so could be identity checked themselves by black Egyptians. 

If you would like to see more examples of the rampant antiblackness in the Arab world, see these tweets.

Within the Arab world today Arab supremacy is a basic fact of life with incredibly dehumanizing effects on black Africans and indigenous Amazigh peoples in particular. And especially when we consider the fact that the Arab slave trade targeted black African women especially for sex slavery, the parallels in the power dynamics between a black woman and white man in the West and a black African woman and an Arab man within the Arab world today are likely a lot more similar than one might realize at first glance.

African Union criticizes US for ‘taking many of our people as slaves’ and not taking refugees

[IMAGE: African Heads of State pose for a group photo ahead of the start of the 28th African Union summit in Addis Ababa on 30 January, 2017.]

The head of the African Union has criticized Donald Trump’s ban on immigration from some Muslim-majority countries, saying it presents “one of the greatest challenges” for the continent.

As representatives of the AU’s 53 member states met in Addis Ababa for a two-day summit, the chief of its commission said the bloc was entering “very turbulent times” after the US President’s election.

“The very country to which many of our people were taken as slaves during the transatlantic slave trade has now decided to ban refugees from some of our countries,” said Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma.

“What do we do about this? Indeed, this is one of the greatest challenges to our unity and solidarity.”

Mr Trump’s executive order prevented people with passports from three African nations – Libya, Somalia and Sudan – from travelling to the US. It also blocked visas for citizens from four Middle Eastern countries – Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Iran.

The President has also suspended all US refugee programmes for 120 days, and ended the flow of Syrian refugees to America indefinitely.

Also speaking in Ethiopia, the UN Secretary General commended African countries for opening their borders to refugees and people fleeing violence while other parts of the world, including the developed West, close boundaries and build walls.

Antonio Guterres, attending his first AU summit as the UN chief, said: “African nations are among the world’s largest and most generous hosts of refugees.

“African borders remain open for those in need of protection when so many borders are being closed, even in the most developed countries in the world.”

Mr Guterres didn’t make a direct reference to the recent executive orders signed by Mr Trump, which also included a commitment to build a wall along the Mexican border, but his comment drew enthusiastic applause from hundreds of African leaders, officials and dignitaries who attended the opening of the summit, the Associated Press reported.

The only thing that gets me shit fucking arse over tits angry immediately is the denial of Irish slavery and the history of how we were genocided and forced to run or die.

No, it was not because of our skin colour, but we weren’t considered human.

It is not comparable to the African slave trade, or the genocides of WW2, but it happened and it’s disgusting and disrespectful to try and erase over 800 years of horrendous pain, suffering, and the destruction of our culture.

No one is saying “ohhoho whites were slaves too” here, because our rotten history is not defined by race relations. The British knew we were white, but we were white animals. Barbarians. Subhuman, and only good for ploughing fields, raping, and beating the shit out of.

Don’t misunderstand tho, yeah a lot of us were herded like cattle and sent to work in places like the Caribbean too. Some worked the fields and others were told to hold the whip, and that was disgraceful. Yes there were Irish who were bent over backwards to screw over the other slaves to earn Master’s favour. We know this, I know this, and would not deny it despite the shame that comes with it.

But for every one slave who got “lucky” (I cringe at using that term) there were countless breaking themselves in the heat or collapsing, hollow-cheeked with distended bellies, back home in Ireland, dying by the literal thousands from starvation that the scumfuck Brits just let happen. “Sure they were only fuckin Toms and Paddys anyway.”

Please remember, next time you want to deny anything bad ever happened to us, it was not long ago there were signs all over America depicting “no blacks, no dogs, no Irish.”

We wouldn’t erase or deny your history so please don’t do it to us

Like…I love Hamilton; don’t get me wrong. But I think it’s also important to remember that Washington and the Schuylers owned slaves and that Hamilton wasn’t particularly anti-slavery.

Just as long as you don’t take the overly optimistic picture that LMM paints and assume it’s 100% historically accurate, it’s okay to be part of the fandom or enjoy the music.

But those (mostly white) people who are talking over actual black people who have problems with the musical need to chill. The Founding Fathers are not your little cinnamon rolls. They were human beings who lived in a really racist society that benefited from the African slave trade, and were, therefore, products of their time. Deal with it.

i understand if people are fuzzy on the African side of the slave trade. it’s contested how it functioned and not well taught in American schools. but like what are they teaching in schools if they don’t think America ever bought slaves?

While Europeans targeted men in West Africa the Arab trade primarily targeted the women of East Africa to serve as domestic slaves, wet nannies and sex-slaves in the infamous harems and This trade trickled over millennia is estimated to have taken more than 10 million African via the Swahili coast to India, Saudi Arabia, China, and Turkey and also via the Trans-Saharan route to North Africa and the Mediterranean, where in slave markets such as Ceuta, Morocco Africans were purchased to work as domestic servants in Spain, Portugal and other Western European countries
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Sharing my reading tonight.
Middle Passage Monday…sigh.

This is by far one of the heaviest nights of the week for me. Doing research on the specifics of the slave trade and the gruesome middle passage our ancestors endured before even making it to the “New World”

So many emotions. This is going to be difficult. Share this information far and wide.

Confronting Anti-Black Racism in The Arab World (Important Read)


In response to an essay I wrote recently regarding the “essential blackness” of the Palestinian struggle, I received this reaction, among others: “What about Arab anti-black racism? Or the Arab slave trade?”

The Arab slave trade is a fact of history and anti-black racism is a fact of current reality, a shameful thing that must be confronted in Arab societies. Though I claim no expertise on the subject, I think that applying notions of racism as it exists in the US will preclude a real understanding of the subject in the Arab world.

I spent much of much of my youth in the Arab world and I do not recall having a race consciousness until I came to the United States at the age of 13. My knowledge of Arab anti-black racism comes predominantly from Arab Americans. Like other immigrant communities, they adopt the prevailing racist sentiments of the power structure in the US, which decidedly holds African-Americans in contempt.

This attitude is also becoming more prevalent in Arab countries for various reasons, but mostly because Arab governments, particularly those that import foreign labour from Africa and Southeast Asia, have failed to implement or enforce anti-discrimination and anti-exploitation laws.

In many Arab nations, including Kuwait where I was born, workers are lured into menial jobs where their passports are confiscated upon arrival and they are forced into humiliating and often inhuman working conditions. They have little to no protection under the law and are particularly vulnerable to exploitation, including extraordinarily long working hours, withholding of salaries, sexual, mental, and physical abuse, and denial of travel.

The recent case of Alem Dechesa brought to light the horrors faced by migrant workers in Lebanon. Dechesa, a domestic worker from Ethiopia, committed suicide after suffering terrible mental and physical abuse at the hands of her Lebanese employers, whose savage beating of her in front of the Ethiopian Consulate went viral last year.

Defining beauty

An extension to Arab anti-black racism is an aspiration to all that our former - and current - colonisers possess. Individuals aspire to what is powerful and rich, and the images of that power and wealth have light skin, straight hair, small noses, ruddy cheeks and tall, skinny bodies. That image rejects melanin-rich skin, coiled hair, broad or pointy noses, short stature, broad hips and big legs. So we, too, reject these features, despising them in others and in ourselves as symbols of inferiority, laziness, and poverty. That’s why the anglicising industries of skin bleaching and hair straightening are so profitable.

And yet, when Palestine went to the UN for recognition of statehood, the vast majority of nations who voted yes were southern nations. The same is true when Palestine asked for admission to UNESCO. In fact, when the US cut off funding to UNESCO in response to its members’ democratic vote to admit Palestine, it was the African nation of Gabon that immediately stepped up with a $2m donation to UNESCO to help offset the loss of income.

It was not Saudi Arabia, or Kuwait, or Qatar, or Lebanon, or Sweden, or France. It was Gabon. How many Palestinians know that, much less expressed gratitude for it?

So concerned are Palestinians with what the European Union and the United States think of us. So engrossed are we in grovelling for their favour and handouts as they support a system of Jewish supremacy pushing our ancient society into extinction. We dance like clowns any time a European leader spares us a thought. Have we no sense of history? No sense of pride? No comprehension of who is truly standing with us and who is sabotaging us?

In a world order that peddles notions of entire continents or regions as irreducible monoliths, the conversation among Arabs becomes a dichotomous “Arab” versus “African”, ignoring millennia of shared histories ranging from extensive trade and commerce, to the horrors of the Arab slave trade, to the solidarity of African-Arab anti-colonial unity, to the current state of ignorance that does not know history and cannot connect the dots when it comes to national liberation struggles.

Arab slave trade

When I was researching the subject of the Arab slave trade, I came upon a veritable treasure of a website established by The African Holocaust Society, or Mafaa [Swahili for “holocaust”], a non-profit organisation of scholars, artists, filmmakers, academics, and activists dedicated to reclaiming the narratives of African histories, cultures, and identities. Included in this great body of scholarly works is a comprehensive section on the Arab slave trade, as well as the Jewish slave trade, African-Arab relations over the centuries, and more, by Owen Alik Shahadah, an activist, scholar and filmmaker.

Reading this part of our shared history, we can see how a large proportion of Arabs, including those among us who harbour anti-black racism, are the sons and daughters of African women, who were kidnapped from Eastern African nations as sex slaves.

Unlike the European slave trade, the Arab slave trade was not an important feature of Arab economies and it predominantly targeted women, who became members of harems and whose children were full heirs to their father’s names, legacies and fortunes, without regard to their physical features. The enslaved were not bought and sold as chattel the way we understand the slave trade here, but were captured in warfare, or kidnapped outright and hauled across the Sahara.

Race was not a defining line and enslaved peoples were not locked into a single fate, but had opportunity for upward mobility though various means, including bearing children or conversion to Islam. No-one knows the true numbers of how many African women were enslaved by Arabs, but one need only look at ourselves to see the shadows of these African mothers who gave birth to us and lost their African identities.

But while African scholars at the Mafaa Society make important distinctions between the Arab and European slave trades, enslavement of human beings is a horror of incomprehensible proportions by any standard, and that’s what it was in the Arab world as it was - or is - anywhere. There are some who argue that the Arab slave traders were themselves indistinguishable from those whom they enslaved because the word “Arab” had cultural relevance, not racial.

One-way street

This argument goes hand-in-hand with the discredited excuse that Africans themselves were involved in the slave trade, with warring tribes capturing and selling each other. But no matter how you look at it, the slave trade was a one-way street, with Africans always the enslaved victims. I know of no African tribe that kidnapped Europeans and put them in bondage for generations; nor do I know of an African tribe that captured Arab women for centuries and made them sex slaves.

I think humanity has truly never known a holocaust of greater magnitude, savagery, or longevity than that perpetrated against the peoples of Africa. This Mafaa has never been fully acknowledged and certainly never atoned for - not that the wounds or enduring legacies of turning human beings into chattel for centuries can ever be fully comprehended or atoned for. But one must try, because just as we inherit privilege from our ancestors, so do we inherit their sins and the responsibility for those sins.

Gaddafi’s role

The late Colonel Muammar Gaddafi understood this and he used his power and wealth to try to redeem our shared history. He was the first Arab leader to apologise on behalf of Arab peoples to our African brothers and sisters for the Arab slave trade and the Arab role in the European slave trade.

He funnelled money into the African Union and used Libya’s wealth to empower the African continent and promote pan-Africanism. He was a force of reconciliation, socialism, and empowerment for both African and Arab peoples. Gaddafi’s actions threatened to renew African-Arab reconciliation and alliances similar to that which occurred at the height of the Non-Aligned Movement during the presidencies of Jamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.  

Thus, NATO’s urgency to prevent “massacres” and “slaughter” in Libya was manufactured and sold wholesale. The fear of African-Arab solidarity can be seen in the way the US-backed Libyan insurgency spread rumours that “black African” mercenaries were committing atrocities against Libyans. Gaddafi became an even bigger threat when an agreement was reached with the great anti-imperialist force in South America, Hugo Chavez, to mediate a solution to the uprising in Libya.

Now both of these champions of their people are gone, and the so-called Libyan revolutionaries are executing “black Africans” throughout the country. Gone, too, is NATO’s worry about slaughter in Libya, and another high-functioning Arab nation lies in ruin, waste and civil strife - primed for rampant corporate looting.

I wrote previously that the Palestinian struggle against the erasure of our existence, history and identity was spiritually and politically black in nature. So, too, are other struggles, like that of migrant workers throughout many Arab nations. These are our comrades. They are the wretched, exploited, robbed, and/or, at last, liberated.

I refer to Black as a political term, not necessarily a racial or ethnic descriptor. In the words of Owen Alik Shehadah: “Black People is a construction which articulates a recent social-political reality of people of colour (pigmented people). Black is not a racial family, an ethnic group or a super-ethnic group. Political Blackness is thus not an identity but moreover a social-political consequence of a world which after colonialism and slavery existed in those colour terms. The word "Black” has no historical or cultural association, it was a name born when Africans were broken down into transferable labour units and transported as chattel to the Americas.“

But that word has been reclaimed, redefined, and injected with all the power, love, defiance, and beauty that is Africa. For the rest of us, and without appropriating the word, "black” is a phenomenon of resistance, steadfastness - what we Palestinians call sumud - and the beauty of culture that is reborn out of bondage and oppression.

Right to look the other way

Finally, solidarity from Africans is not equivalent to that which comes from our European comrades, whose governments are responsible for the ongoing erasure of Palestine. African peoples have every reason to look the other way. Ethiopians have every reason to say: “You deserve what you get for the centuries of enslavement and neo-enslavement industry by your Arab neighbours.” African Americans have every reason to say: “Why should I show solidarity with Arabs who come here to treat us like white people do, and sometimes worse?”

Malcolm X once said: “If I was that [anti-American], I’d have a right to be that - after what America has done to us. This government should feel lucky that our people aren’t anti-American.”

We can substitute the word “Arab” for “American” in that sentence and it would be a valid statement. And yet, Africa is right there with us. African American intellectuals are the greatest champions of our struggle in the United States. The impact of solidarity from four particular individuals - Desmond Tutu, Alice Walker, Angela Davis and Cynthia McKinney - can never be overestimated.

Last month, the former South African ambassador to Israel refused a “certificate” from Israel confirming the planting of trees in his name. In his letter, he called Israel a racist, apartheid state and said the gift was an “offence to my dignity and integrity”. He added: “I was not a party to, and never will be, to the planting of ‘18 trees’, in my 'honour’, on expropriated and stolen land.”

I would like my countrymen to think long and hard about this until they truly comprehend the humbling beauty of this solidarity from people who have every reason to be anti-Arab. I wish my countrymen could look through my eyes. They would see that black is profoundly beautiful. They would see that Africa runs through our veins, too. Our enslaved African foremothers deserve to be honoured and loved by their Arab children. And it is for us to redeem their pain with the recognition and atonement long owed.

Arriving at this understanding is a good starting place for reciprocal solidarity with nations and peoples who are standing with us, in heart and in action.

…….

Susan Abulhawa is a Palestinian writer and the author of the international bestselling novel, Mornings in Jenin (Bloomsbury 2010). She is also the founder of Playgrounds for Palestine, an NGO for children.

Follow her on Twitter: @sjabulhawa

Source: Al Jazeera 

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The Arabic Slave Trade is something that is rarely spoken about and often goes unheard of. When we speak of the enslavement of Africans, many of us like to connect it with Europeans, which is fine, but we should never forget they were not the only ones. For over 900 years, Africans were enslaved by Arabic slave traders. They would take Africans from all over the continent including West, East, and North Africa forcing them to march thousands of miles to Slave Markets. The Men, Women, and Children were bound together by the waist and neck so that if one died the rest could drag him or her along. These walks became known as the “Death Marches” and an estimated 20 million Africans died on these walks alone. The Arabs believed it was God’s wish to see Africans enslaved and believed they were uncivilized animals. Sound Familiar? Slaves were beaten and abused regularly. Many African Women, young Girls, and Boys would be used as Sex slaves for their owners. Islamic Slave holders would stick their swords and other weapons into the Vagina’s of Black Women and cut off the penis of African Men. This was done because they believed Africans had an uncontrollable sex drive. Many Africans would be forced to convert to Islam believing if they shared the same religion, it would stop the abuse. Muslim slave traders would also promise them Freedom after conversion. This did not stop the abuse nor did it gain them their freedom. In Fact, one can argue it made them even more enslaved. When Europeans entered the slave industry, Muslim Slave traders would use the religion to exploit Islamic Africans to bring them other Africans. These Africans would then be sold to Europeans. Slavery in the holy city of Mecca would not be outlawed until 1966 and in all other Arabic countries until 1990. The Islamic Slave Trade began almost 500 years before the Europeans would come to Africa. It would be a catalyst for the dismantling of the continent and the massive expansion of the Religion. Had it not been for Islam, European Chattel Slavery may never have occurred. History is quite a teacher and once again as the late Dr. John Henrik Clarke once said, “Africa has no friends. If you want a friend, look in the mirror.”

Written by @KingKwajo - Via: SanCopha League

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March 31st 1797: Olaudah Equiano dies

On this day in 1797, the abolitonist Olaudah Equiano died in London aged 51/52. Equiano wrote in his autobiography that he was born in Nigeria, and was kidnapped and sold into slavery when he was 11. He was shipped to Barbados then Virginia before being sold to a British officer in the Royal Navy. During this time, Equiano travelled widely with his new master, and experienced battle in the Seven Years’ War. He was taught to read and write by the sailors, and was baptised in 1759. He was later sold to a merchant in the West Indies, and worked as a deckhand, valet and barber. Equiano began to trade privately, independent of his master, and eventually earned enough money to buy his own freedom. After years of enslavement, Equiano was now a free man. He spent the following years traveling extensively, and in the 1780s returned to London. There, he became deeply involved in the anti-slavery movement, joining the ‘Sons of Africa’ group of black abolitionists and working with the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. The publication of his autobiography in 1789 highlighed the horrors of slavery, describing in graphic detail the horrendous conditions endured by African slaves. Equiano’s candid account was a bestseller and, coupled with his powerful speaking tours across Britain, it bolstered the abolitionist cause. Equiano’s involvement contibuted to Britain’s abolition of the slave trade in 1807, which was followed by the total abolition of slavery throughout the empire in 1833.  Equiano married in 1792, and became involved in the campaign for universal suffrage. He was tasked with settling former slaves in Sierra Leone, but died before he could emark on the expedition. Olaudah Equiano has been hailed as the father of African literature, and is remembered for his role in bringing an end to the slave trade.

“But is not the slave trade entirely a war with the heart of man? And surely that which is begun by breaking down the barriers of virtue involves in its continuance destruction to every principle, and buries all sentiments in ruin!”
- from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

I mean there’s just something scary how a powerful empire like Japan often gets pigeonholed as just being a “”POC”” victim by people applying Western race politics to Asia. This is something I’ve seen a lot. In the 1930s, Japan had one of the most powerful navies in the world. Pearl Harbour was all about destroying the naval fleet of the only other country that could possibly challenge its dominance in the Pacific. The Empire of Japan =/= the interned Japanese-Americans who were obviously not in a position of power.

My family ended up under Japanese rule not just because our colonial masters were embroiled in Europe and North Africa, but because the Japanese turned their military into a flexible, mobile fighting machine whereas the British were still looking at the WW1 playbook. The Japanese Army completely outsmarted the Europeans in jungle warfare too- the British had thought the logic that the jungles in SEAsia were impassible was ironclad. The Japanese Army proved them wrong. The British outnumbered the Japanese in the Malayan peninsular like by 2 to 1 and were still defeated. By then, the Japanese had long successfully conquered large swathes of mainland China.

And you know, there was also a lot of arrogance amongst our colonial rulers that Japan -being an Asian army- couldn’t possibly defeat them. Which seems to subtly be the same kind of logic at work when people love depicting WW2 Japan as just a “POC victim”; that globally, non-white people are only ever victims, are never in the position to be imperialist. That’s the narrative the Japanese government plays into, in order to deny its crimes. WW2 between the US and Japan was a battle between empires- the difference being that the US won its gamble in developing the atomic bomb and decided to use it. So please, enough of those posts uncritically collapsing the Empire of Japan with the victims of the African slave trade or anti-Asian racism INSIDE the US against Asian-Americans or US imperialism in Iraq and Afghanistan- as if the war was a typical example of one-sided Western aggression and imperialism.

SKYRIM: The nords distrust towards others and historical reasons as to why:

I see a lot of people calling the nords of Skyrim a lot of things because of how they act towards the other races/nations, and it’s true that they’re bad for their behavior and should change their attitude, but a lot of those people also either haven’t plated the earlier games, or haven’t read some of the lore that’s rich within the world of Nirn, and there’s a lot of that.

There’s a reason why the people of Skyrim has a had time trusting other races and are so resentful, and it’s all in history:

You see when the nords came to Skyrim for the 1st time, and met the snow elves, they were like “Hey look new people, nice. Lets talk to them” and they did. The nords and snow elves was friends for a long time and got along just fine, the nords was completely open to being pals, but suddenly the snow elves started a genocide and killed innocent men, woman and children of the nords. Honor and trust was, and still is, important to the nords and this betrayel set a fire in the nords hearts, a fire of VENGENCE for the snow elves betrayel, for the innocent lives that has been taken and to protect the Eye of Magnus within Saarthal, a city-fortress that Ysgramor had built to house the Eye as to protect the world from it’s power, a power that the elves wanted to abuse and most likely could not control even thought they so foolishly believed. (In the game, we see Ancano try this, he thinks he can control the eye, and almost destroys the entire world because he was to self-absorbed and arogant to see his mistakes, a common trait for the Altmer (high elves) especially the thalmor).

Then there was the war with the Chimer and dark elves (who has a habit of taking slaves (including nords) and was just as arogant and racist if not more then what the nords are now, (play Morrowind and you’ll see)). Chimer are elves who one way or another achived god-like powers, and the Chimers would attack the nords every 10 to 20 years and wage war against them.

The event called “The Battle of Red Mountain” didn’t help race relations either after the Nords found out the Dwemer (deep elves) used/tricked them so they could steal the heart of Shor (a holy artifact of 1 of the gods that the nords worship) for themselves as to power their Numidium (Heart of Lorkhan). Not to mention that the dwemer believed that they were above gods, and thus spat on the nords gods and mocked them, stating that they would achive godhood and become greater then them there already is.

Ysmir was kinda REALLY pissed about the whole dwemer thing (being the Champion of Lorkhan/part of the Oversoul that is Talos and all that stuff).

Then there’s the oblivion crisis, which was caused by magic users, and just who uses the most magic in TES? The altmer (high elves).

Then there was the great war, in which the elves attacked and crowned themself as the secret rulers of Tamriel. True we still have a human emperor, but he (or any one else) can’t do anything the elves would not approve of, so the emperor is pretty much a puppet. Plus the elves banned the worship of Talos, that’s the equivalent to if christians weren’t allowed to worship Jesus pretty much in a nutshell.

During what’s called ”The Great Collapse“ much of Winterhold was destroyed, with the collage being very much intact, which is strange since everything around it is completely gone, and the nords distrust to magic grew ones again, because how come the only magic place in the entire city was able to survive while almost everything else around it was destroyed?

Now that we have looked at the nords, lets look at the other races, that the nords are distrusting towards:

Dunmer (dark elves):

The dunmer enslaved the argonians for hundreds and hundreds of years until the coming of Tiber Septim’s empire. Think of it as African slave-trade when we bring up the Argonian slave trade, but without the Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, and British Empires fucking up cultural relations for the future that is (that’s a plus). It was the Dunmer that messed up the argonians’ perception of the world beyond their homeland of Black Marsh, and that goes even after the coming of the Septim Dynasty. And this would have hilarious results after the Oblivion Crisis was over and done with. Since the dunmer also had nord slaves, and used a lot of magic, their arogant attitude, the who-know-how-many-years-of-war they had with the nords, racist behavior towards all none-dunmers (especially humans and argonians), and worshipping of DEADRAS (basically the deamons and devils of TES) as their prime gods, it’s understandeble why the nords would be untrusting towards them. The dunmer are also cursed by the deadra.

Argonians:

In the event known as “the Red Year”, the argonians removed their alligence to the Empire and laid seige (or invaded or committed genocide, what ever floats your boat really, all 3 fits perfectly) against the dunmer in “retaliation” for being enslaved (BTW fun fact: slavery was made illegal in Morrowind way before the events of the Red Year). Argonians proceeded to butcher innocent men, women and children, just like the snow elves did to the nords. The argonians was also the only nation/race that didn’t have a struggle during the oblivion crisis, while every other race/nation was fighting for their lives. The argonians was so powerful that they launched a counter-invasion and Mehrunes Dagon and the deadras had to close their portals in order to avoid being invaded. So while oblivion invaded everyone else, the argonians invaded oblivion. In other words the argonians literaly acted like an entire army of Doom Guys invading Hell. It’s understandable if people would fear the argonians because of this victory, because all the other 9 major nations/races struggled and lost A LOT, but the argonians didn’t (this can be comparred to Warcraft where the draeneis where easily able to defeat the ogres while the orcs struggled, which in turn spread fear, resentment and paranoia into some of the orcs clans, same goes here). The argonians are also the one nation/race that’s known the least of to the outside world of the 10 major nations/races. Because of all the posion, dieses and who knows what, that exists in the swaps of Black Marsh, all none-argonians can only enter the borders, but not all the way into the land, which creates a big mystery for all them out there, just what is the argonians hiding in the swaps? Then there’s also the fact that they worship The Hist, and The Hist worships Sithis, who is The Dread Father and representative of emptiness and the void. Sithis worship is banned from most culture, except from a few, such as The Dark Brotherhood, Vampires and the argonians. Plus culture diffrences can bring problems of either side is not careful.

Khajiit:

Culturally, a race of thieves, liars, crackheads, peddlers, assassins, mercenaries, and traders. Seriously, they celebrate OD'ing on Skooma, duplicity, and backstabbing culturally. It’s in their damn lore, you can read about it in books through out the series or online. Plus what did you expect from a race of people that names the deadric prince of madness, Sheogorath, as the Skooma Cat? khajiit in Skyrim claim all these facts are stereotypes. Yet every khajiit caravan so happens to be trading moon sugar and skooma anyway. And have you noticed that all the Thieves (not bandits) that tries to rob you on the road are (majority of the time) Khajiits?. They also believe the Altmer Space Wizards of Alinor ended an eclipse using what they call “Dawn Magicks” (Fun Fact: They lied out of their ass. But the Khajiit is too high on Skooma to realize that). An eclipse that happens once every several hundred years. Seriously. This is why they left the Empire. Do i really need to explain why the people of Skyrim, and propeply many other nations might not be very trusting towards the khajiits?

Bosmer (wood elves):

They helped the altmer in the great war. They’re cannibals. Not much else to add here, truth be told the wood elves are among the nicest people in Tamriel. (fun fact: Their not allowed to eat any sort of plant-based food or plant-based anything what so ever, because of a the green pact. All of thier food is nothing but meat and what else that’s not some sort of plant, fruit or part of nature (except for animals and people)).

Orsimer (orc):

Looked down open by almost everyone, not just the nords. Worship a deadra as their prime/main god. The orcs are cursed by the deadra.

Altmer (high elves):

They continue on the Ehlnofey’s (the et'Ada that settled in Atmora eventually became the first Men i.e. Atmorans. The et'Ada of Ehlnofey attacked them when they were reunited because they thought the proto-Atmorans were “animals/savages”. Even though the proto-Atmorans had recognized their lost kindred. This is where Mer vs. Men hatred stems from.) illogical hatred of Lorkhan and all those that were born from his trickery (i.e. themselves and all mortals). Also the reason the Altmer are, for the most part (though not true for all individuals), so racist. They also have a superiority complex. Then there’s the whole history thing, but you already read about that. Can’t figure out why the Thalmor of Alinor want to bring about the end of the world? They actually believe all Altmer will become as their original demi-Aedra forms upon Lorkhan’s “death” (he’s kind of not dead… yet). Though this would mean the end of the known world, and possibly Mundus. Also anybody remember Pelinal?

Pelinal comes from the future, and travelled back in time in order to “fix the timeline/future”, this future is one where the elves has enslaved all of mankind and taken control of Tamriel. So in other words, if the altmer ever gets ful control like they’re trying to, it’s going to end both bad and ugly for EVERYONE! (fun fact Pelinal is confirmed gay, and is a robot/cyborg. His lover Huna’s gender is so far unknown though).

So with all of this in mind it’s clear why the nords are so hostile towards other people/nations, because that’s how they’ve lived with said people and nation for the longest time. There has been wars, distrust, suspicious activities, wrong alligences and betrayel time and time again. Yes it’s wrong in many ways, but the nords aren’t the only racists here, i would even say that the altmer is more racist then the nords most of the time, and a lot more arogant and selfish. The people of Skyrim needs to change their attitude and mind set towards outsiders, other nations and races sure, but so does the rest of Tamriel as well. (also the nords allows inter-specie gay marriage)

There is always a certain glamour about the idea of a nation rising up to crush an evil simply because it is wrong. Unfortunately, this can seldom be realized in real life; for the very existence of the evil usually argues a moral weakness in the very place where extraordinary moral strength is called for.
—  W.E.B. Du Bois, from The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870

“A Chart of the Seacoasts of Europe, Africa, and America,” ca. 1700, by John Thornton of London. The cartouche (in north Africa) features two African men, an elephant, and an elephant tusk, demonstrating the economic centrality of African trade, including the slave trade, at this time.

anonymous asked:

Can you make a post about Edward Rutledge?

Edward Rutledge was born to parents John Rutledge Sr. and Sarah Hext in 1749, the youngest of seven children, with four brothers and two sisters. His father passed away the next year, leaving his mother to raise the seven children alone. Not much is known about Edward’s early childhood or family life. The family was incredibly wealthy, his mother described as “A lady of respectable family, and large fortune”, and owned large, slave owning estates in South Carolina. They were wealthy enough to afford education for the five boys, and young Edward was sent to New Jersey to learn Latin and Greek under David Smith. He was somewhat of a slow-learner, though a respectable scholar, but before he could put much time into his education he decided to study law under his eldest brother, John Rutledge Jr., who was a bright, young, and respected lawyer at the Charleston Bar. Though Ned was young, he appreciated and enjoyed the advantages given to him by his brother’s example. In 1769, by the time he was twenty, he sailed to England to further his education at the Temple, and was given opportunities to attend meetings of Parliament and the British Courts.

Upon his return to Charleston in 1773, he quickly started out as a promising young lawyer, making himself known as a patriot when he defended a printer who was arrested for printing an article critical of the loyalist legislature. Despite how young he was, he quickly gained a reputation for his oratory skills. After setting up his law practice he married Henrietta Middleton, sister of Arthur Middleton, his future fellow delegate. He enjoyed a happy and comfortable home life, and soon they would have a son and daughter, the third child dying as an infant. After Henrietta’s death in 1792, he married Mary Shubrick Eveleigh, whose sisters were married to two other South Carolina delegates. He owned about 50 slaves on his rice plantations, the source of his vast income.

Soon, at the age of 25, he was appointed to congress in Philadelphia, along with John Jr., as well as the South Carolina House of Representatives. He was the youngest member there, and was held in great esteem by nearly all of Charleston and South Carolina. By the year 1775 he was actively participating in congressional debates.

While the story of John Adams’ and Benjamin Franklin’s argument over whether or not to leave the window open is fairly well-known in history circles, what is not very well-known was that Rutledge was travelling with them. The three were sent to Staten Island for a meeting with Lord Richard Howe, in an attempt to create peace. This meeting actually accomplished nothing, but at least Edward got his own room and didn’t have to listen to Adams and Franklin arguing.

After the pleasant, but ultimately pointless meeting, he wrote to his good friend George Washington; 

“I must beg Leave to inform you that our Conference with Lord Howe has been attended with no immediate Advantages. He declared that he had no Powers to consider us an Independent States, and we easily discovered that were we still Dependent we should have nothing to expect from those with which he is vested. He talked altogether in generals, that he came out here to consult, advise & confer with Gentlemen of the greatest Influence in the Colonies about their Complaints…This kind of Conversation lasted for several Hours & as I have already said without any effect….Our reliance continues therefore to be (under God) on your Wisdom & Fortitude & that of your Forces. That you may be as successful as I know you are worthy is my most sincere wish…God bless you my dear Sir. Your most affectionate Friend, E. Rutledge.”

In 1776, when the Lee Resolution was brought up in congress, Edward was staunchly opposed. In June, he wrote to John Jay 

“The Congress sat till 7 o’clock this evening in consequence of a motion of R. H. Lee’s resolving ourselves free & independent states. The sensible part of the house Opposed the motion…They saw no wisdom in a Declaration of Independence, nor any other purpose to be answered by it…No reason could be assigned for pressing into this measure, but the reason of every Madman, a show of our Spirit…The whole Argument was sustained on one side by R. Livingston, Wilson, Dickenson [Dickinson] & myself, & by the Powers of all N. England, Virginia & Georgia on the other.” 

He, like the Pennsylvania delegation thought this action was premature, but he valued unanimity, so he voted yes. While there is no proof that he himself is the reason the slavery clause was taken out of the Declaration, he highly valued South Carolina’s state rights, and demanded that they be valued. He signed the Declaration at age 25, the youngest signer.

He was appointed again to congress in 1779, but couldn’t make it due to ill health. He was soon made a lieutenant-colonel in the Charleston Battalion of artillery, but was soon captured, along with his fellow South Carolina signers, and made a prisoner of war. He was held from May 1780, until July 1981, and was gladly received after his 800 mile journey home. His mother was placed under house arrest as well.

He continued to hold many important political offices until 1798, including the South Carolina Legislature and the South Carolina constitutional convention, where he voted for ratification of the constitution. During his time in the Legislature he abolished primogeniture, as well as voted against opening the African Slave Trade. He was elected governor of South Carolina in 1798.

He died during his term as governor on January 23rd, 1800, after being stricken with a sudden illness after being subjected to the cold and rain during a meeting of the South Carolina Legislature. His loss was mourned greatly by the people of Charleston and South Carolina.

Rutledge was described as “above the middle size, and of a florid, but fair complexion.” He wore flashy, aristocratic garments and was considered a ‘dandy’ by many of his peers. In accordance to this, John Adams once described him as “a perfect Bob o’ Lincoln, a swallow, a sparrow, a peacock, excessively vain, excessively weak and excessively variable and unsteady- jejune, inane, and puerile.” While John Adams had no liking for the man, others didn’t seem to think this way of him. Benjamin Rush described him as “A sensible young lawyer,” and he was well known for his uncommon benevolence, as well as his quickness of apprehension, fluency of speech and graceful delivery. Patrick Henry considered him to be “The greatest orator among a group that included John and Samuel Adams, John Jay and Thomas Jefferson.”

Especially in the 70s and probably still to some degree now there was this push for black people to covert to Islam as a way of “connecting to their African roots”, which is pretty weird to me considering Muslims pretty much instituted the African slave trade that saw so many Africans being shipped off to European countries. And sure you can argue that white Christians played a part in the European slave trade and you wouldn’t be completely off-base, but it definitely wasn’t the Christians that were selling them out of Africa.

The Central Slave and Ivory Trade Route

Until, not even 150 years ago, millions of Africans had to bear a cruel fate. They were captured by slave hunters, chained together and forced to walk some times hundred of kilometers to be sold for example to planters who used them as cheap labour in their fields. Central and East Africa was one of the main areas where the slave hunters and traders, most of them Arabs made their shade deals. They caught their victims e.g. in some areas which is today parts of Democratic Republic of Congo and in the Western and Central parts of what is today Tanzania. The Slaves were brought to the coast and from there to the spice island of Zanzibar and many were sold further to the Arab countries, Persia, and India, Mauritania and Reunion.

Officially, the slave trade was forbidden in 1873 under British pressure, but it went on secretly for several years. One of the routes that were used by the traders’ caravan started in Ujiji at the shore of Lake Tanganyika. It went over 1200 kilometers and ended in Bagamoyo just opposite of Zanzibar on main land Tanzania. Many experts view this as the main route of mainly three that were documented for East Africa. By now the list includes the Ujiji-Bagamoyo route as a whole. The idea is not only to protect the still visible reminds of the dark past like Arab Forts and other historic buildings or parts of the route that are existing, but also to intensify the research around the topic, to document the memories about the era and to preserve the culture and the traditions of the communities living along the route. In this regard, there are possibilities of Trans-national Nomination with neighbouring countries like Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya and Mozambique. This possibility will be investigated during the nomination process. Six centres have been identified along the central slave route to include Bagamoyo, Mamboya, Mpwapwa, Kilimatinde, Kwihara and Ujiji Bagamoyo Due to its location along the Indian Ocean and being a major harbor and town along the coast of Tanzania that played a key role in the East Africa Slave trade; Bagamoyo is a “place of memory” for human suffering and humiliation caused by Slavery and the Slave trade and the imposition of European colonialism.

The population of Bagamoyo groups is the result of the interaction and fusion of different ethnic groups from the interaction and fusion of different ethinic groups from the hinterland and immediate coastal built especially the Wazaramo, Wadoe, Wakwere and Wazigua and the interiors especially Wanyamwezi and Wamanyema. Bagamoyo serves as the terminal which starts from Ujiji. From Bagamoyo, slaves were shipped to Zanzibar where the slave market used to be Important slave trade evidence include slave and slave descendants, buildings such as Caravan Serai, Von Wissman block, Old market, Customs house and the Old fort. Also the freedom village at the R.C.

Descendants of slaves and slave traders are also part of the present community. Kilimatinde Located in Manyoni District, Singida Region. Kilimatinde is another important place on the route where caravan rested at a well. The village with Arabic house, market and late the seat for the German administrative is an important place for information along the route. There existing small Arabic houses that are abandoned. Kazeh (Tabora) Kazeh was established by traders involved in the East Africa slave and Ivory trade on the area given to the traders chief Fundikara of Unyanayembe in 1852.it rapidly development into a key market centre located as it was at an interaction between the trading routes to the coast and those further inland to the Congo and north to what is today Burundi. By 1871, it was estimated to have.

Ujiji Ujiji was the last major trading center of the central of Caravan Trade Route located on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. It was a trading centre for slave and ivory coming from different parts of Lake Tanganyika, including Eastern region of Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. By 1876, Stanley estimated that Ujiji had a population of 3,000 It is located within Kigoma Township, 5 km west of Kigoma Railway station. Important land marks are a site of formal port (no longer existing) coconuts and Mango Tree Avenue, Usagara grounds where slaves used to be held and auctioned and a site where the house of the former slave trade by the name of Tippu Tip used. A path running between Ujiji seminary and Kaluta Primary school through Kagera village to Luiche and beyond is clearly seen and improved by big historic Mango trees on both sides

nyxara  asked:

THE NEW JIM CROW SAYS IN EARLY SETTLEMENTS BEFORE SLAVERY THERE WERE AFRICAN INDENTURED SERVANTS BUT THEY WERE TREATED THE SAME AS WHITE ONES. IS IT TRUE

I’VE READ “THE NEW JIM CROW” TOO AND I HAVE SOME INFORMATION ON THIS. 

INDENTURED SERVITUDE WAS THE INITIAL FORM OF SLAVERY IN THE “NEW WORLD” FOR BOTH BLACK AND WHITE SERVANTS. I CAN’T SPEAK TO WHETHER OR NOT THEY WERE TREATED “THE SAME,” BUT ESSENTIALLY THE IDEA WAS THAT YOUR TERM OF SERVITUDE WAS NOT LIFELONG AND DID NOT TRANSFER TO YOUR CHILDREN. OFTEN, PEOPLE WOULD AGREE TO A TERM OF SEVERAL YEARS’ INDENTURED SERVITUDE IN EXCHANGE FOR PASSAGE TO THE “NEW WORLD.” IT WAS, INITIALLY, MORE LIKE A LANDLORD/PEASANTS SITUATION, STILL UNJUST, BUT THE RACIST ASPECT HADN’T QUITE BEEN INVENTED YET

THE IDEA OF RACE-BASED CHATTEL SLAVERY, WHERE BLACK SERVANTS WERE KIDNAPPED OR PURCHASED AND TREATED AS PROPERTY, CAME SLIGHTLY LATER AS THE COLONIES GREW AND THE WHITE SETTLERS REALIZED THEY DIDN’T WANT TO ACTUALLY DO ANY OF THE WORK NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN THEM. PRIOR TO THE 16TH CENTURY, SLAVERY WAS NOT USUALLY RACE-BASED, BUT ANTIBLACK RACISM AS WE KNOW IT TODAY WAS LITERALLY INVENTED DURING THIS TIME IN ORDER TO JUSTIFY THE MASS-KIDNAPPING AND ENSLAVEMENT OF AFRICANS. 

EVENTUALLY, THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE BECAME THE FOUNDATION OF THE AMERICAN ECONOMY AND IT DIDN’T MAKE MUCH SENSE TO HIRE INDENTURED SERVANTS WHO YOU HAD TO “TREAT LIKE HUMAN BEINGS” AND “LET THEM GO HOME” AND “EVENTUALLY THEY DON’T HAVE TO WORK FOR YOU ANYMORE” WHEN YOU COULD JUST PAY TO HAVE SOMEONE ABDUCTED TO DO YOUR WORK FOR YOU FOREVER. 

THIS IS ALSO WHERE YOU GET A LOT OF THESE RACIST DERAILING ARGUMENTS WHENEVER YOU BRING UP SLAVERY, LIKE “THE IRISH WERE ENSLAVED TOO” AND “AFRICANS SOLD THEIR OWN PEOPLE INTO SLAVERY!” MANY IRISH WERE INDENTURED SERVANTS, WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN CALLED “SLAVE” BEFORE THE NEW FORM OF CHATTEL SLAVERY WAS INVENTED AND WE NEEDED TO COME UP WITH THE TERM “INDENTURED SERVANT” TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN CHATTEL SLAVERY AND WHAT “SLAVERY” MEANT BEFORE THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. ALSO, “AFRICANS” DIDN’T SELL “THEIR OWN PEOPLE” INTO ANYTHING, SLAVERY IN AFRICA WAS A VERY DIFFERENT THING THAN SLAVERY IN AMERICA, AND THE WEST-AFRICAN PEOPLES SELLING SLAVES TO EUROPEANS WERE OFTEN LED TO BELIEVE THEY WERE SELLING SLAVES INTO SOMETHING MORE LIKE A TERM OF INDENTURED SERVITUDE, AS THE BRUTAL REALITY OF TRANSATLANTIC CHATTEL SLAVERY WAS NOT WIDESPREAD KNOWLEDGE AT ITS INCEPTION. 

SO, TECHNICALLY THE FIRST “SLAVES” IN AMERICA WERE CLOSER TO VOLUNTARY HOUSEHOLD SERVANTS WHO AGREED TO A TERM OF LABOR IN EXCHANGE FOR A BOAT RIDE TO AMERICA AND A PLACE TO SLEEP ONCE THEY GOT THERE, AND THERE’S RECORDS INDICATING THAT BOTH THE SLAVES AND MASTERS COULD BE BLACK OR WHITE, BUT THE “MODERN CONCEPT OF RACE-BASED SLAVERY WHERE IT’S RACE-BASED, TARGETED AT BLACK PEOPLE, AND THE SLAVES ARE CONSIDERED SUBHUMAN PROPERTY WHO HAVE NO RIGHTS OF THEIR OWN” WAS INVENTED PRETTY QUICKLY ONCE THE SETTLERS GOT TO AMERICA, AND THAT’S MOSTLY WHAT SLAVERY HAS MEANT EVER SINCE THEN. 

ANYWAY YEAH ALL SLAVEOWNERS ARE BAD PEOPLE WITHOUT EXCEPTION