african revolutionary

“I speak on behalf of the millions of human beings who are in ghettos because they have black skin or because they come from different cultures, and who enjoy status barely above that of an animal.

I suffer on behalf of the Indians who have been massacred, crushed, humiliated, and confined for centuries on reservations in order to prevent them from aspiring to any rights and to prevent them from enriching their culture through joyful union with other cultures, including the culture of the invader.

I cry out on behalf of those thrown out of work by a system that is structurally unjust and periodically unhinged, who are reduced to only glimpsing in life a reflection of the lives of the affluent.

I speak on behalf of women the world over, who suffer from a male-imposed system of exploitation. As far as we’re concerned, we are ready to welcome suggestions from anywhere in the world that enable us to achieve the total fulfillment of Burkinabè women. In exchange, we offer to share with all countries the positive experience we have begun, with women now present at every level of the state apparatus and social life in Burkina Faso. Women who struggle and who proclaim with us that the slave who is not able to take charge of his own revolt deserves no pity for his lot. This harbors illusions in the dubious generosity of a master pretending to set him free. Freedom can be won only through struggle, and we call on all our sisters of all races to go on the offensive to conquer their rights.

I speak on behalf of the mothers of our destitute countries who watch their children die of malaria or diarrhea, unaware that simple means to save them exist. The science of the multinationals does not offer them these means, preferring to invest in cosmetics laboratories and plastic surgery to satisfy the whims of a few women or men whose smart appearance is threatened by too many calories in their overly rich meals, the regularity of which would make you—or rather us from the Sahel—dizzy. We have decided to adopt and popularize these simple means, recommended by the WHO and UNICEF.

I speak, too, on behalf of the child. The child of a poor man who is hungry and who furtively eyes the accumulation of abundance in a store for the rich. The store protected by a thick plate glass window. The window protected by impregnable shutters. The shutters guarded by a policeman with a helmet, gloves, and armed with a billy club. The policeman posted there by the father of another child, who will come and serve himself—or rather be served—because he offers guarantees of representing the capitalistic norms of the system, which he corresponds to.

I speak on behalf of artists—poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, and actors—good men who see their art prostituted by the alchemy of show-business tricks.

I cry out on behalf of journalists who are either reduced to silence or to lies in order to not suffer the harsh low of unemployment.

I protest on behalf of the athletes of the entire world whose muscles are exploited by political systems or by modern-day slave merchants.

My country is brimming with all the misfortunes of the people of the world, a painful synthesis of all humanity’s suffering, but also—and above all—of the promise of our struggles. This is why my heart beats naturally on behalf of the sick who anxiously scan the horizons of science monopolized by arms merchants.

My thoughts go out to all of those affected by the destruction of nature and to those 30 million who will die as they do each year, struck down by the formidable weapon of hunger. As a military man, I cannot forget the soldier who is obeying orders, his finger on the trigger, who knows the bullet being fired bears only the message of death.

Finally, it fills me with indignation to think of the Palestinians, who an inhuman humanity has decided to replace with another people—a people martyred only yesterday. I think of this valiant Palestinian people, that is, these shattered families wandering across the world in search of refuge. Courageous, determined, stoic, and untiring, the Palestinians remind every human conscience of the moral necessity and obligation to respect the rights of a people. Along with their Jewish brothers, they are anti-Zionist.

At the side of my brother soldiers of Iran and Iraq who are dying in a fratricidal and suicidal war, I wish also to feel close to my comrades of Nicaragua, whose harbors are mined, whose villages are bombed, and who, despite everything, face their destiny with courage and clear-headedness. I suffer with all those in Latin America who suffer from the stranglehold of imperialism.

I wish to stand on the side of the Afghan and Irish peoples, on the side of the peoples of Granada and East Timor, each of whom is searching for happiness based on their dignity and the laws of their own culture.

I protest on behalf of all those who vainly seek a forum in this world where they can make their voice heard and have it genuinely taken into consideration. Many have preceded me at this podium and others will follow. But only a few will make the decisions. Yet we are officially presented as being equals. Well, I am acting as spokesperson for all those who vainly see a forum in this world where they can make themselves heard. So yes, I wish to speak on behalf of all “those left behind,” for “I am human, nothing that is human is alien to me.”

Our revolution in Burkina Faso embraces misfortunes of all peoples. It also draws inspiration from all of man’s experiences since his first breath. We wish to be the heirs of all the world’s revolutions and all the liberation struggles of the peoples of the Third World. Our eyes are on the profound upheavals that have transformed the world. We draw the lessons of the American Revolution, the lessons of its victory over colonial domination and the consequences of that victory. We adopt as our own the affirmation of the Doctrine whereby Europeans must not intervene in American affairs, nor Americans in European affairs. Just as Monroe proclaimed “America to the Americans” in 1823, we echo this today by saying “Africa to the Africans,” “Burkina to the Burkinabè.”“

| Thomas Sankara

[excerpt from his speech at the United Nations General Assembly on October 4th, 1984]


Long live Sankara.

2

Yossel “Joe” Slovo was a Jewish South African revolutionary. Born in Obeliai, Lithuania in 1926, he spoke only Yiddish until his family fled from the growing Nazi threat to South Africa when he was 8 years old. When Joe was 16 years old, he joined the South African Communist Party, of which he would later become General Secretary. After volunteering in the fight against Nazism in Europe, he returned and earned a law degree, in the same class as Nelson Mandela. After a short series of stints in prison for communist activity, Joe emerged as a leader in Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC, which he led from exile in Britain, Zambia, Angola and Mozambique from 1963 to 1990. After waging war against the apartheid system for decades, he briefly served as Minister of Housing in Nelson Mandela’s new government before passing away in 1995. Many streets and buildings in South Africa are named in his honor. May his memory be a blessing! zt’‘l

Malcolm X & Ho Chi Minh, ¡presente!

We celebrate on May 19 the birthdays of two world-bending revolutionaries, Ho Chi Minh and Malcolm X.

Born in 1890 in central Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh was the Marxist-Leninist communist who forged and led a people’s movement and army that defeated the invading imperialist might of both France and the United States and ultimately liberated Vietnam from colonialism.

Born in 1925 in the U.S., Malcolm X was the African-American leader who raised to global attention the concepts of Black nationalism, Black self-defense and the right of self-determination of Black peoples. Malcolm X also made a major contribution to the global movement for Pan-Africanism.

Neither met the other, yet their deeds and words intertwine, and together they continue to inspire us toward revolution.

At this moment, as the U.S. ruling class fans the deadly fires of racist hatred, Malcolm X and Ho Chi Minh unite to give a profound lesson in building international solidarity with oppressed people and nations.

Today marks 40 years since South African anti-Apartheid activist Steve Biko lost his life after being badly beaten by local police


Biko was a fearless and influential voice for South African youth in the late 1960s and 1970s, who helped lead the fight against Apartheid and ultimately gave his life for the cause. While alive, Biko was the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement —a social campaign similar to America’s Black Power movement—which called for an end to segregation and racial injustice targeting the Black community in South Africa.

His death sparked an uprising in South Africa and put a face on the cruelties of Apartheid, while his story garnered praise from former South African President Nelson Mandela. While some feel the impact of Biko’s legacy has been largely understated on a global scale, his memory and spirit continues to live on in communities across South Africa.

A Rebel’s Study.
1) Disassembly Required - Geof Mann
2) Thomas Sankara An African Revolutionary - Ernest Harsch
3) Dialectical Materialism - V.G. Afanasyev
4) The Conquest of Bread - Kropotkin
5) Companion to Marx’s Capital vol 1 - David Harvey
6) Prison Notebooks - Gramsci
7) Hegemony How-To - Smucker
8) Understanding Power (Thr Indispensable Chomsky) - Noam Chomsky
9) 17 Contradictions And The End of Capitalism - David Harvey
10) The Wretched of the Earth - Frantz Fanon
11) State and Revolution - Lenin
12) Red Star Over China - Edgar Snow
13) Strategy for Conquest - Mallin
14) Dark Rebellion Xyz Dragon - Konami

Sylvia Rivera: Afro-Latina, Mestiza, or both?

This has been bugging me all week, followers: was Sylvia Rivera (the Puerto Rican transwoman who founded the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance and helped found Street Transgender Action Revolutionaries) of African descent? I cannot find for the life of me a definitive answer one way or another (meaning I can’t find a single mention of her race, period, except the “woman of color” and “Latina” titles, which don’t really answer my question). I’ve been told that it’s “likely,” but I don’t want to label her based on that alone. Anyone with some knowledge to drop, please get at me.

Writing Research: American Revolution

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them without any representatives in the government, and resisted renewed British attempts to collect duties on goods such as sugar and molasses that for many years had gone uncollected through widespread smuggling by colonists. During the following decade, protests by colonists—known as Patriots—continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the East India Company. The British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774 until the tea had been paid for, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774 the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain subjects of the British Crown.

Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, after which the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively replaced the Royal government of Massachusetts, and confined the British to control of the city of Boston. The conflict then evolved into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Patriots in each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism. Claiming King George III’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ “rights as Englishmen”, the Continental Congress declared the colonies free and independent states in July 1776. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. [1]

Names

  • ModernMom - Popular Baby Names in the 1700s
  • British Baby Names - Curiosities of the Seventeenth Century
  • Medieval Naming Guides - Early 17th Century English Names
  • Internet Archive - Early census making in Massachusetts, 1643-1765, with a reproduction of the lost census of 1765 (recently found) and documents relating thereto;
  • Olive Tree Genealogy - Irish Passenger Lists: 1765, no ship name, arriving from Ireland in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Trail Of Our Ancestors - Names of German Pioneers to Pennsylvania: 
    Passenger Ships’ Lists, 1750
  • USGenWeb Archives -  Names of Pioneers from the Palatinate Germany to Pennsylvania, 1754
  • RootsWeb’s Guide - Given Names in Early America
  • GIGA - Name Chronological List, 1760 - 1779

Society & Life

  • History.com - The American Revolution Begins: April 19, 1775
  • History.com - American Revolution
  • History Channel - American Revolution History (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution
  • PBS - Africans in American: The Revolutionary War, Part 2
  • The History Place - American Revolution
  • The History Place - Prelude to Revolution, 1763 to 1775
  • The History Place - The American War for Independence: 1775 to 1776 Conflict and Revolution
  • University of Houston - Overview of the American Revolution
  • Library of Congress - The American Revolution
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - The American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The American Revolution, 1763-1783
  • America’s Library - Revolutionary Period, 1764-1789
  • Coastal Heritage Society - American Revolution
  • About.com - American Revolution
  • United States Department of State - 1776-1783: American Revolution Timeline
  • United States Military Academy - American Revolution
  • British Library - The American Revolution from 1763 - 1787
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - Voices of the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Was the American Revolution a Revolution?
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary War Timeline
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Reasons behind the Revolutionary War
  • Social Studies For Kids - Causes of the Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon -  Ten Facts about Washington and the Revolutionary War
  • Cracked - 5 Myths About the Revolutionary War Everyone Believes
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 7 Myths about the Boston Tea Party
  • University of Notre Dame - Revisiting America’s Revolutionary Myths and Realities
  • History Net - Debunking Boston Tea Party Myths
  • Smithsonian - Myths of the American Revolution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution
  • The Washington Post - The American Revolution Was Not A Whites-only War
  • University of Houston - Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution
  • Colonial Williamsburg -  African Americans During The American Revolution: Teacher Reference Sheet (PDF)
  • Rutgers University - African Americans in the Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: African Americans
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - African Americans and the Revolution
  • University of California, Irvine - African American Soldiers and the American Revolution
  • Colorado College - Blacks and the American Revolution
  • History Net - Black History
  • Wikipedia - African Americans in the Revolutionary War
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - The Native Americans’ Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides
  • Independence Hall Association -  Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans
  • History Wiz -  Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • ABC-CLIO - American Revolution, Native American Participation
  • University of Houston - Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • Prezi - Contributions of African Americans, Native Americans and Women during the American Revolution (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution: Daily Life in the Colonies
  • Ducksters - Daily Life During the Revolution War
  • Independence Hall Association - The Revolution on the Home Front
  • Library of Congress - Revolutionary War: The Home Front
  • American History - Colonial Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: An Everyday Life Perspective
  • ABC‑CLIO - Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • ABBE Regional Library System - The Lives of Children During The Revolutionary War (PDF)
  • Wikipedia - Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Children’s Rights and the American Revolution
  • Teachinghistory.org - Colonial Teenagers
  • The Santa Fe New Mexican Newspaper -  Fighting Spirit: Teenagers in the American Revolution
  • Google Books - The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Patriot Families’ Role in Effecting American Independence and the American Revolution’s Effect on their Family Life (PDF)
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Life during the Colonial Period and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Assessing Change: Women’s Lives in the American Revolutionary Era
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Lucy Knox on the home front during the Revolutionary War, 1777
  • American Revolution - Women in the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Women in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Amazing Women of the Revolutionary War
  • History of Massachusetts - The Roles of Women in the American Revolutionary War
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Role in the American Revolution
  • Social Studies - Roles of Women in the American Revolution and the Civil War
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: Women
  • Annenberg Media - Women of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • About.com - Women and the American Revolution
  • The Examiner - The Role of Women in the American Revolution
  • Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media - Women and the Revolution
  • Prezi - Women’s Roles During the American Revolution Outlined by Hannah Schierl (Video)
  • United States Army - Women in the Army
  • Atlanta Blackstar - 5 Extraordinary Black Women Who Played Major Roles In The American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Rights After the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Marriages Gone Bad
  • National Women’s History Museum - American Revolution
  • American In Class - Civilians in the American Revolution
  • National Humanities Center - Religion and the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries -  The American Revolution: Religion
  • Library of Congress - Religion and the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Social Studies For Kids - Religion and the Church in the 13 American Colonies
  • Social Studies For Kids - Education in the 13 American Colonies
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Education
  • Oregon State University - Education in the Revolutionary Era
  • Prezi - Education During the Revolution Period (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Education in the Thirteen Colonies
  • Chesapeake College - Early National Education
  • Mackinac Center for Public Policy - Early Colonial Period to the American Revolution
  • Noah Webster House - Life in 1770s Connecticut
  • Rutgers University - The American Revolution in New Jersey 
  • Wikipedia - New Jersey in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - South Carolina in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Pennsylvania in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Virginia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Maryland in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Georgia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Massachusetts in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Massachusetts and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Connecticut in the American Revolution
  • Connecticut History - Revolutionary War, 1775-1783
  • United States History - Delaware and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - New Hampshire in the American Revolution
  • United States History - New Hampshire and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - North Carolina in the American Revolution
  • United States History - North Carolina and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Rhode Island in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Rhode Island and the American Revolution
  • Internet Archive - New York City during the American Revolution
  • Early America - New York City During the First Year of the Revolution
  • AM New York Newspaper - NYC Has A Lot More Revolutionary War History Than You Might Think
  • Wikipedia - Germans in the American Revolution
  • McGill University - Why Canada Did Not Join the American Revolution
  • Canadian War Museum - The American Revolution, 1775-1783
  • History Net - Invasion of Canada During the American Revolutionary War
  • Biography - Famous People in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - George Washington in the American Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Life as a Revolutionary War Soldier
  • Independence Hall Association - The War Experience: Soldiers, Officers, and Civilians
  • The Countryman Press - Soldier of the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution: Military Perspectives
  • Prezi - Daily Life of an American Soldier During The Revolutionary War (Video)
  • Independence Hall Association - American Revolution: Selections from the Diary of Private Joseph Plumb Martin
  • JSTOR Database - Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution 
  • U.S. National Park Service - Privateers in the American Revolution
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What did the people of Great Britain think of men like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson during the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What was popular British opinion of the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask - British Redditors, how were you taught the American Revolution?
  • Study - British Loyalists vs. American Patriots During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Patriots and Loyalists
  • Independence Hall Association - Loyalists, Fence-sitters, and Patriots
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History -  A patriot’s letter to his loyalist father, 1778
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Patriot
  • Wikipedia - Patriots in the American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - The Boston Patriots
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Loyalist
  • United States History - The Loyalists
  • Wikipedia - Loyalists in the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Loyalists During the American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Loyalist Women of the American Revolution
  • PBS - After the Revolution: A Midwife’s Tale
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Facts About British Soldiers
  • History.com - Tea Act: American Revolution
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - After the American Revolution: Free African Americans in the North
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - Revolutionary War and Its Aftermath
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - American Revolution- Part 6: A Troubled Aftermath
  • Brown University - The American Revolution and its Aftermath
  • About.com - The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
  • Prezi - The American Revolution and its Aftermath (Video)
  • NPR (National Public Radio) - What Happened To British Loyalists After The Revolutionary War?
  • The Atlantic - What If America Had Lost the Revolutionary War?
  • Teachinghistory.org - What If…? Reexamining the American Revolution
  • The Huffington Post - What If We’d Lost the American Revolution?
  • How Stuff Works - What if America had lost the Revolution?

Commerce

  • JSTOR Database - Prices and Inflation During the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, 1770-1790
  • The Food Timeline -  Colonial America & Fare
  • Wikipedia - Financial Costs of the American Revolutionary War
  • British Library - The American Revolution: The Costs of Empire - The Seven Years’ War and the Stamp Act Crisis
  • Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies - Revolutionary Money
  • Independence Hall Association - Following the Money
  • Ludwig von Mises Institute - Inflation and the American Revolution

Entertainment & Food

  • Massachusetts Historical Society - Newspapers from 1765 
  • Mount Vernon - Reporting the Revolutionary War
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Revolutionary War Newspapers
  • Assumption College - Newspapers in Revolutionary Era America & The Problems of Patriot and Loyalist Printers
  • Wikipedia - American Literature: Revolutionary Period
  • The Examiner - Literature of the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Music
  • University of Houston - Music and the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Revolutionary War Music
  • Independence Hall Association - Songs of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Songs of the American Revolutionary War
  • Smithsonian Folkways - American Revolutionary War Songs to Cultivate the Sensations of Freedom
  • Smithsonian - The Food the Fueled the American Revolution
  • National Museum of American History - What did soldiers eat during the Revolutionary War?
  • Wikipedia - Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies
  • American Revolution for Kids - Revolutionary Recipes
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Foodways
  • Independence Hall Association - Firecake Recipe
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Drinking in Colonial America
  • Serious Eats - 5 Colonial-Era Drinks You Should Know
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Dessert: A Look into the World of the 18th-century Confectioner!
  • Social Studies For Kids - Food in the 13 American Colonies
  • Wikipedia - 1760 in Poetry
  • Wikipedia - 1765 in Poetry
  • Prezi - Leisure Activities and Sports During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Journal of Sport History - Sports and Games of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • National Museum of American History - What did Revolutionary War soldiers have in their pockets?
  • Journal of the American Revolution - The Role of Dancing
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Dance During the Colonial Period

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • New York University Libraries - Health and Medicine in Revolutionary America
  • United States Department of the Air Force - Military Medicine During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
  • Tredyffrin Easttown Historical Society - Medicine in the Revolutionary War
  • Prezi - Health and Dental Care During the American Revolution (Video)
  • The Dallas Morning News -  Medical Care in the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Medicine
  • Office of Medical History - Medical Men in the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical Men in the American Revolution 1775-1783
  • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association - Naval and Maritime Medicine During the American Revolution
  • MedPage Today - George Washington, Smallpox, and the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information -  Drug Therapy in Colonial and Revolutionary America
  • Minnesota Wellness Publications -  The Revolutionary War: The History of Medicine
  • American Revolution - George Washington: A Dental Victim
  • Mount Vernon - The Trouble with Teeth
  • Project Gutenberg - Drug Supplies in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - To Bathe or Not to Bathe: Coming Clean in Colonial America
  • Revolutionary War Museum - Medicine and Hygiene
  • Independence Hall Association - Surgeons and Butchers
  • eHow - About Hygiene in Colonial Times
  • Legacy - Life and Death in The Liberty Era 1750-1800
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Revolutionary Fever: Disease and War in the Lower South, 1776–1783
  • Wikipedia - Disease in Colonial America
  • Army Heritage Center - A Deadly Scourge: Smallpox During the Revolutionary War
  • PBS - The 9 Deadly Diseases That Plagued George Washington
  • Mental Floss - Biological Warfare in the American Revolution?
  • Prezi -  Health Care And Hospitals During The American Revolution (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Physicians in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Surgery
  • Campbell University - The Colonial Family In America
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Colonial Medicine (PDF)
  • WebMD - Warm Up to Ginger
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Apothecary
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Th Art and Mystery of Apothecary
  • ehow - What Tools Did Apothecary Use in Colonial Times?
  • Williamsburg Tours - 18th Century Medical Practices in Colonial Williamsburg, VA.
  • ehow - How Did Colonial Doctors Work?
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Eighteenth-Century Medical Myths

Fashion

  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier 
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Clothing
  • American Revolution - Clothing 1770 - 1800
  • History of American Wars - Revolutionary War Uniforms
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Soldiers Uniforms and Gear
  • American Revolution - The Revolution And The New Republic, 1775-1800: Colonial Clothing
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Men’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Women’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Girl’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • ehow - Makeup & Hairsyles of the 1700s
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Stuff and Nonsense: Myths That Should by Now Be History
  • Wikipedia - 1775-95 in Western Fashion

Dialogue

  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Glossary and Terms
  • Colonial Quills - The Art of the Olde-Fashioned Insults
  • History of Redding - Exploring Period Vocabulary & Slang
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Military Slang of the Revolutionary War Era
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Puttin’ on the Dog: Adventures in the Idioms of Our Mother Tongue
  • Shmoop - The American Revolution Terms
  • HyperVocal - 38 Vulgar Terms From the 19th-Century Urban Dictionary

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Prisoners of War in the American Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon - Prisoners of War
  • Wikipedia - Militia Generals in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Crimes and Punishments
  • History.com - Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre: September 20, 1777
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - The Fate of Britain’s Convicts after the American Revolution
  • Early American Crime -  An Exploration of Crime, Criminals, And Punishments From America’s Past
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Cruel and Unusual: Prisons and Prison Reform
  • Slate - Did the Brits Burn Churches?
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Convict Labor During the Colonial Period
  • Wikipedia - Laws Leading to the American Revolution
  • Sam Houston State University - Military Punishments in the Continental Army
  • History.com - Pennsylvania militiamen senselessly murder Patriot allies: March 8, 1782
  • Mount Vernon - American Spies of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Boston Massacre
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
  • Wikipedia - United States Declaration of Independence
  • Independence Hall Association - Declaration of Independence
  • University of Groningen -  The Final Text of the Declaration of Independence July 4 1776
  • Library of Congress - Declaration of Independence
  • History.com -  Declaration of Independence: American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - When Does the Revolution End?
  • Study - Effects of the American Revolution: Lesson & Quiz
  • Net Industries - The Early Years of American Law - Colonial Freedom, Britain’s Push For Greater Control, A New Start, A New Criminal Court System
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Facts About Prisoners of War
2

Phyllis Wheatley was the first African-American to be published in America. She was also a slave. 

She was sold into slavery at the age of 7. Her owners educated her with their children, and encouraged her talents, and in 1773 she published this book of poetry. Not believing that she could actually have produced this on her own, she was actually quizzed and tested by a panel who ended up saying she had proved that she wrote the poems.

She was freed in 1774 and died in 1784 at the age of 31. 

10

We commemorate the legacy of El Hajj Malik El Shabazz, also known as Malcolm X, on the day he was assassinated, February 21st, 1965.

Words cannot describe his revolutionary contributions to the struggle for liberation and self-determination. We can only witness the products of his words and actions in the work that goes on to this day by warriors who he inspired to fight and free us all from what Malcolm called, “this miserable condition that exists on this earth.”

We must see in our organizing work that there are thousands upon thousands of potential Malcolm X’s, from the rotten schools to the prisons. There is hope.

He famously said, “If you don’t stand for something, you will fall for anything.” So we ask you, where do you stand in the face of injustice?

Rest in Power Malcolm. You will never die as long as we fight for the change you hoped to see. ALL POWER TO THE PEOPLE!