african resistance



We are not come to wage a strife

With swords upon this hill,

It is not wise to waste the life

Against a stubborn will.

Yet we would die as some have done.

Beating a way for the rising sun.

Arna Bontemps, African American poet, historian and librarian, born October 13, 1902.

… [I]n some (perhaps many) cities, discriminatory property assessments left [African Americans] with less disposable income than whites with similar earnings. … An investigation of 1962 assessment practices in Boston, for example, found that assessed values in the African American community of Roxbury were 68 percent of market values, while assessed values in the nearby white middle-class community of West Roxbury were 41 percent of market values. The researchers could not find a nonracial explanation for the difference.

Seventeen years later, an analysis of Chicago assessments found the most underassessed neighborhood to be Bridgeport, the all-white home of Mayor Richard J. Daley, where resistance to African Americans was among the most violent in the nation. Bridgeport assessed values were about 50 percent lower than the legally prescribed ratio of assessed-to-market value; in the nearby African American North Lawndale neighborhood, they were about 200 percent higher than the legally prescribed ratio.

In a 1973 study of ten large U.S. cities, the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) found a systematic pattern of overassessment in low-income African American neighborhoods, with corresponding underassessment in white middle-class neighborhoods. The study revealed that in Baltimore, the property tax burden in the white middle-class community of Guilford, near Johns Hopkins University, was one-ninth that of African American East Baltimore. In Philadelphia the burden in white middle-class South Philadelphia was one-sixth that of African American Lower North Philadelphia. In Chicago the burden in white middle-class Norwood was one-half that of African American Woodlawn. The report provoked no action by the U.S. Department of Justice. Considering all these studies, the differences are too stark and consistent to make benign explanations likely.

The higher property taxes paid by African American owners—and through their landlords, by African American renters—contributed to the deterioration of their neighborhoods. After taxes, families had fewer funds left for maintenance, and some were forced to take in boarders or extended family members to pay their property taxes.

In Chicago, excessive taxation also led to loss of homes by African Americans because speculators were permitted to pay off delinquent tax liabilities and then seize the properties, evict the owners, and then resell the houses at enormous profit. Because African Americans’ property taxes were often higher relative to market value, black families were more likely to be delinquent in tax payments and more likely to be prey for speculators who could seize their houses after paying off the taxes due. There are no contemporary studies of assessed-to-market value ratios by community and by race, so we cannot say whether discriminatory tax assessments persist to the present time, and if so, in which communities. In cities like Baltimore and Cleveland, however, African Americans are still more likely than whites to lose homes through tax-lien repossessions.

Costs of segregation attributable to discriminatory assessment practices, suffered by an unknown number of African Americans, are not trivial. This was not simply a result of vague and ill-defined “structural racism” but a direct consequence of county assessors’ contempt for their Fourteenth Amendment responsibilities, another expression of de jure segregation.

Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law is a pretty good book

Almost from the time that Spaniards began importing Africans to work the Cauca River gold diggings in Colombia, blacks managed to escape; a few sought refuge among the Manabi and Mantux Indian tribes of the tropical coast of northwestern Ecuador. The zambo descendants of these blacks and Indians became tribal leaders and created a major Pacific-coast headquarters known as El Portete.51

This particular settlement acted as a kind of beacon, attracting other bondmen who chose to flee rather than accept a living death panning the streams of southern Colombia for gold dust. It also attracted the attention of the Spaniards, not only because it was a haven for fugitive slaves but also because it was an ideal base for ships sailing between Panama and Peru. Occasional Spanish vessels in trouble attempted to land at El Portete but where driven away by the attacks of the zambo-led tribesmen. In 1556, therefore, Gil Ramírez Dávalos, governor of the audiencia of Quito, began sending troops to smash the troublesome Afro-Indians and seize the town. He succeeded in capturing the settlement, but the rebels reverted to guerrilla tactics. The troops holding El Portete fell victim to malaria and other tropical diseases at an alarming rate and eventually evacuated the area.

Subsequent efforts to subdue the Afro-Indians failed, and Francisco Arias de Herrera broke the stalemate in 1598 by drawing up a compact with the zambo leaders in which the latter agreed to accept the nominal suzerainty of the king of Spain.52 For all practical purposes, however, they remained autonomous.

This was not to be the final example of African-controlled Indian groups resisting Spanish domination in northwest Ecuador. In 1650 a slave ship proceeding from Panama foundered in a storm off Cape Francisco. Two dozen slaves managed to scramble ashore, murdered the Spaniards who survived the wreck, and somehow established themselves as rulers among the local Indians and zambos. Eventually emerging as chief of these liberated blacks was the ladino Alonso de Illescas. Later, thanks largely to good fortune and a combination of resourcefulness and ruthlessness, he established himself as suzerain over all Negroids and Indians in the present-day provinces of Esmeraldas, Imbabura, and Pinchincha.53 Illescas also battled to a standstill the infrequent Spanish expeditions sent into his domain. Not until early in the eighteenth century, when Pedro Vicente Maldonado y Sotomayor cut a trail from the mountain capital of Quito to the northwestern coast of Ecuador, would Spain exercise more than shadowy authority over the region.

—  [Leslie B. Rout, Jr., The African Experience in Spanish America, p. 116-117]

Family that fights together. Bbrae

The the cold steel of the trap dug painfully into the back paw of the young cub, producing a blood curdling cry of pure agonizing pain. The cub couldn’t have been more then a few weeks old, just enough to follow the false scent of food away from it’s mother and into the jungle, unattended. It quickly learned the dangers of leaving the safety of it’s family, a painful lesson as he thrashed and bit at the trap that held it bound. Laughing and whooping soon sounded through the jungle as a pair of men pounced on the poor lion cub.

“A good catch yes?” One asked in Swahili.

“Let’s get it out of here before it’s mother realizes it’s gone.”

The poachers advanced on the Young cub who was now biting and clawing at his attackers. Attempts that made the men laugh, but not loud enough to drown out the horrifying roar that ripped through the African forest.

They froze. Horror made their blood run cold as one of the muttered in breathless fear, “Mnyama. (The Beast)”

His partner slapped his arm. “You said it wouldn’t find is in the dark!”

Before his partner could retort another roar shook the trees that surrounded them, forcing them to abandon their prize and sprint back to their Jeep. Rumors had circulated about a creature that would attack would be poachers, but these two, plus many others, had chalked it up to a fairy tale. It would make sense to create a Beast that would attack hunters thus clearing the way for themselves to get the better prizes.

But now, with a hairy, clawed, fanged, and green monstrosity baring down on them, it was easy to see just how wrong they were.

It was all in a days work for Garfield Logan. Former member of the Doom Patrol And Teen Titans, now working solo in the fields of Africa protecting the wildlife from illegal hunting and poaching, and on occasion legal hunting. Of course he never actually killed anyone, just scared the ever living holy hell out of them before turning them over to the proper authorities. Poaching wasn’t high on a lot of lists when it came to crime, but letting the bad guys know that the jungle was protected by a green shape shifter, made them think twice about coming back.

He left the hunters at the local police station before returning the cub to its family. It’s grateful mother took the cub lovingly into her arms, before tending to the little ones wounds. It’s brothers and sisters pounced playfully onto their returned sibling. Saving cities and people was one thing, but Gar felt an incredible amount of satisfaction protecting those of which he felt a deep, and sometimes spiritual, connection to.

He smiled just as the phone in his pocket began ringing, startling the lioness. “Heh, sorry.” He glanced at it he device in his hand before his eyes went wide. “SHIT! IM LATE!” He changed into a falcon and took to the sky.

She only dolled herself up a handful of times throughout her life and each time it had been for a special occasion. This of course wasn’t one of them, but for the sake of this undercover assignment it called for her to “stand out”. Dressed in a blood red dress with crossing straps across the chest that revealed her alabaster assets and a long slit going up the side of her right leg, she definitely stood out and quickly had gotten the African Warlords attention. She resisted the urge to gag when her empathic senses informed her of his lust, and primal hunger when his eyes locked with hers, especially since she was told he preferred woman of a younger variety. Sure she was in her twenties, but she retained her youthful features giving her a much younger look. Again not ideal, but for this mission, was necessary.

He hadn’t been talking with her for a minute before his hands found his way to the exposed skin of her pale leg and snaked his way upwards. She responded with a playful slap and a wag of her finger, again fighting the bile that rose in her throat. Luckily he excepted it as a playful tease, and their game continued until he was just the right amount of drunk and led her to his bedroom.

Now that she was in the home stretch she decided for a big finish before bringing it all home. She pushed him onto the bed and placed herself on top of him, her knees on either side of his torso and crooned into his ear. “How is a man, who came from nothing as successful as you.”

She definitely had an ear for languages and learning to speak and read Swahili was a cakewalk for her even if she still struggled when listening to it. Especially when the speaker was slurring his words in a drunken stupor. But she was able to pick the one word she needed.

“Shetani. (The devil)”

She grinned. “That’s all I needed to hear.” He stared with confusion, but that quickly shifted into horror when her eyes began to glow a dark red before splitting into four.

“Dear god love, what did you do to him?”

Raven glanced over her shoulder at the shaking and practically comatose man at Constantine’s feet and shrugged. “You told me no killing, so I just scared the living hell outta him. Made sure to give him a sneak peek to where he’s heading when he does die.”

Constantine’s mouth was agape as he stared in shock at her back in shock. Completely oblivious to how exposed the dress had made it and how well it hugged her backside. “Well did you at least-”

“-right here.” Raven opened a secret door on the other side of the bedroom revealing a small room with a blood soaked alter and a human heart placed in the center. “Virgin heart and a black alter. Definitely demon worship going on.” She stared back at the man, with malice in her violet eyes. “No more slaughtered innocent woman for his sick pleasure.”

Constantine looked over the findings before chuckling. “Nice work love.”

She allowed herself a smile before catching a glimpse at the clock by the bed. “SHIT IM LATE!” With a wave of her hand a black portal appeared before her.

“Wait where are you going?!”

“Sorry John I just have to get going. You can handle it from here can’t you?”. She didn’t wait from him to respond as she stepped into the abyss she had created, vanishing to points unknown and leaving a confused Englishman to figure out what to do next.

Garfield was seated on the couch in his living room tuning his guitar when a portal spit out his wife. He smirked at his usually punctual mate. “Your late.”

She rolled her eyes as she removed her heels, easily losing an inch of height. “Your one to talk.”

He snickered again as he got to his feet. “Shall we?” The pair made their way down the hall were an elderly woman with long, graying brown hair stood in front of a door with her arms folded. “Your late.”

“Yeah, Yeah, we know.” Gar kissed Rita on the cheek, “thanks for watching them mom.” Then he and his wife stepped around her opening the door that led into a darkened bedroom that was illuminated by a single nightlight in the shape of the Batman symbol. Gar got his guitar ready at his fingertips as he and his wife took positions around the crib staring down into the two tiny green inhabitants.

Mark and Maria were only a couple months old, and already asleep, but their parents decided a long time ago that they would always be there to sing the two to sleep, even if they already were. Beast Boy began strumming while Raven began to sing a sweet and soft tune that was beautiful even with her usually monotone and gravelly voice. The twins stirred, but only slightly, and settled in for a full and peaceful nights sleep.

Thanks to @loubuggins for pushing me to write this.

“Hope is a far cry from a French Quarter fortune teller”

 a French Quarter fortune teller

a French Quarter fortune teller

a French Quarter fortune-


WELL if you hold the Quarter and its witches in so much contempt why the fuck are you in New Orleans trying to establish some empire or whatever the fuck your family has been doing for the past few seasons hmm????

GOD i swore i wouldn’t rant about this show and it’s bald faced anti blackness because WHAT WOULD BE THE POINT but goddamn “french quarter fortune teller” was the last mfking straw.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

what can blacks learn from countries such as norway and denmark? what policies can we adapt to build up developing black nations?

The Social Democracies of Western Europe can’t really teach African shit that African don’t already know.  They can teach us that White Liberals is as willing to sustain and advance the Systems and Institutions of Global White Domination as White Conservatives are. 

These homogeneous White utopias have a very toxic underbelly. Their wealth came from doing business with and providing services for the Imperialist nations in Europe; their wealth is as bloody as the wealth of England, Germany, France.  Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Iceland are allies of the Enemies of Africa and will do all they can to sustain the Global Economic Status Quo which is the wealth of the Global South is stolen and invested in the Global North.

Also, as soon as their ill-gotten wealth drys up, so does their liberalism, their cosmopolitanism, their progressiveism; they revert to Overt Racism and Hyper-Aggression just like all other White nations when they are cut off from or they squander their stolen wealth. 

Hell, they don’t even have to wait for the loot to run out, all of these Progressive Western Social Democracy have strong White Nationalist and Nazi Parties active among the citizens.  

Just look up groups like the Patriotic People’s Movement, or the Nordic Resistance Movement. 

Africans should study these nations, but from an oppositional point of view, not as models for Africa; African started both civilization and socialism; so we have within us the model on how to construct and operate a Socialist State, we don’t need a European Mockery of African Socialism. 

#NaijaResistance : #BroDiallo : #AWO


September 24th 1537: First Mexican slave rebellion

On this day in 1537, the first rebellion of African slaves occurred in the Spanish colony of Mexico. Despite 1537 being relatively early in the history of Atlantic slavery, this was not the first such revolt in Latin America, with rebellions dating back from 1512. Mexican slavery expanded following the rise of silver mines and sugar plantations - labour-intensive work which required importation of more slaves from Africa. This created concentrated slave populations, as in Mexico City, and saw slaves outnumber Spanish conquistadors. Additionally, slaves were aware of the political turmoil that beset the Spanish king, and seized on this information to plan their revolt. The rebellion was a co-ordinated decision between slaves and Native Americans in Mexico City and Tlaltelolco to murder their Spanish oppressors, led by a chosen slave king. The uprising was planned for midnight on September 24th, but the plans were thwarted when one slave revealed the plot to Viceroy Mendoza. The viceroy - the Spanish representative in the colony - ordered the arrest of the ringleaders. One female and four male slaves were executed for their role in the plot, with Native Americans acting on the viceroy’s orders and killing the instigators themselves. The plot worried the Spanish authorities, and the viceroy suspended the dispatch of new slaves to Mexico to prevent further rebellions. This incident demonstrates that African slaves continually resisted their oppression, as whilst this was the first rebellion in Mexico, it was by no means the last. Mexican slaves rejected their enslavement not just with violent uprisings, but also by establishing runaway slave settlements called ‘palenques’. Slave resistance was thus ubiquitous during the centuries preceding the abolition of slavery in Mexico in 1829.

This land belongs to the Indigenous people. This is a fact that the African People’s Socialist Party is clear on and expresses continuously.

What is evident here is that the construction of the pipeline is a reflection of settler colonialism. Still, the Indigenous people of this land have no self-determination and exist at the whim and mercy of the colonizer––foreigners.

The struggle against colonialism must be made. All attempts for the struggle to be co-opted by the white left and turned into an environmentalist struggle must be struggled against. We see plenty white activists, celebrities and politicians infiltrating the struggle, lamenting on how we need to save the Earth.

In reality, it is the system of parasitic capitalism, created and upheld by these same white people, which is responsible for the damage of our planet. Parasitic capitalism sacrifices the Earth’s natural resources and well-being of its inhabitants for the monetary gain of the white ruling class and capitalist corporations. We should not lose sight of this.

The African People’s Socialist Party, stands in solidarity with our Indigenous sisters and brothers. We, too, demand “No Dakota Access Pipeline”!

Smash colonialism

Smash Parasitic Capitalism

This land belongs to the Indigenous people!

—  Kalonda Mulamba, African People’s Socialist Party
Writing Research - American Civil War

The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy. Among the 34 states in January 1861, seven Southern slaves states individually declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. 

The Confederacy, often simply called the South, grew to include eleven states, and although they claimed thirteen states and additional western territories, the Confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by a foreign country. The states that remained loyal and did not declare secession were known as the Union or the North. The war had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery, especially the extension of slavery into the western territories.

After four years of combat, which left over 600,000 Union and Confederate soldiers dead and destroyed much of the South’s infrastructure, the Confederacy collapsed and slavery was abolished. Then began the Reconstruction and the processes of restoring national unity and guaranteeing civil rights to the freed slaves. [1]


  • Social Security: Popular Names
  • University of Texas at Tyler - Female First Names in the 1860 Smith County, Texas, Census
  • Webster University - 1860 Census: Alphabetical List By Last Names
  • Civil War Blog - Popular Men’s Names of the Civil War
  • Civil War Blog - Popular Women’s Names from the Civil War
  • British Baby Names - Top 200 Most Popular Names in England and Wales in 1860

Society & Life

  • Civil War - A Brief Overview of the American Civil War
  • History Channel - American Civil War History
  • - American Civil War
  • U.S. National Park Service - The Civil War
  • PBS - The Civil War
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Civil War
  • Encyclopædia Britannica - American Civil War: United States History
  • Massachusetts Civil War Research Center
  • - Top Five Causes of the Civil War
  • - The Civil War Begins, April 12, 1861
  • Eyewitness To History - The First Shot of the Civil War, 1861
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - The Southern Homefront, 1861 - 1865
  • Library of Congress - The South During the Civil War
  • Independence Hall Association -  The Southern Homefront
  • Independence Hall Association -  The Northern Homefront
  • Newberry Library - Home Front: The Visual Culture of the Civil War North
  • Chicago Tonight - Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North
  • Newberry Library - Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North
  • Civil War Trust - North and South: Different Cultures, Same Country
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - North-South Comparisons
  • Scholastic Corporation - Compare Two Worlds: North  vs South
  • Civil War Trust - On the Homefront Articles
  • Virginia Historical Society - Surviving War: The Home Front
  • James E. Walker Library -  The Home Front During The Civil War (PDF)
  • Smithsonian Institution - Life and Culture Introduction: American Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Children on the Home Front
  • Civil War Trust - Children in the Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Children on the Battlefield
  • PBS - Kids in the Civil War
  • Ducksters - Children During the Civil War
  • North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources -  Children of the Civil War (PDF)
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Childhood in the Civil War
  • Eastern Illinois University -  Children During the Civil War (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - The Civil War Through a Child’s Eye: Lesson Overview
  • American Civil War - Civil War Diary of Carrie Berry: First Hand Account Of War Through The Eyes Of A Child
  • Civil War Saga - Child Soldiers in the Civil War
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - Children and the American Civil War
  • Prezi - A War They Didn’t Understand: Child Soldiers of the American Civil War (Video)
  • Civil War Trust - Education During the 1860s
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Schools for Freed Peoples, 1860s
  • Encyclopedia of Chicago - Schools and Education
  • Loyola University New Orleans - Women’s Rights Before the Civil War
  • Civil War Women Blog - Women’s Rights Before the Civil War
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - Lesson 5: Women’s Lives Before the Civil War
  • Eyewitness To History - Good Manners for Young Ladies, 1859
  • The New York Times - The Civil War and the Southern Belle
  • Duke University Libraries - Primary Sources Online: The Civil War: Women and the Homefront
  • Civil War Saga - The Roles of Women in the Civil War
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Women Soldiers of the Civil War, Part 3 
  • - Women in the Civil War
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Women and the Civil War
  • James E. Walker Library - Women and the Civil War (PDF)
  • HistoryNet - Women In The Civil War
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia - Women During the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - Women in the American Civil War
  • Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media - Women in the US Military: Civil War Era
  • National Education Association -  Women in the American Civil War
  • Smithsonian - The Women Who Fought in the Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Female Soldiers in the Civil War
  • Ducksters - Civil War: Women
  • CBS News - Women of the Civil War (Photos)
  • The Washington Post - Women Soldiers Fought, Bled, and Died in the Civil War, Then Were Forgotten
  • Smithsonian - Women Spies of the Civil War
  • Civil War - Soldier Life in the Civil War
  • Ducksters - Life as a Soldier During the Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Life of the Civil War Soldier in Camp
  • Civil War Trust - Life of the Civil War Soldier in the Army
  • Civil War Trust - Life of the Civil War Soldier in Battle
  • Civil War - Soldiers’ Homes during the Civil War
  • Ducksters - Daily Life During the Civil War
  • U.S. National Park Service -  The Civilian Experience in the Civil War
  • Twinkle - Civilian Life during the Civil War
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Family Life During the Civil War
  • Civil War - Pets in the Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Civil War Animal Mascots
  • Civil War - Religion in the Civil War
  • National Humanities Center - Religion in the Civil War: The Northern Perspective
  • Ducksters - African Americans During the Civil War
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  Black Soldiers in the Civil War 
  • - Black Civil War Soldiers
  • Library of Congress - African-American Soldiers During the Civil War
  • HistoryNet -  African Americans in the Civil War
  • PBS -  Timeline: African Americans in the Civil War
  • Kansas Historical Society -  African American Civil War Soldiers
  • TIME -  African-American Soldiers in the Civil War (Photos)
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Black Soldiers in the Civil War
  • -  Portraits of Black Soldiers Show Forgotten Faces of Civil War (Photos)
  • National Geographic - African Americans in the Civil War: Equality Earned With Blood
  • Civil War Trust - The Importance of African-American Soldiers in Civil War History 
  • Ms. Magazine - The Brave Black Women Who Were Civil War Spies
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  From Slave Women to Free Women: The National Archives and Black Women’s History in the Civil War Era
  • Civil War Women - African American Women in the Civil War
  • Library of Congress - Photographs of Women During the Civil War: African American Women (Photos)
  • C‑SPAN - African-American Women Civil War (Video)
  • American Civil War - Civil War Soldiers Letters Home
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  Why are letters written by American Civil War soldiers so well worded and articulate even though the majority of soldiers weren’t very well educated?
  • PBS -  The Civil War and Emancipation
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Facts About the Stave Trade and Slavery
  • Civil War Home - Slavery In The Civil War Era
  • Eyewitness To History - A Slave’s Life: Elizabeth Keckley
  • Eyewitness To History - Slave Auction, 1859
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  Are there any filmed interviews from the late 1920s-30s of elderly persons recounting their lives during the Civil War, etc?
  • Civil War Trust - Slavery in the United States
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Slavery During the Civil War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  How were the former slaves actually freed after the American Civil War? What was the process? Did many former slave owners get killed by their former slaves, or did people mostly leave peacefully?
  • The New York Times - How Slavery Really Ended in America
  • Library of Congress - Pre-Civil War African-American Slavery
  • The Huffington Post - The Civil War Was About Slavery: Confederate Leaders Were Totally Clear On This
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Did African Americans violently resist racist crimes against them after the Civil War?
  • Eyewitness To History - The American Civil War
  • - American Civil War Ends: June 02, 1865
  • Civil War - Life After the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - Conclusion of the American Civil War
  • Smithsonian -  The Gentleman’s Agreement That Ended the Civil War 
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How does a large modern battlefield get cleaned up after fighting ends?
  • Eyewitness To History - The Ku Klux Klan, 1868
  • Civil War Trust - 10 Facts You Should Know About the Civil War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  What are the biggest perpetuated misconceptions bout the Civil War?
  • The Guardian - The American Civil War Then And Now: Interactive
  • Synonym - The Common Age of Marriage for Women During the American Civil War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  Where were Hispanics and other races (immigrants and such) during times such as slavery or the Civil War?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  What was going on in Canada during the US Civil War?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  How were the blacks treated in Canada prior to the American Civil War?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  Did the United Kingdom ever consider intervening in the American Civil War? Did any world power? If so, why?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  How did Native Americans view and act during the American Civil War?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  What was Mexico and Canada’s reaction to the American civil war? Were there any foreign volunteers or mercenaries?
  • PBS - The Civil War: Key Figures
  • University of Northern Iowa - Important People: Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Wikipedia - People of the American Civil War
  • U.S. National Park Service - Abraham Lincoln: The War Years 1861 - 1865
  • Civil War Trust - Abraham Lincoln
  • - American Civil War: George McClellan
  • - American Civil War: James Longstreet
  • - American Civil War: Stonewall Jackson
  • - Stonewall Jackson


  • Food Timeline -  American Civil War: Prices & Fluctuation
  • University of Missouri - 1860s-1869: Prices and Wages Guide
  • Choosing Voluntary Simplicity - What Did Things Cost in 1860?
  • Vintage Ad Browser - Vintage Industry Ads of the 1860s
  • Wikipedia - United States Note
  • Antique Money - Rare Ten Dollar Bills From The 1860s
  • Antique Money - Rare Five Dollar Bills From The 1860s
  • Antique Money - Rare Twenty Dollar Bills From The 1860s
  • The Coin Database - 1860 United States Coins
  • U.S. National Park Service - Industry and Economy during the Civil War
  • History Central - Economics and the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - Issues of the American Civil War: Economic Issues
  • Foundation for Economic Education - The Economic Costs of the Civil War

Entertainment & Food

  • Civil War - Music of the Civil War Soldiers
  • Civil War Trust - Music of the 1860′s
  • Wikipedia - 1860 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1860s Songs
  • Wikipedia - Songs of the American Civil War
  • Smithsonian Folkways - Songs of the Civil War
  • PBS - The Civil War: Civil War Music
  • Civil War - Soldier’s Food during the Civil War
  • PBS - Civil War Cooking: What the Union Soldiers Ate
  • Civil War Trust -  What Did Civil War Soldiers Eat? (PDF)
  • - Desecrated Vegetables: The Hardships of Civil War Eating
  • Wikipedia - Foods of the American Civil War
  • UNC‑TV - Cooking During The Civil War
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Food During the Civil War
  • Mariners’ Museum - Bad Food in the Civil War
  • Visit Gettysburg - Civil War Recipes and Civil War Food
  • Civil War Saga - Civil War Food
  • Serious Eats -  Parched Corn and Rye Coffee: Eating as a Civil War Soldier
  • Vintage Cookbooks - 1860-1879 Cookbooks
  • Library of Congress - Civil War: Thanksgiving Foods
  • Chattanooga Times Free Press - Whiskey and the War: Alcohol Played a Role in the Civil War
  • Examiner - Alcoholic Beverages And The Civil War
  • The New York Times - How Coffee Fueled the Civil War
  • CNN - How Coffee Played A Role In The Civil War
  • HistoryNet - Soldiers Loved a Refreshing Cup of Coffee
  • Vintage Ad Browser - Vintage Candy Advertisement of the 1860s
  • Civil War Trust - Pastimes of the 1860′s
  • Civil War - Leisure Activities during the Civil War
  • Civil War Trust - Christmas During the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - Christmas in the American Civil War
  • Civil War Saga - Christmas During the Civil War
  • C‑SPAN - Civil War Christmas Traditions (Video)
  • Library of Congress - At Christmas People Did Not Have Luxuries
  • Civil War Trust - Lincoln’s Thanksgiving Proclamation
  • - Lincoln Proclaims Official Thanksgiving Holiday
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  Since Thanksgiving was proclaimed a national holiday by Abraham Lincoln in 1863, was there any resistance to celebrating the holiday in the South after the Civil War?
  • The Huffington Post -  Thanksgiving and Civil War
  • National Museum of American History -  Baked Beans, Coffee, and Bread: A Civil War Thanksgiving
  • eHow - What Games Did Children Play in the 1860s?
  • Wikipedia - Five-Card Stud
  • Vintage Ad Browser - Vintage Books, Magazines and Newspaper Ads of the 1860s

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • Civil War - Sickness and Disease in the Civil War
  • Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania - Biting the Bullet: the Legacy of Civil War Medicine (PDF)
  • National Museum of Civil War Medicine - Civil War Museum Exhibits
  • Ohio State University - Civil War Battlefield Medicine
  • University of Toledo - Medicine in the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - Medicine in the American Civil War
  • Terms Used In Civil War Medicine
  • Civil War Trust - Civil War Medicine
  • Mental Floss UK - 5 Medical Innovations of the American Civil War
  • National Geographic Channel - Civil War Medicine
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical Advances During the Civil War
  • Discovery News - How the Civil War Change Modern Medicine
  • Smithsonian - Six Ways the Civil War Changed American Medicine
  • Smithsonian Channel -  The Gruesome Reality of Civil War Medicine (Video)
  • The Patriot‑News -  Civil War Helped Shape Today’s Medical Practices
  • Virginia Commonwealth University - Civil War Medicine
  • TIME - How a Bloody Civil War Battle Changed Modern Medicine
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham - Civil War Medical Figures
  • - African Americans in Medicine in the Civil War Era
  • The Atlantic - How Racism Creeps Into Medicine
  • United States National Library of Medicine -  Binding Wounds, Pushing Boundaries: African Americans in Civil War Medicine
  • Civil War Scholars - African-Americans, Women, War Medicine – George Wunderlich
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Exhibit Highlights Role of African Americans in Civil War Medicine 
  • Civil War Women Blog - Black Civil War Nurses
  • National Museum of American History - The Diary of a Civil War Nurse: A Wartime Role for Women
  • Wikipedia - American Civil War Nurses
  • Civil War Trust - Georgeanna Woolsey : A Day in the Life of a Northern Nurse
  • Hektoen International Journal - Nursing During the US Civil War: A Movement Toward the Professionalization of Nursing
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online -  Women at the Front: Hospital Workers in Civil War America
  • Vintage Ad Browser - Vintage Medicine Ads of the 1860s
  • Rochester General Health System - Civil War Medicine And The Rochester Hospital
  • North Carolina Digital History - Civil War Army Hospitals
  • Wikipedia - American Civil War Hospitals
  • American Civil War - Civil War Medicine and Surgical History
  • - Military Hospitals in the American Civil War
  • HistoryNet - The Truth About Civil War Surgery
  • The Daily Mail - Civil War Surgery: The Grisly Photos that Show How Soldiers Gritted their Teeth for Surgery in the American Civil War (Photos)
  • United States National Library of Medicine - Life and Limb: The Toll of the American Civil War
  • Ohio State University - Civil War Battlefield Surgery
  • Thomas Jefferson University - Civil War Surgery Manuals Go Digital
  • Christian Broadcasting Network -  Determined to Serve: Black Doctors in the Civil War
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Civil War Medical Tools (PDF)
  • Smithsonian - Touring the Tools of Civil War Medicine
  • Samford University - U. S. Civil War Era Surgical Tool Kit (Photo)
  • JSTOR - Disease & Infection in the American Civil War
  • PBS - The Civil War By the Numbers: Deaths
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Deadly Diseases: A Fate Worse than Dying on the Battlefield
  • Armstrong State University - Suffering in Silence: Psychological Disorders and Soldiers in the American Civil War
  • University of Houston -  The State of African Americans in the South
  • Wikipedia - Sex in the American Civil War
  • Case Western Reserve University - History of Contraception: The Civil War: Sex and Soldiers
  • Synonym -  Hygiene in the Civil War


  • HistoryNet - Civil War Uniforms
  • Wikipedia - Uniforms of the American Civil War
  • Ducksters - Civil War Uniforms
  • Civil War - Clothing of the Civil War Soldiers
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Clothing, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Hats, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Hairstyles, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Fashion Accessories, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Men’s Clothing, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Men’s Hats, 1860s
  • University of Vermont - Men’s Hairstyles, 1860s
  • Wikipedia - 1860s in Western Fashion
  • Visit Gettysburg - Civil War Women’s Clothing
  • Business Insider - Best Civil War Beards And Mustaches
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Shoes at Gettysburg
  • - Civil War: Artifacts (Photos)
  • Vintage Ad Browser - Vintage Clothes/Fashion Ads of the 1860s


  • Citrus County School District - Slang of the American Civil War (PDF)
  • Civil War Trust - Civil War Slang (PDF)
  • Civil War Trust - Glossary of Civil War Terms

Justice & Crime

  • Civil War - Discipline in the Civil War
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Military Executions During the Civil War
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Civil War Deserters: Cowards or Heroes? (PDF)
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Is there any evidence of soldiers “switching sides” during the American Civil War?
  • Esquire - Punishment And Torture In The Civil War
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - Re-evaluating Discipline and Manhood in the Union Army
  • The Atlantic - Gender, Race, and Rape During the Civil War
  • The New York Times - Rape and Justice in the Civil War
  • University at Albany, SUNY - Rape in the American Civil War: Race, Class, and Gender in the Case of Harriet McKinley and Perry Pierson
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Black Soldiers in the Civil War: Black POW Treatment
  • Wikipedia - Massacres of the American Civil War
  • Civil War - Weapons of the Civil War Soldiers
  • Civil War - Army Camps of the Civil War
  • Civil War - Military Drills of the Civil War
  • Wikipedia - 1860s Crimes
  • - Civil War Guerilla Leaders
  • Wikipedia - Supreme Court Cases of the American Civil War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians -  How were deserters treated after the US Civil War?
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Civilian describes pillaging near Gettysburg, 1863
  • Quora - Were civilian women raped during the American Civil War as frequently as they are in modern civil wars?
Throughout the twentieth century, black women persisted in telling their stories…Their testimonies spilled out in letters to the Justice Department and appeared on the front pages of the nation’s leading black newspapers. Black women regularly denounced their sexual misuse. By deploying their voices as weapons in the wars against white supremacy, whether in the church, the courtroom, or in congressional hearings, African-American women loudly resisted what Martin Luther King, Jr., called the “thingification”, of their humanity. Decades before radical feminists in the women’s movement urges rape survivors to “speak out,” African-American women’s public protests galvanized local, national, and even international outrage and sparked larger campaigns for racial justice and human dignity. When Recy Taylor spoke out against her assailants and Rosa Parks and her allies in Montgomery mobilized in defense of her womanhood in 1944, they joined this tradition of testimony and protest.

Danielle L. McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape and Resistance–A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power

(also more reasons why the “wave” way of looking at feminism is problematic as all hell. It ignores the work Black women have been doing by centering the Feminist time-line only on White women’s political work)