Vanichi Magazine partners with The Africa Channel to present “What If Movie Icons Wore African Fashion?” (#WIMIWAF).

This creative fashion editorial imagines an alternate reality where iconic Hollywood film characters dress in modern, handcrafted fashion from designers of Africa and the African Diaspora. 

Designers include Senegal-based brand SARAYAA, TEGAA, a Gambia-based jewelry line, Egyptian designer AMMANII, M ANDREWS sartorial luxury based in San Antonio, Texas, Nigerian brand OBIOMA, eyewear designer BURKINABAE, menswear designer KENNETH NICHOLSON, Ghana + NYC brand STUDIO ONE EIGHTY NINE (co-founded by Rosario Dawson), Sierra Leone + USA brand BADARA and Lagos-based luxury brand MINKU.

PHOTO: Juhn Kwon.
HAIR + MAKEUP: Karen Bates-Ashey.
STYLIST: Jordan Swain.
BlCREATIVE DIRECTORS: Joy Donnell + Jordan Swain.


Elle Drane 

Sara Ishag

Tia Hurley

Chanelle Renee

Celisse Graves

Jonathan Stanton

Isaiah Lucas


Elijah-Allan Blitz

Jordan Swain

It’s been a great week - part South Africa.2

Cape Town is done and although there were choppy waters and at least one tidal wave, we have survived. In honor of their first week in South Africa, I present South Africa.2 aka the last week in South Africa. Here we go!

Originally posted by quotesfromscrubs

Tuesday, June 13

Outlander is coming to the UK!!!!

Wednesday, June 14

Cait reminds us that we’re getting close to the end of filming with a cute photo.

I just… don’t even know what this is, but I do know it’s inappropriate.

Friday, June 16

The final day of filming on season three of Outlander.

Really, that’s it. I was kind of hoping for something a little better. *scrolls some more* Nope, that’s it. *heavy dose of judgement and side-eye*




All bets are off, we are trash and happy to be there.

Even Cait joins in with her comment on Sam’s photo.

Good question Cait, what are you about to cheers?

Starz decides that we’ve lived a good life and kills us dead with this BTS (behind the scenes, Sam and Cait, not Jamie and Claire for those of you in the back) photo on set.

I mean really!

Another amazing gesture of appreciation for the crew from Sam AND Cait. I love that they are a united team when it comes to showing how much the care about the people they interact with every day.

And now we party! Have we confirmed that Cait hasn’t found the fountain of youth. The woman is stunning and I love her fringe. I totally think this should be Claire’s look in season four.

Saturday, June 17

A tweet from Sam’s Audi rep, but answered by the wifey in a very friendly manner. Wonder how the matching Audi’s look in the garage at home.

Sunday, June 18

Cait heads home. That’s a wrap.

Monday, June 19

I love them and hope they never change!

And this post is really long, but it goes to show just how great of a week it’s been!

Originally posted by journaldebordetudiante

Why elect a woman chief? Because she is dedicated to improving conditions without any reservation. Further, she is a wholehearted being. Her keen sense of perceiving things and arranging them meticulously is genuine. In addition, she does not hedge, but she acts promptly, because she is devoted to constructive causes. Since actions speak louder, the present conditions in the country show the incompetent of male’s leadership. He has actually failed the ancestors’ integrity, loyalty, justice, love, devotion and respect test which is the basic requirement needed to build a decent society. A man has broken the ancestors’ law, so to speak.
—  Africa Presents The Congo RDC And A Congolese Woman Chief (Mfumu-Nkento) By Bepona Collection
Friendly Gesture

Elder Kevin Price x Reader
Requested by: Anonymous
Prompt: N/A
Warnings: Mentions of STDS
Y/N: Your name
Words: 2914


Christmas in Uganda wasn’t all what you thought it would be. You’d moved to a small village a few months ago, residing in the country. There you worked with the doctor, as a specialist in STDs, and illnesses of the like. In this village in particular, you treated most people for AIDs, which seemed to be widespread here.

The people in the village were quite nice, if a bit blunt at times. You’d made many a friend there. You had to admit that you had been shocked in more ways than one when you’d arrived. The source of most of your shock, coming from the small Mormon missionary which you now stood outside of.

Grappling with your large amount of presents in both hands you stared at the building, bleached white stone, as pristine as it could be in the financial situation it was in. Inside you could hear the excited chatter of the young men inside. For most this would be their first Christmas away from home, and their first without snow. Snow was something which you doubted would ever occur in the sweltering heat of Africa. You shifted the presents awkwardly in your hands, going up the few steps and hovering at the door. You still remembered your reaction to the place. Mormons? In the middle of Africa? You found it quite absurd. Even moreso, the people living in the missionary.

You knocked on the door, shifting your feet and listening in as the bubbling conversation died.
“Who is it?” Called the voice of Elder McKinley, the mission leader.
“It’s Y/N! You know, the doctor? I brought you guys some Christmas presents!” You called. Right after you mentioned your name, you heard a muffled voice call out, and then slow footsteps, followed by a louder voice, louder footsteps and then a thud. This was followed by some worrying yelling from multiple parties.
“Is everything ok in there?” You called out, placing your hand on the doorknob. The response was more muffled yelling, and your concern merely grew. You knew that they could be a little exuberant but this was very… strange.

Confused, you pressed your ear to the door to listen in. You couldn’t identify the voices, but by the pitch you knew it there were two people yelling. Before you could listen in, you heard some more footsteps, a yell and then the door swung open. You jumped back in fright, stuttering a quick greeting to a very rushed looking Elder Cunningham. He was the first person you befriended here, he was sweet and tried genuine, but was a little dishonest at times. Maybe more than a little… more like a lot.

“Y/N! Heyyy!” He greeted you, leaning against the doorway, blocking your view into the missionary. You gave him a look, leaning back a bit.
“Hey Elder Cunningham,” You said a bit apprehensively. “May I come in?” You asked, trying to peek beyond him. He swiftly moved to block you view.
“Uh… no!” He exclaimed, you noticed sweat on his forehead and narrowed your eyes.
“Why not?” Had you the ability to cross your arms you would’ve. Elder Cunningham looked around nervously.
“Be-because we’re… preparing a Mormon Christmas tradition.” You raised an eyebrow.
“Really?” He nodded, smiling nervously.
“Y-Yep it’s the celebration of the birth of Christ but with a Mormon twist!” He exclaimed, you gave him a dubious look.
“What’s the twist?” He was probably lying but you couldn’t being yourself to care, besides you wanted to see where he was going with this. He froze and thought for a second.
“It’s a secret.” He decided on. You deadpanned, giving him an ‘are you shitting me look’.

“Arnold.” You said sternly, and he put a hand on his hip.
“S-seriously it’s like really, super, important so we have to do it a-and I can’t talk about because… I-I can’t! So we can’t be interrupted so you should leave now and come back in twenty minutes to half an hour when Elder Price is ready!” He rambled, loudly. You felt your heart flutter a bit.
“I didn’t say anything about Elder Price.” You said, trying to seem nonchalant at the mention of his name. You would be lying if you didn’t say you had a soft spot for him. Arnold smirked.
“Yeah but you were thinking about him.” He gave you an awkward shoulder shove, before returning to his previous position.
“Was not.” You said quickly, avoiding his gaze.
“Was so!” He laughed gleefully as you glared.
“Would you stop trying to change the subject!” You snapped, trying again to peek past him, but to no avail.

“Do you like him?” He asked, blocking your view once again. You sighed and gritted your teeth.
“I do not. Like Elder Price.” You seethed. Did he have to be this nosy? You blew a piece of hair out of your face. Then again, Arnold wasn’t exactly the most socially aware.
“Oh yeah, well then why does he have two presents.” You shifted the gifts in your arms, blushing.
“… I don’t know what you’re talking about.” You said, matter of factly.
“Yes you do! I can see them! To: Elder Price. To:…” He gasped and you groaned. “Kevin! Using first names…” He trailed off with a smile.
“I use your first name sometimes! Would you let me through the damn door!” You exclaimed, moving to push him aside.  You were more than strong enough to shove him aside, that you were sure of.
“No! I-I can’t let you in!” Elder Cunningham panicked, grabbing the doorframe. Another voice, one you recognized as Elder Thomas called to the two of you.
“We’re ready!” He called, and Elder Cunningham stepped aside.
“I can let you in.” You deadpanned and stared at him with pure murder in your eyes.
“You’ve got to be fuc-”
“Language!” Scolded Elder Mckinley and you heaved a sigh, walking inside.

The first thing you noticed about the missionary was its decorations. A single strand of fairy lights hung above the doorway to their rooms, blinking feebly. Cheap tinsel hung over the couch and mission board, and what you guessed was supposed to be a Christmas tree was in reality a tree branch stuck in a pot. You couldn’t help but smile at the effort that had been put in.
“So this Mormon Christmas tradition is..?” You asked Elder Cunningham, who fidgeted nervously.
“I lied.” He blurted out, and you gave him a tired smile.
“Yeah. I know.” You smiled, turning to Elder Mckinley.
“Merry Christmas Elder Mckinley, Shall I put these under the tree?” You asked him, and he nodded.
“Merry Christmas! And, yes please, and thank you! I’m sorry to say we didn’t get you anything…” He trailed off sheepishly. You shrugged it off, it wasn’t too big of a deal.
“It’s fine. Honestly.” You smiled, walking towards the tree and greeting Elder Neely and Elder Zelder. You placed all but one presents under the tree, which you hid your pocket. You heard the door to the bedrooms open and turned your head, feeling your heart stop in your chest. Elder Price walked in, looking better than you had ever seen him. Sure, he was wearing his normal mission clothes which all the Elders wore, but his hair looked freshly gelled and his skin was clear and clean. You felt your cheeks heat up and nodded to him.

“Hey, Elder Price.” You smiled,  standing up and sliding your hands in your pockets, taking on what you hoped was a cool pose. He smiled back.
“Hello, Y/N! Merry Christmas!” He waved, gaze turning to the presents. His eyes widened slightly.
“Are those for us?” He asked, turning his gaze back to you, a smile on his face. You felt your mouth go dry and simply nodded. His smile grew into a grin and you felt weak at the knees. Did he have to be so pretty?
“Can we open them now?” He asked eagerly, eyes lit up. You tried to find the words to say.
“W-well… Elder Mckinley wo-” You started, but he was already gone, on his way over to talk to Mckinley without another word, or so much of a thank you or goodbye. You sighed, slumping down on the couch inbetween Elder Church and Nabalungi, watching Elder Price go with a pit in your stomach. Naba looked between you and Elder Price, tilting her head.

“Y/N.” Elder Church said. You didn’t turn your head but acknowledged him.
“Yeah?” You felt him shift.
“I don’t see how you like him, when he’s kind of an-”
“Asshole?” You finished for him, placing you chin on your hand.
“I wouldn’t’ve put it that way but… yeah.” He said, following your gaze. You bit your lip and shrugged.
“You like Elder Price?” Asked Naba, who sounded very surprised. You nodded reluctantly. If Elder Cunningham figured it put you doubted it would be long until the others did, so you might as well own up to it yourself.
“Yeah. Yeah I do.” You sighed gently.
“But… Elder Price is in love with himself, is he not?” She asked you, confused. Had you a drink you would have spat it out.

“Y-you’re not w-wrong.” You laughed, feeling a little better.
“And to answer your question, I don’t know why I like him. I guess… he’s very passionate, and bright. I can’t help but smile around someone who acts so optimistic, even when we’re in a place like this. He’s a good person. Even if he can be a bit… arrogant at times.” You sighed, watching as Elder Price talked to Elder Mckinley animatedly, waving around his hands.
“He’s also really pretty.” You mumbled through your hand, not taking your eyes off of him. You heard Elder Church erupt into laughter and turned your head with a grin, joining him.
“You said that with such conviction…” He snorted, and you gave him a gentle shove.
“Shut up.” You turned back to see Elder Mckinley walking to the center of the room, rubbing his hands together. Behind him was Elder Price, who’s eyes were, instead of on Mckinley or the presents, on you and Elder Church. He noticed you staring back at him and smiled, but it looked tight and forced.

“O-K Everyone! Y/N here was kind enough to get presents for us to open, so, I don’t see any reason not to open them up now!” He beamed as everyone gathered around the tree. You walked over and began to hand the multicolored parcels out, anxiety in your chest.
“Here you are Naba, that’s for you! And Elder Cunningham, and Elder Zelder…” You noticed Elder Price try to push to the front, much to the annoyance of the other Elders. When he finally reached you, he beamed, holding out his hands excitedly. You felt your heart ache at the smile and handed it to him wordlessly, and without a smile, turning away just in time to miss the smile on his face falter.

“Is this what I think it is?” Asked Elder Thomas, as he lifted up a jumper, similar to what everyone else was opening.
“Yeah, it’s a Christmas sweater! I knitted you all one.” You smiled and sat back on the couch as everyone looked at you dubiously.
“Were in Uganda…” Elder Church trailed off. You opened your mouth to explain.
“They’re not for here, they’re for when you go home. Back to Utah, or wherever you will go. You guys have been really sweet to me since I’ve been here, and I wanted to give you something to remember me by.” You rambled, rubbing your neck and avoiding their gazes by looking at the floor. The room was silent until you felt a weight drop beside you and a pair of arms wrap around your shoulders in a bone breaking hug.
“That’s so nice!” Chirped Elder Cunningham, and you looked up to see all the Elders nodding in agreement. Elder Thomas was trying to put his on, and Elder McKinley was desperately trying to stop him.

“This is fantastic! How did you know our measurements?” Said a voice, and you looked to see Elder Price sitting on the floor, admiring his present. You flushed and looked away, making yourself look busy by hugging Elder Cunningham who was still clinging to you awkwardly.
“I’m your doctor. I need to know so I know how much medicine I prescribe to you.” You shrugged as best you could with Arnold’s vice like grip, eventually shaking him off.
“Arnold you’re gonna suffocate me! Go kiss your girlfriend!” You exclaimed, pushing him off. He huffed.
“She’s not my girlfriend…” He mumbled as you pushed him towards Naba.
“Yeah, yeah. Go kiss your not girlfriend!” You laughed, shoving him off the couch.
“You’re on first name basis with Elder Cunningham?” You turned back to Elder Price, a frown on his face.
“Sometimes. Only when I’m teasing him or trying to get him to listen to me.” You told him with a small smile. He nodded, but you could tell something was on his mind.
“Elder Price, are you alright?” You asked, lowering your voice. He bit his lip, and then stood. You looked at him curiously, wondering if you’d said something wrong. He glanced at the space on the couch, looking hesitant before sitting down beside you, straightening his back awkwardly.
“Y-you can call me Kevin. If you want.” He said, clearing his throat. You felt your heart race and your eyes widened a bit.
“O-ok.” You mumbled, hand moving to you pocket where the previously forgotten present sat. You looked around, noticing everyone was preoccupied. You two were alone, now was your chance.

“I have-”
“Do you-” The two of you stopped, blushing.
“You first.” He said with a wave of his hand, you shook your head and motioned for him to continue.
“N-no you. I insist.” You said with a small smile.
“Y/N…” He began, eyes flickering around the room, the noise beginning to rise with laughter and bickering.
“Can we go somewhere private?” He asked nervously. Your heart stopped in your chest and you froze up.
“S-sure!” You said, standing up and walking to the front door. Once the two of you were outside, you noticed he was more relaxed. Still pretty stiff but noticably less nervous.
“So, what’s up?” You asked him, leaning against the outside of the building, arms crossed. He avoided your gaze, fiddling with a button on his shirt. He was usually so confident, something was very wrong.

“Y/N, do you… not like me?” The question caught you off guard, as did his tone. Insecure, very unlike him. You shook your head vigorously.
“Wh- No! Of course I like you, what on earth has given you that idea?” You said incredulously.
“Well, before, you ignored me a few times, and tried not to talk to me. And I saw you laughing at me with Elder Church. And I know a lot of people think I’m arrogant…” He said, looking like a kicked puppy. Your gaze softened and guilt weighed in your stomach.
“No, I don’t dislike you at all. Look, i’ll admit, you can be a bit arrogant-” He winced.
“But that’s only sometimes. I think you’re a really positive person. I admire you. It takes a lot of confidence to move halfway across the world to somewhere you’d never even heard of.” You smiled, reaching into your pocket and pulling out the present. He looked at you curiously and you raised a finger to your lips.

“Don’t tell the others I got you this, ok? I’ll never hear the end of it.” You joked, handing it to him. He held the small gift in his hands, frowning.
“It’s mine?” You nodded.
“It’s heavy.” He commented, beginning to unwrap it, you rolled your eyes.
“I’m aware.” As he pulled off the wrapping paper his eyes widened.
“Tada!” You said awkwardly, both your eyes drawn to the small snowglobe in his hands.
“This is…”
“Orlando, Disneword! Some family members of mine went there, and I remembered how much you talk about Orlando so I asked them to send me something. Is it ok?” You asked, watching his expression nervously.
“I-I love it! I don’t understand why you…” He gazed at you in awe, your stomach exploding into butterflies.
“I-I like seeing you happy… I know it’s against the rules for you to date someone during your mission, and I know I’m not Mormon so think of it as a… friendly gesture.” You mumbled, as his eyes went even wider, a blush crossing his face.

“Y-you know I do have something for you, Christmas, before I was too afraid to give it to you. But now…” His voice was a bit shaky, and he placed the snowglobe down.
“Really? What is it?” You asked, as he took a step forward. Cautiously, his hand went to your cheek, his face flared red, his eyes flickered down to your lips. You felt your heart stop in your chest as he leaned forward, closing the gap and kissing you on the lips. Actually kissing you on the lips. It took you a few seconds to comprehend what was happening, but once you did, your hands went to his hips, eyes fluttering shut. The kiss lasted a few more seconds before you two parted, Elder Price’s breath was shallow, and you leaned in, resting your forehead on his.
“Kevin…” You mumbled, hearing his breath hitch. You smiled, wrapping your arms around his waist, kissing his cheek.
“F-friendly gesture.” He stuttered out with a faint smile. You giggled and kissed his nose.
“Friendly gesture…” You mumbled, both leaning in to kiss again.


Ayyy just here to say happy New Year and here’s to 2017 being hopefully not shite! Also Nic Rouleau is hella cute!!! Thanks for reading!!!


Today marks the 100 year anniversary of the Armenian genocide Media coverage has focused on the refusal of Turkey to acknowledge the genocide It is indisputable Ottoman Turks carried out genocide against the Armenians in 1915 But the oft-repeated assertion that it was the first genocide of the 20th century is wrong: it was the attempted annihilation of the Herero by the Germans in South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) from 1904 to 1907. The language, methods and scale of the Herero genocide remain shocking even in the aftermath of the horrors of the Holocaust. In their quest to occupy and exploit the territory of the pastoralist Herero, the German colonizers recruited a mercenary army led by Lt. Gen. Lothar von Trotha. The Vernichtungsbefehl (“Destruction Order”) he issued was terrifyingly clear: “Within the German borders, every Herero, whether armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, shall be shot.” and The genocide culminated in the infamous “march into death” of Herero who were forced into the Omaheke Desert The Germans sealed the perimeter with guard towers, poisoned water sources and then bayoneted to death Herero who attempted to escape dehydration An official history of the German General Staff compiled after the genocide rightly concluded: “The arid Omaheke was to complete what the German army had begun: the annihilation of the Herero people” Those who survived the desert were sent to concentration camps where captured Herero soldiers, along with women and children, were forced to work. Women boiled and scraped the skin off the heads of Herero who had been killed. Those skulls were then shipped off to Germany for museum displays and eugenics research and Recent articles highlight that Hitler, while planning the Final Solution, dismissively remarked “Who remembers the Armenian genocide?” Indeed, even less known was (and remains) the Herero genocide which has many parallels with the Holocaust: the destruction order, the concentration camps, the forced labor. The so-called scientific research by German geneticist Eugen Fischer who argued that mixed-race children in South-West Africa were inferior to the offspring of German parents, was cited in Hitler’s Mein Kampf Up to 80% of the Herero died during the genocide. While a former official of the German government apologized for the genocide on its 100th anniversary in 2004, the Herero have never received reparations.Let us set the historical record straight: the first genocide of the 20th century was carried out by Europeans in Africa

The Portuguese Empire at its maximum extent.´

In red, territories once part of the Empire.

In blue, sea lanes under Portuguese influence and control.

In pink, claimed territories once part of the Portuguese Empire.

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas, was the 1st Global Empire in History, starting in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta, over 500 years after Portugal’s foundation in 868. In addition, it was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning nearly six centuries, making it the longest Global Empire in History. 

Portuguese Conquistadors battled their way through Asia, South America, Africa, Arabia, conquering and expanding the Empire in search for wealth, settlement, gold, slaves, trade and spreading of Christianity. Thanks to this, Portugal held dominion over the sea lanes of the Indian and South Atlantic oceans, making its economic, military and political power the rival of any in Europe.

Portuguese domain was present in Africa, Arabia, Brazil, Canada, Greenland and several parts of Asia, including India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, and others.

“Portuguese were the first Europeans after the Dark Ages to engage in transcultural and transoceanic warfare, equipped with a blend of nautical knowledge, superior technology, incredible courage, very few men, and great swordsmanship that proved very efficient against the curved blades of the Turks and Moors. One must be aware that the Portuguese knew they were always outnumbered, a certainty that led them to employ all their courage and determination in the fights and battles they engaged. 
In many cases, just mentioning the Portuguese would distress an entire army or fleet, knowing the fierceness and bravery of the Portuguese warriors." 

— Rainer Daehnhardt (Professor, Historian, Writer.)


Ledebouria socialis, Asparagaceae

The interesting foliage of silver squill, or wood hyacinth, caught my attention the very moment I set foot in the recently-renovated arid greenhouse at Glasgow Botanic Gardens. The combination of a simple leaf margin with such bold colours and pattern was certainly unique in the entire room. 

This bulbous perennial is native to the shady woodland areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and is present as an ornamental in the horticulture market, which takes advantage of the numerous variations in the above mentioned striking leaf colour and pattern to offer different varieties. Most of them are said to be fairly easy to care for and propagate, with similar requirements to other South African geophytes. 

A JOSH CHRISTMAS - A Josh Pieters Imagine

Christmas was one of Josh’s favourite times of the year and it was because he was able to spend quality time with his family. He had just arrived at his family home back in South Africa. But what Josh was really excited the most about was giving presents. Anyone that knew Josh (you included), knew that he gave the best and most thoughtful presents ever. If you could imagine the joy you felt opening an exciting present, you’d have to double that for it to be anywhere near how happy Josh was giving them.

Before he had left for South Africa, he had given presents to all of the other boys and watched them open them there and then. He was so glad that Joe had liked the funny, fluffy slippers he had chosen for him. And that Jack had appreciated the new microphone attachment Josh had searched high and low for. And that all of them had grinned and laughed when they received their gifts.

For you though, Josh was adamant that you were to wait until Christmas eve to open the one he had bought you. So that morning, when it was suitable time in both countries, he Skype called you.


“Hi, love,” he smiled.

“I miss you already and it’s only been a few days.”

“I miss you too, Y/N,” his grin became slightly smaller, before growing again when he said, “Have you got the present ready?”

You nodded and showed him the nicely wrapped parcel he had dropped off at your apartment the morning he had departed for South Africa. Josh couldn’t help but let out a little whoop when he saw the box - he was just so excited for you to see what was inside. He had thought long and hard about the selection of things he had gotten you. You laughed at his excitement, it was one of your favourite things about Josh.

“Can I open it?!” you exclaimed.


When you carefully unwrapped the Christmas tree studded paper, you came to see a red gift box.

“It’s a bit like a pass the parcel,” Josh said sheepishly, “I got a bit too excited with the wrapping.”

You laughed and lifted the lid of the festive box. Inside was another wrapped present as well as a small shining silver necklace. When you gently picked it up from where it lay, you looked up at your computer screen at Josh. It was a short silver chain with a tiny, delicate star pendant and it was beautiful.

“Josh,” you started, slightly loss for words.

Josh was smiling, his teeth shining when he replied, “It’s a little star because you remind me of the stars - always shining and bright. I don’t know if this is a bit cheesy but it’s true; you’re always cheering me up. But it’s mainly a star because no matter where you are in the world, the stars are always there and just like them, I want you to remember that I will always be here for you too.”

“Josh! This is beautiful! I can’t believe this, my present isn’t anywhere as nice as this,” you exclaimed, your eyes watering up a little bit (you were kind of glad he couldn’t see, though you would have loved a big hug right at that moment).

“I’ll love it, don’t you worry. But now open the next one!!”

And he did love it. Just as you loved the other gifts he got you. It was a nice few hours on Skype and though you wished you were together, you were glad that Josh was such a big family person. It meant that he cared and that he was honest and well raised and that he gave the best presents.

Part of the CHRISTMAS series.


Afro-Dominican History

In 1503, with the conquest and colonization of the island, the Spanish began to import large numbers of African slaves to replace the native labor, greatly reduced by wars, brutal working conditions and epidemics. About 80 or 90% of the native population died in the first century of the conquest. Meanwhile between 1492 and 1870 some 30,000 Africans were imported to the current Dominican territory to be devoted to sugar.

In 1503, arrived the first African slaves to the Española Island, mostly to the present Dominican Republic, since Spain had largely neglected the west of the island. This first slaves were Black “Ladinos”, i.e. born in Spain and Christianized and arrived as servants for the home of the island´s Spanish elite.

However, the number of slaves imported to the island was already sufficient for developed rebellions and escapes to the mountains by themselves. The rebels Africans lived with the indigenous in shelters away from urban centers. Even so, in 1510, were imported to the island others 250 Ladino slaves and in 1511, arrived others 5.000 African slaves to the shores of the island. In addition, with the establishment of the world’s first sugar mill on the Española island in 1516, the importation of African slaves greatly increased.

The slaves brought to Santo Domingo came from various parts of Africa and therefore belonged to different cultures. Although in the early days the slaves were Ladino, as traffic and intensified trade and colonial authorities demanded more slave labor for plantations and other housekeeping, were allowed introduction of black “bozales”, i.e. slaves imported directly from Africa. In 1522 took place on the island, the first major slave rebellion, rebellion led by 20 Muslims of Wolof origin, originating from Senegal, in an ingenio (sugar factory) of east of Santo Domingo island Many of the insurgents fled to the mountains and established what would become the first autonomous community African Maroon in America.

However, after the success of this revolt, slave revolts continued to emerge. So, emerged some leaders of African slaves, although already baptized by the Spanish, as is the case of Juan Vaquero, Diego de Guzmán and Diego del Campo. His rebellion led many slaves to flee their oppressors and establish many communities in the South West, North and East of the island, causing the first arrival of slaves, but free, in the current Haiti (remember that although this part of the island was also Spanish until 1697, when it was sold to France, had no Spanish people living in it).

This caused some concern among slaveholders and contributed to the Spanish emigration to other places. Thus, although sugarcane increased profitability in the island, the number of imported slaves who fled into it, continued to rise, mixing with Taíno indigenous of these regions. So, in 1530, Maroon bands already were considered dangerous to the Spanish colonists, so they had to carry large armed groups to travel outside the plantations and leaving the large part of the center and north of the island, very mountainous regions, where the Maroons lived (it was so, until 1654 with the conquest of Jamaica by Corsairs of British Admiral William Penn and general Robert Venables).

However, due to the discovery of precious metals in South America, the Spanish abandoned their migration to the island of Santo Domingo to emigrate to South America and Mexico in order to get rich, for they did not find much wealth in Santo Domingo. Thus, also abandoned the slave trade, that is, they stopped exporting slaves to the island. This led to the collapse of the colony in poverty. Anyway, during those years, slaves were forced to build a cathedral that in time became the most oldest in America. They build their monastery, first hospital and the Alcázar de Colón. In the 1540s, the Spanish authorities ordered the African slaves building a wall to defend the city from attacks by pirates who ravaged the islands. They also built the Puerta de las Lamentaciones (in Spanish: Gate of Mercy).

After 1700, with the arrival of new Spanish colonists, African slaves imported was renovated. In both plantations and isolated villages of runaways from east of the island, the population began to focus more on livestock and the importance of racial caste division was reduced, so that began to develop a mix between the Spanish colonists, African slaves and the natives of this part from Santo Domingo. This domain mixing together the social, cultural and economic European element will form the basis of national identity of Dominicans. It is estimated that the population of the colony in 1777 was 400,000, of which 100,000 were Europeans and Criollos, 60,000 African, 100.000 mestizo s, 60,000 Zambos and 100,000 mulatto.

At the end of the eighteenth century, arrived also to Spanish Santo Domingo, fugitive slaves from the French colony of the western part of the island, usually composed of black fugitives, escaped from the rigors of their masters, and that fed the Spanish colony since the time initial establishment of the French on the island. These slaves came directly from Africa, and in some cases they even form communities such as San Lorenzo de Los Mina, who is now district or sector of the city of Santo Domingo. Also, coming slaves from other parts of the West Indies, especially from the Lesser Antilles, dominated by French, English, Dutch, etc.

In 1801 Haitian leader Toussaint Louverture, who had occupied the east of Santo Domingo, abolished slavery in the place, as had happened in the west of the island, freeing about 40,000 slaves, and prompting most people who formed the elite of that part of the island flee to Cuba and Puerto Rico. However, when the Spanish recovered it, Spanish Santo Domingo re-established slavery in 1809.[8] During those years, the French governor Ferrand imported a second group of Haitian slaves, brought by in order to use them in founding the Puerto Napoleon (Samana), French colonial enclave. There was no running for the defeat of the French.

The abolition of the slavery was made in 1822, during the Haitian occupation of the Dominican territory, started in February, 1822. Between 1824, began to arrived African American freed people to Santo Domingo, benefiting from the favorable pro-African immigration policy of Haitian president Jean Pierre Boyer since 1822. This settlers were established in Puerto Plata Province and the Samaná Peninsula —then under Haitian administration. They were called Samaná Americans. Later, in 1844, two Afro Dominicans, Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Matías Ramón Mella, freed the country alongside with Juan Pablo Duarte, of Haitian domain.

More late, between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, was developed a traffic black workers from the British West Indies in the first third of this century to work in the sugar plantations of the east of the island, and whose descendants are known today with the name of Cocolos.

After, many Haitian people began to settle in the Dominican Republic, a migration that has continued until today.


The Atlantic slave trade involved nearly all of Africa’s west coast inhabitants to be forcibly taken to the new world. Most Dominican slaves tended to come from mostly the Kongo people of West-Central Africa (present-day Angola, Republic of Congo, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo), along with the Igbo (originating from west from Nigeria), Yoruba, Akan and Mandinka tribes.

Others African ethnic groups arrived to Spanish Santo Domingo during the slavery´s period were: Wolof (imported from Senegal), Aja (also called Ararás in Santo Domingo and imported from Dahomey, current Benin), Ambundu (from the Kingdom of Ndongo, in north Angola), Bran (originating from Brong-Ahafo Region, west from Ghana), Fulbe, Kalabari (originating from slave port from Calabar, in Nigeria), Terranova (slaves bought probably in Porto-Novo, Benin), Zape (originating from Sierra Leone), Bambara and Biafada (this latter was originating from Guinea-Bissau) people.

The Wolof were imported to Spanish Santo Domingo from Senegal in the first half of the sixteenth century, until the import of this ethnic group was prohibited after his rebellion in 1522. Many of the slaves were also Ajas, usually taken in Whydah, Benin. The Ajas arrived in Santo Domingo, were well known for having made religious brotherhoods, integrated exclusively for them, as the call San Cosme and San Damian.

Finial of a Speaker’s Staff (Okyeame Pomo) - Colonial Africa/Ashanti Tribe

1700 - Present

By: Kojo Bonsu 

This is a piece from West Africa that belonged to the Ashanti peoples. This group of people has a council of elders who regularly met with the leader. The head of this council was named the Okyeame and acted as the voice of the king when he was absent. He would carry a staff with this finial on top, so others knew he was the speaker. 

It depicts a male figure seated on a stool, wearing jewelry and holding an ostrich egg. This represents the man’s power. If he holds the egg too tightly, it will break and if he holds it too loosely it will break, so he has all the power in his hands. 

The older men need to be prosecuted and the young women need to be empowered. This is criminal and unacceptable.

Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic

Sex between young women and older men is no secret in South Africa. The name ‘blesser’ is commonly used to describe a man who may at first pay for a teenager’s bus fare to high school, then buy school supplies she cannot afford, and perhaps lunch at a decent café. Over time, the adolescent sleeps with her provider.

A genetic analysis now suggests how this social phenomenon plays into the cycle of HIV transmission in the country, which has the world’s largest HIV epidemic. By analysing the similarity of viral genetic sequences among nearly 1,600 people with HIV in one community in KwaZulu-Natal, the study shows that adolescent girls and women in their early 20s tend to pick up the virus from men aged around 30. When the women grow older, they go on to infect their own long-term partners, who in turn may pass the virus on through affairs with younger women.

“This is the engine driving high rates of HIV,” says epidemiologist Salim Abdool Karim, senior author of the unpublished study and director of the Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA). He presents the work this week at the International AIDS Conference in Durban.

Karim’s study also shows the importance of making broader social changes, adds Michel Sidibé, executive director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). In parts of South Africa, eight times as many teenage girls have HIV as do teenage boys, and in some communities in KwaZulu-Natal, a 15-year-old girl has an 80% risk of getting HIV in her lifetime.

“Something that underlies the study is how common it is for older men to have sex with young girls. Pills are useful, but how can we break this silence around the lack of enforcement of laws that protect young women? How can we invest in the capacity of people to claim their rights and reduce this kind of violence?”

When African nations were conquered by Europeans we were brainwashed and programmed into working for Europeans interests. We often focus on slavery but not the affects of colonialism. Do you think that after controlling African nations for so long that we wouldn’t feel the affects of it? They controlled our resources, our bodies, our curriculum, and our minds. Many African’s born in African don’t even know the real African history. Whether consciously or subconsciously many Africans believe that Europeans “civilized” us, that we were “saved” by white people, and that we were savages before they came. This is because they have been taught from a European perspective about their own customs. We were programmed into giving them our resources now. We even ALLOW white people to be KINGS in Africa. We have lost all forms of respect for our culture.  We are STILL working for European powers even if they are not physically present. Africa must wake up we have work to do.

Post Made By @solar_innerg


Diasporic Africa: A Reader by Michael A. Gomez


Diasporic Africa presents the most recent research on the history and experiences of people of African descent outside of the African continent. By incorporating Europe and North Africa as well as North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean, this reader shifts the discourse on the African diaspora away from its focus solely on the Americas, underscoring the fact that much of the movement of people of African descent took place in Old World contexts. This broader view allows for a more comprehensive approach to the study of the African diaspora.

The volume provides an overview of African diaspora studies and features as a major concern a rigorous interrogation of “identity.” Other primary themes include contributions to western civilization, from religion, music, and sports to agricultural production and medicine, as well as the way in which our understanding of the African diaspora fits into larger studies of transnational phenomena.

Watch on

I am watching BBC’s the Lost Kingdoms of Africa, presented by art historian Dr. Gus Casely-Hayford.  This episode, the Asante Kingdom, takes us to Ghana, where I understand his own roots are from.

All the episodes can be found on youtube!