Is Black Lives Matter just another integrationist movement?
Yep. Integrationist & Reactionary.
So far, but the Black Panthers and Black Liberation Army grew out of Integrationist Movements like the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee; so there’s hope….maybe.
Robert F. Williams, Kwame Ture, H. Rap Brown, Bobby Seal, and many other icons of the struggle got their start within Integrationist movements and went on to build Pan-African and Revolutionary organizations.
I know of a few BLM vets who’ve advances their analysis and tactics already; so we should keep a very critical eye trained on BLM, but I wouldn’t dis its rank and file members and activist, I’d do all I could to constructively engage and even organize with them, but from the outside of that movement.
Interview with former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) chair Kwame Ture, formerly Stokely Carmichael, on how field secretary Mukasa Dada, formerly Willie Ricks, laid the groundwork for him to popularize the “Black Power” slogan, which called for black self-determination, at a rally at Broad Street Park, Greenwood, Miss., on June 17, 1966, during the “Meredith March Against Fear.”
The interview was conducted in April 1971 at Hayneville, Lowndes County, Ala., where Ture and Dada helped found the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LFCO), popularly known as the Black Panther party, in 1966.
In April 1971, Ture was on a nationwide speaking tour and quietly beginning to organize the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party (AAPRP), founded by deposed Ghanaian President Osagyefo (“Redeemer”) Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, because he believed that pan-Africanism, which Dr. Nkrumah defined as “the total liberation and unification of Africa under an All-African Socialist Government,” was the “highest stage of Black Power.”
I would like to thank my old friend and mentor Mukasa and his wife, Maimuna, for kindly helping me to contextualize this video, and for continuing to fight for Black Power for peoples of African descent thruout the world. Happy Birthday, African!
“Radical simply means grasping things at the root.”
Angela Davis is an iconic radical African American and international revolutionary within the 1970s rooted in the African American community for social change. Because of her upbringing within Birmingham, Alabama, Angela Davis experienced firsthand deep racism and segregation. Deeply moved by the death of the four girls in the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, Ms. Davis decided to join the Civil Rights Movement. In 1967, inspired by Black Power Movements, Angela Davis joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. In 1968, Ms. Davis became a member of the American Communist Party. During the 1970s, Angela Davis took part in another social movement to improve the prison system and prison conditions for inmates. This particular social movement helped to release two African American political prisoners and Black Panther Party members. After being arrested for a crime she did not commit, she finally understood the black liberation struggle in the United States. Angela Davis received the Lenin Peace Prize from the Communist Party and ran for Vice President in 1980 and 1984 for the Communist Party. Additionally, Angela Davis is the founder of the National Alliance against Racist and Political Repression, served on the board of the National Political Congress of Black Women, National Black Women’s Health Project. Angela Davis has authored books on women, race, and feminism. Currently, Angela Davis speaks out against the imprisonment of political prisoners, prostitutes, and the use of prisons as a business.
Revolutionary Slave Masquerader from Haiti,
photograph by Phyllis Galembo
“The tools of modern revolutions, a gun and a phone, are held by a masked
youth. Other parts of his hellish carnival attire connect to Haiti’s past. To
symbolize the suffering of slaves, he’s wrapped in a rope, his skin is glazed
in charcoal and molasses—an inexpensive, easy-to-make masquerade worn since
‘Fight The Layoffs / Auto Workers March & Rally, Newark, New Jersey, [early 1970s]. Event co-sponsored by Black Liberation organizations such the Congress of Afrikan People, Black Panther Party, and February 1st Student Movement, along with ‘new communist movement’ organizations such as Revolutionary Union and October League.
At the age of sixteen, Robert James (Bobby) Hutton was the first recruit of the Black Panther Party. He participated in the march on the California State Capitol in 1967, and his death in 1968 became a rallying cry for the Black Panther movement. A literacy campaign was later started in his honor.
Bobby Hutton was born on April 21, 1950, in Jefferson County, the son of John D. Hutton and Dolly Mae Mitchner-Hutton. He was among the youngest of several siblings. The family lived in the Pot Liquor area of Jefferson County. In 1953, when he was about three years old, his family moved to Oakland, California, after being visited by nightriders.
In December 1966, Hutton was the first to join the newly formed Black Panther Party for Self Defense, a revolutionary African-American organization that had been organized by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. At sixteen, he was the youngest member. He joined the Black Panther Party because he wanted to make a difference in his community and because he believed in the Black Panther Party’s Ten-Point Program. On May 2, 1967, he was present when several Black Panther Party members made national headlines by appearing armed at the California State Capitol in Sacramento to protest the Mulford Act, which prohibited the carrying of firearms in any public place. Hutton and several others were later arrested several blocks away at a gas station. On May 22, 1967, he was again arrested for violating an 1887 law against having guns on grounds adjacent to a jail.
On April 6, 1968, Hutton was in a carload of Black Panther Party members who were confronted by Oakland police officers; two officers were shot. Later, at a home at 1218 28th Street, Eldridge Cleaver and Hutton, in an incident connected to the earlier shooting, engaged in a ninety-minute shootout with police officers. It was reported that Hutton was shot more than twelve times after he had already surrendered and stripped down to his underwear to prove he was not armed. However, police reports stated that Hutton was wearing a long overcoat and that his hands could not be seen when he exited the building. The death of Hutton was a major event in the party’s history, angering the Black Panthers and becoming the rallying cry for the movement.
On April 12, 1968, Hutton’s funeral was held at the Ephesian Church of God in Berkeley, California. In 1968, Country Joe and the Fish dedicated the album Together to Hutton. He is also mentioned in the following songs: Tupac Shakur’s “Ghetto Gospel,” (released posthumously in 2004), Smif-N-Wessun’s “Still Fighting,”(2007), and Bhi Bhiman’s “Up in Arms.” (2007). His image appears on the cover of the single “Star” by Primal Scream (1989). The Commemoration Committee for the Black Panther Party later organized the Lil’ Bobby Hutton Literacy Campaign. Every year in April since Hutton’s death, family and friends have held a memorial service at DeFremery Park, which, in 1998, was renamed Bobby Hutton Park by the City of Oakland, California.