1. Fist: Make a fist around the epi-pen, don’t place your thumb/fingers over either end

2. Flick the blue cap off

3. Fire. Press down into the outer thigh (the big muscle in there), hold for 10 seconds before removing (the orange cap will cover the needle). Bare skin is best but the epi-pen will go through clothing. Avoid pockets and seams. 

- Ring an ambulance even if everything seems to be fine!

More info for those who have asked - 

  • Bare skin is best, but epi-pens go through clothes so don’t stress too much over that
  • Always, always ring the paramedics after using an epi-pen or even have someone else do it straight away. Another dose may be needed which paramedics can administer. 
  • Location, location. Apologies if outer thigh was a bit vague! If you stand up and allow your arms to hang by your side where your fingers fall against your leg is a great place. 
  • Legal issues, in Australia first aiders are protected by a Good Samaritan Act whereby the provision of reasonable assistance to those injured or ill is protected by law. I’m unsure how this translates to around the world but I’ll do some research 
  • Thank you all for reblogging and getting this message out there, and also for sharing your stories! A lot happened while I was asleep but you definitely made my day and could very well have saved someone else’s just by sharing some information and getting educated! Thank you!
Molecule of the Day - Adrenaline/Epinephrine

Adrenaline (C9H13NO3), also known as epinephrine, is a naturally-occurring hormone and neurotransmitter found in our body. Along with noradrenaline, it is produced by the adrenal medulla, which is situated above the kidneys.

As a hormone, adrenaline stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and is partly responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response.

It binds to adrenergic receptors, which are found in almost all tissues, inducing the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (see below), glycolysis, and also inhibits glycogen synthesis as well as insulin secretion. This results in a surge in glucose availability, providing a burst of energy needed to escape any danger. 

Adrenaline also promotes vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels, as well as an increase in heart rate to raise the amount of blood being pumped throughout the body. This causes more oxygenated blood to reach the body at a faster rate, enabling cells to carry out respiration to produce more energy as well.

An interesting study revealed that adrenaline is associated with fear. A 1999 study showed that subjects injected with adrenaline experienced greater feelings of fear upon watching horror films. They also expressed greater negative emotions than the control group.

In nature, adrenaline is biosynthesised from phenylalanine through multiple enzyme-catalysed reactions:

On the other hand, adrenaline can be synthesised from resorcinol and 2-chloroethanoyl chloride in the lab:

People say that what we’re all seeking is a meaning for life. I don’t think that’s what we’re really seeking. I think what we’re seeking is an experience of being alive, so that our life experiences on the purely physical plane will have resonance within our own innermost being and reality, so that we actually feel the rapture of being alive. That’s what it’s all finally about.
—  Joseph Campbell