Hey, would you happen to have any tips on telling adult skulls from juvenile skulls? Sometimes I'll find a skull from a species I've never found before, but they just seem so impossibly small...! It's super hard to find photo refs that show the size... Are there any general features that can show age? Huge eye sockets, tricks with teeth, etc...?
There are a few things to look for when trying to tell what age an animal was by its skull.
Skulls are made up of many different bones and the lines where those different bone plates connect are called sutures. As an animal ages those sutures begin to fuse together and in some cases in very old animals they will completely disappear. In young animals though those plates are very noticeable.
Here are a few comparisons between juvenile and adult skulls of some common species.
Opossums are unlike many other mammals and the sutures of their skulls never completely fuse together.
Here are four Carolina Dogs ranging from approximately six months old to around ten years old.
Note how the suture lines begin to fuse together as the animals mature. In the Senior dog on the bottom right they have practically disappeared.
Domestic Cats: Kitten, Adult, & Senior
Goats: Juvenile, Young Adult, and Senior. Note the completely fused sutures in the senior goat skull on the far right.
Like humans, all baby mammals have deciduous aka milk aka baby teeth that are shed as the adult teeth begin to erupt. In some cases you can even see the adult teeth erupting from under the milk teeth. This baby bobcat has both baby and adult canine teeth present, giving it the appearance of double fangs.
Those baby teeth are usually hollow/have undeveloped roots. Adult teeth are hollow too until the animal matures and the root of the tooth fills in and becomes solid.
Here are adult vs. juvenile teeth in Red Foxes:
The rearmost molars are usually the last teeth to finish erupting. Here’s a young standard size horse foal’s teeth (left) compared to a 17 year old mini horse’s teeth (right). Note the foal’s rearmost molars still encased in bone. An older animal’s teeth will also show signs of wear. Enamel loss and discoloration, points worn down smooth, and decay are all signs of age.
Teeth yet to erupt in a young feral hog’s skull.
So the main things to look for when trying to age a skull are suture lines and teeth. Size is helpful too but some animals like raccoons have skulls that come in an incredible variety of shapes and sizes so sutures and teeth are really your best tell when gaging age. Bones and skulls from juvenile animals are also typically very lightweight, fragile, and porous. Sometimes the bone of the skull of a juvenile animal will be paper-thin. Often when they are being processed and cleaned juvenile animal skulls will completely fall apart at the suture lines and have to be rebuilt.
“It is such a common story. A child is adopted at a very young age, or even at birth and the adoptive family pours every single ounce of their love and attention into the child. There are elaborate birthday parties and cartoon character footed pajamas worn to family pancake breakfasts every Sunday.
If you are to ask the adoptive parents if they feel in any way, shape or form that they love the child any less or any differently than they would their biological children, and almost all will vehemently defend their love for their adoptive children with absolute abandon.
And we all want to believe that all we need is love.
Which is why it is so perplexing, alarming and downright confusing when so many adopted children begin to develop emotions and behaviors months or years post adoption placement that mimic those who have been through war, or left completely neglected, or abused by someone they love. It is why so many adults, when first faced with confronting this strong and overwhelming sense of being “unloved” within their adopted children, absolutely reject the notion that such an emotion could be true, or worse fail to validate that emotion as real. It is because of the defense to what has been “given” or “done” for these children that so many adopted children are left with such deep shame and fear of these powerful feelings and act out to prove this unworthiness to be true. Struggles at school, depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems, emotional dysregulation, reactive attachment disorder, and rejection of the adoptive parents are just some of the ways this may present itself.
I remember the first time I tried disciplining my adopted child for a rather inconsequential and innocent misstep on his part and him reacting to that redirection as if I had punished him with absolute dire consequence. It was the very first of so many interactions in which I began to understand that he could never understand that he could do something “bad” (which again is a terrible word that no one should use) without it meaning that he was “bad.” You see, over time I came to learn that he truly believed that he was Bad. Unlovable. Unworthy. Undeserving”.
How could a child who has been loved so deeply with so much abandon be incapable of processing and feeling that love?
As a parent there truly is no worse feeling in the entire world than learning that your own child (lets be honest our adopted children are truly our own) has such limiting and paralyzing belief systems.
It is only natural to have that stir-up emotions in the adopted parent that they have not done enough, or worse that they simply are not enough for their own child. There is nothing worse in the entire world than the feeling of being “not enough.” It can wreck havoc on the entire family ecosystem.
It is because of this chain of events that so many adopted children struggle to process the inner workings of their emotional life against the outside world they live within. If you cant feel or believe what the grown up’s in your life are telling you is fact, then there simply must be something wrong with you and how you feel. You begin to not trust yourself.
It was less than a week ago when my college age adopted child, whose birth mother recently passed away confided in me that she was unable to be in relationship with me since her mother’s passing because of all the guilt it left her feeling. She felt so incredibly selfish that I had “done so much for her,” and yet it wasn’t enough to shelter her from the incredible pain she had been experiencing over her birth mother’s death. Essentially she felt guilty for the greater connection she felt to her birth mother as if it somehow made her a traitor to the love she felt for me. She also felt such deep guilt for how painful it felt to be around me.
If I were armed with fewer tools, less educated, or had engaged in less trauma centered therapy than I myself may feel slighted by her loyalty and compassion for the parent who had caused her so much pain and seen her need for space as complete disregard for me and how it may make me feel (and let me tell you it was painful). It would have been much harder for me to accept that she needed tools, and relationships and resources that I could not give her in order to move towards healing.
It is a very difficult thing to do; allowing your adopted children to have these big scary feelings without it meaning that you should have or could have or should be doing more. It is human to want validation for everything you have done for someone and to want to be loved in return. It is also a very difficult decision to allow your own children to need and receive help and assistance outside of what you can give.
But the truth is as adoptive parents we have to come to place of love and acceptance that regardless of how much love and adoration is given on our part, there is still such deep grief and loss over the primary attachment of the biological parent.
Biology is a tie that binds and the disruption of that tie and attachment leaves a loss that the adopted child will navigate for the rest of their life.
But there is HOPE.
What we have learned is that these traumas and losses need very specific treatments and specialty care. We have learned that trauma is a family problem and has to be healed from the inside out through connection. It is CALO Programs foundational relationship paradigm that goes #ToTheRoot of these issues and heals these inner belief systems of the adopted child (inside out) versus addressing the behaviors or depressions or anxieties from the top down. It is through these treatments that connection and joy is possible and the entire family can once again believe that they are love and they are enough..just as they are. #GoToTheRoot.“
Aconite/monkshood – numbness in face and limbs; inability to walk or move arms; chest pain, heart attack; irregular heart rhythms; nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain; diarrhea
Angel’s trumpet/moonflower – inability to differentiate reality from fantasy; heart attack; bizarre/violent behavior; amnesia; intolerance of light
Asian Abrupt-bulbed Lepidella – kidney failure
Autumn skullcap/Deadly Galerina – symptoms begin 8-24 hrs after ingestion; abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting; symptoms stop for about 24 hrs, during this time toxins attack the liver; death occurs 5-7 days after ingestion from coma, kidney failure, and gastrointestinal bleeding
Azalea – salivation; watering eyes and nose; abdominal pain; loss of energy; nausea; vomiting; weakness; difficulty breathing; paralysis of arms and legs; coma
Castor beans (contain ricin) – severe diarrhea; nausea; heart attack; seizures; hypotension; survivors have extensive organ damage; take 3-5 days to kill
Chestnut dapperling – damage to the heart and liver; headache, dizziness, back pain, gastrointestinal problems
Chokecherry/common chokecherry – poison found everywhere but the berry; digestion by stomach enzymes releases cyanide; giddiness; vertigo; rapid breathing; leads to deep coma, pulmonary edema, and heart attack; victims may have cherry red skin
Daffodil – poisonous bulbs; vomiting; diarrhea; convulsions; can be confused for onions; handling them gives you “daffodil itch”: dryness, scaling, thickening of skin beneath the nails
Daphne (laurel tree family) – poisonous seeds; handling fresh twigs causes rashes/eczema for people with sensitive skin; victims experience choking sensation; common ornamental plant
Deadly conocybe – takes 10 hours to affect body; symptoms include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney and liver damage; usually remission period lasting 1-2 days before death
Deadly nightshade/Belladonna – eating 2-5 berries fatal to adults; eating 1 leaf fatal to adults; roots also fatal; slightly sweet taste; leads to delirium, hallucinations, heart attack, slurred speech, constipation, confusion, sensitivity to light, blurred vision
Deadly parasol – 1 mushroom is deadly; victim feels fine for a day, then sick as intestines are damaged; then the victim appears to recover before dying from liver failure
Deadly webcap – easy to mistake for the prized chanterelle mushroom; symptoms delayed for 2-3 days before flu-like symptoms, headache, and vomiting occur, followed by kidney failure
Death cap (Latin American, East Asian) – looks like the edible honey and paddy straw mushrooms; half a cap can kill a human; toxicity not reduced by cooking, freezing, or drying; taste good; early symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting; symptoms go away from a few days; symptoms return in form of jaundice, diarrhea, delirium, seizures, tachycardia, and kidney failure; survivors usually need liver transplants; fatality rate before the 20th century was 70-80%; now it’s around 10-15% in developed countries; people usually die in 6-10 days
Destroying angel (Eastern North American, Guangzhou, Great Felt Skirt, Western North American, European) – easy to confuse with edible white button mushroom; see death cap for symptoms, as they both contain the same kind of toxin
Doll’s eye/White baneberry – entire plant is poisonous; poison fatally slows human heart; handling plant causes blisters; eating it causes gastrointestinal distress as well as a slowed heartbeat
English yew – highest concentration of poison in the seeds; blue-colored lips, difficulty breathing, coma, convulsions, enlarged pupils, irregular heartbeat, nausea, muscle pain, trembling, vomiting
Ergot/St Anthony’s Fire (archaic) – poisonous fungi that grows on rye; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, muscle pain, itching, gangrene, vision problems, confusion, spasms, and convulsions
The Red and Yellow Paladins learned more about the other than they ever thought they would, and not in the bad way. During a normal day, this wouldn’t have happened, but the situation they were in set the tone for open and shameless talks - the comfort of good food, the social release of midnight conversations, the sleepiness breaking down mind-to-speech filters. Keith would have never known where Hunk’s orange headband came from and the story behind it. Likewise, Hunk would’ve never guessed that Keith liked to wear toe-socks in his boots and how he ‘Hulked-out’ of his favorite pair when his Galra form was first revealed.
All at once, the two was aware of the situation. Almost two hours had passed, the kitchen was still a mess, and the entire Altean Casserole had been demolished. The paladins were leaning back in their chairs, feeling comfortably full and drowsy.
It’s a lovely day for a nice trip to the forest, but only a quick one. Crashed UFOs don’t hang around long. Mulder’s wearing his much admired Golden Triangle tie so he’s surprised that after using his rewarding (for us) foot-on-the-table interviewing technique in some random police station he’s asked to leave and not come back. Mulder introduces us to the Lone Gunmen and seems strange for them to not be so paranoid yet as to still allow a window in their headquarters. It’s comforting to know that although all of Mulder’s other friends we’ve met so far die (with the sad exception of Phoebe Green), the Lone Gunmen will never meet that fate. However i do admit that their fakery of their deaths was quite convincing.
Back in the office, Mulder thinks it’s remotely plausible that someone might think Scully’s hot and is pleased that this statement was captured by the pen bug as he’d like to shout it to the world. I’m sure he will keep that pen close by so he can proclaim all this other thoughts about Scully to it for posterity.
After a casual meeting with Deep Throat, eager Mulder is in the office in the morning with a top secret file, fluffy hair and his Tie Candy tie. Things in the office start getting heated but not in a good way until Scully tells him he’s the only one she trusts and he feels warm and fuzzy (and hopes trusts is a euphemism for “wants to have hot monkey loving with”). Later at her place she calls him passionate and dedicated and he can barely contain himself until she starts towards his crotch with a magnifying glass and he deflates.
Scully also mentioned that he was full of shit, so it was fate that Mulder wore the Tie of Fate the next day to tell her she was right. After an argument with Deep Throat at the aquarium about whether sharks drowned if they stopped swimming, he went home and held a party with all his friends, totally trashing his apartment. The gunmen said they’d left town and Scully made excuses about having to stay home and wash her vibrators but Mulder’s obviously adept at solitary fun. We’re treated with untucked-arm-porn!Mulder until Scully eventually shows up fashionably late only to be shushed at the door and have a stilted conversation that could have come straight from a Chris Carter script while being shown the smallest sound system in the world. It was fate that Mulder only had root beer to offer her at his “party”, (do adults even drink root beer?) so she thought she may as well go with him in the hope of finding a better party.
The Tie of Fate was instrumental in allowing them to pull off the Get Smart level espionage required to get them to the EBE-carrying truck, but Mulder was disappointed when the red light affected the pattern on his tie. Especially when there wasn’t an EBE there. Mulder took advantage of a Motel stay to change into his best tie, one of my absolute favourites, which he knew would impress the EBE when he finally got to it. The UFO Party tie even looks like at least one giant UFO landed on it, and this masterpiece of a tie saw the UFO party goers (who had friends and adult drinks much to Scully’s delight) recognise him as a fellow freak and welcome him with open arms.
Mulder finally dragged Scully away and they scammed their way onto the air force base that the EBE was taken to. Once again Mulder was left feeling that he’d been deceived and inveigled when the EBE and the hiders of the truth outmanouevred him. And perhaps just a touch obfuscated when more red lights obscured his tie. Sadly, the UFO Party tie was saturated with such bitter disappointment that not even his dry cleaners could return it to wearable condition so we never saw it again.
July is here, which means the Dogbane beetles are out!
Dogbane Beetle (Chrysochus auratus), Newark DE. July 2017.
Easily one of our most beautiful beetles in the Mid-Atlantic, the dogbane beetle is a common visitor to gardens, fields, meadows, and roadsides, where their host plant can be found.
The beetles feed exclusively on dogbane (Apocynum spp.), with the adults feeding on leaves, and larvae feeding on roots. The adults are seen in mid-summer on dogbane, where they will mate and lay eggs on the leaves and stems.
In patriarchal culture women are as violent as men towards the groups that they have power over and can dominate freely; usually that group is children or weaker females. Like its male counterpart, much female violence towards children takes the form of emotional abuse, especially verbal abuse and shaming, hence it is difficult to document. Maternal sadism must be studied, however, if we are to understand the roots of adult male violence towards women. To some extent the reformist feminist thinkers who have focused on women as the more ethical, kinder, gentler sex have stood in the way of an in-depth study of maternal sadism, of the ways women in patriarchal society act out violently with boys.
bell hooks, The Will to Change: Men, Masculinity, and Love (2004)
I find it funny how the game expects us to hate a young girl like Sarah for acting ‘childish’ in horrible situations but at the same time glorifies and expects us to root for adults like Jane and Kenny who act like spoiled assholes that do nothing but fuck up all the time. But since they lost their families (boohoo, who hasn’t?) we’re supposed to love them even though they do nothing but make things worse all the time.
can we also talk about how fucking child-like dark one emma is? like i don’t know if anyone has talked about this yet, but all of emma’s character growth is about being like an adult, basically. putting down roots. being a mother. having loving, healthy, mature relationships with both her boyfriend and her parents.
jen has often said that most of emma’s quirks come from a stunted adolescence; she’d never learned to grow up. that’s why her whole arc can be boiled down to being a lost girl, as we saw in neverland.
so emma as a villain is not maniacal like rumple or angry like regina—she’s reverted back to the part of herself she’s tried to overcome: that lost girl who never thought she’d ever be loved, let alone trust herself to love.
and that is scarier, because she has no purpose driving her. she’s not out for blood like regina, and she’s not looking for her son like rumple. instead, she’s just filled with emptiness.