adjutants general

October 2nd 1780

On the 28th of September, Adjutant General-Major John Andre was captured and taken to the patriot lodge at Tappan, NY

Washington called a board of tribunal consisting of famously: Greene, Steuben, Lafayette, Knox and Stirling with Hamilton as Andre’s defence.

“Major André, Adjutant-General to the British Army, ought to be considered as a Spy from the enemy, and that agreeable to the law and usage of nations, it is their opinion, he ought to suffer death.“ (Sept 29 1780)

“Never perhaps did any man suffer death with more justice, or deserve it less.” Alexander Hamilton 1780

Originally posted by redcoatsuniverse

Andre was executed by hanging on October second, by hanging. Lafayette actually cried at his death.

Originally posted by dramadramadrama

That day… Andre placed the rope around his own neck


RIP❤️

Presidents of all parties have said that one of the most difficult duties of the office is contacting the families of dead soldiers. Here are historical examples

Dear Madam,

I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle.

I feel how weak and fruitless must be any word of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save.

I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom.

Yours, very sincerely and respectfully,
A. Lincoln.

My dear Mr. and Mrs. Sullivan:

The knowledge that your five gallant sons are missing in action against the enemy inspires me to write you this personal message. I realize full well there is little I can say to assuage your grief.

As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, I want you to know that the entire nation shares in your sorrow. I offer you the condolences and gratitude of our country. We who remain to carry on the fight must maintain spirit, in the knowledge that such sacrifice is not in vain.

The Navy Department has informed me of the expressed desire of your sons, George Thomas, Francis Henry, Joseph Eugene, Madison Abel, and Albert Leo, to serve in the same ship. I am sure that we all take heart in the knowledge that they fought side by side. As one of your sons wrote, “We will make a team together that can’t be beat.” It is this spirit which in the end must triumph.

Last March you, Mrs. Sullivan, were designated to sponsor a ship of the Navy, in recognition of your patriotism and that of your sons. I understand that you are now even more determined to carry on as sponsor. This evidence of unselfishness and of courage serves as a real inspiration for me, as I am sure it will for all Americans. Such acts of faith and fortitude in the face of tragedy convince me of the indomitable spirit and will of our people.

I send you my deepest sympathy in your hour of trial and pray that in Almighty God you will find the comfort and help that only He can bring.

Very sincerely yours,
Franklin D. Roosevelt

tonyandaflygon  asked:

If I may ask... what are some of your favorite facts concerning our "Saratoga Hero", Horatio Gates?? ;^0

  • Horatio Gates had a well off education.
  • Gates served with the 20th Foot in Germany during the War of the Austrian Succession. 
  • One of his mentors in his early years was Edward Cornwallis, the uncle of Charles Cornwallis (the general dude who fought against the Americans). 
  • Gates served under Cornwallis when the latter was governor of Nova Scotia, and also developed a relationship with the lieutenant governor, Robert Monckton.
  • During the French and Indian War, Gates served General Edward Braddock and was there during the failed Braddock Expedition which also included Thomas Gage, Charles Lee, Daniel Morgan, and George Washington. He was severely injured early in the action. 
  • He became quite good at military administration. 
  • Frustrated by the British class hierarchy, he sold his major’s commission in 1769, and came to North America. 
  • 1772 he reestablished contact with George Washington, and purchased a modest plantation in Virginia.
  • When the word reached Gates of the outbreak of war in late May 1775, he rushed to Mount Vernon and offered his services to Washington. Washington urged the appointment of Gates as adjutant of the army. On June 17th, 1775, Congress commissioned Gates as a Brigadier General and Adjutant General of the Continental Army. 
  • He is considered to be the first Adjutant General of the United States Army. As adjutant, Horatio Gates created the army’s system of records and orders and helped standardize regiments from the various colonies. 
  • During the siege of Boston he was cautious, speaking in war councils against what he saw as overly risky actions.
  • Although his administrative skills were valuable, Gates wished for a field command. June 1776, he was promoted to Major General and given command of the Canadian Department to replace John Sullivan. 
  • Gates and Major General Philip Schuyler were like *no Bueno*.
  • His troops were at the Battle of Trenton but Gates was not. Always an advocate of defensive action, Gates argued Washington should retreat further rather than attack. When Washington dismissed this advice, Gates claimed illness as an excuse not to join the nighttime attack and instead traveled to Baltimore.
  • Gates was kinda salty Washington was commander in chief and not him.
  • Gates assumed command of the Northern Department on August 19th and led the army during the defeat of the British at the Battle of Saratoga. 
  • Gates took credit for the ENTIRE THING even though military action was done by Benedict Arnold, Enoch Poor, Benjamin Lincoln, and Daniel Morgan. 
  • Gates stands front and center in John Trumbull’s painting of the Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga.
  • By Congressional resolution, a gold medal was presented to Gates to commemorate his victories over the British in the Battles of Bennington, Fort Stanwix and Saratoga. 
  • Gates followed up the victory at Saratoga with a proposal to invade Quebec, but his suggestion was rejected by Washington.
  • This boyo insulted Washington by sending hist reports directly to Congress instead of to Washington which kinda pissed him off. Friendship B R O K E N. He began to order a campaign against Washington and James Wilkinson was a blabber mouth who ended up accidentally having the word spread to Washington. Wilkinson forwarded remarks of General Thomas Conway who passed them on to Washington. Gates accused anyone (but Wilkinson) of copying his mail and forwarded Conway’s letter to the president of Congress, Henry Laurens. Gates apologized to Washington and resigned from the Board of War, and took an assignment as commander of the Eastern Department in November 1778.
  • At the Battle of Camden on August 16th, Gates’s army was routed, with nearly 1,000 men captured, along with the army’s baggage train and artillery. Gates significantly overestimated the capabilities of his inexperienced militia. 
  • His son Robert died in combat in October. 
  • Nathanael Greene replaced Gates as commander on December 3rd, and Gates returned home to Virginia. It really ruined his military reputation tragically (but like yeah lmao). He was even put up for court martial. 
  • Gates’ wife Elizabeth died in the summer of 1783. He retired in 1784 and returned to his estate, Traveller’s Rest, in Virginia.
  • Gates served as vice president of the Society of the Cincinnati.
  • He proposed marriage to Janet Montgomery, widow of General Richard Montgomery, but she refused. 
  • 1786 he married for a third time to Mary Valens.
  • Gates sold Traveller’s Rest in 1790 and freed his slaves at the urging of John Adams. 
  • He retired in northern Manhattan Island. 
  • He supported Thomas Jefferson for president candidacy which effectively broke up with John Adams. 
  • He was elected to a single term in the New York State Legislature in 1800.
  • He died on April 10th, 1806, and was buried in the Trinity Church but no one really know… where he is. 

Photograph of Private Hubbard Pryor before enlistment in 44th U.S. Colored Troops. 10/10/1864

Series: Letters Received, 1863 - 1888Record Group 94: Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1762 - 1984.

Submitted anonymously to our Citizen Archivist Takeover.

Submit your ideas for October documents here: https://goo.gl/forms/qBgvcWqUyYioD4yT2.

2

TRUE RELIC OF THE CIVIL WAR IN INDIAN TERRITORY:
STAND WATIE’S CHEROKEE BRAVES FLAG

This flag was carried by Colonel Stand Watie’s Cherokee Mounted Rifles; the body of the flag is the First National pattern flag of the Confederate States; the canton is blue with eleven white stars in a circle, surrounding five red stars representing the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole); the large red star in the center represents the Cherokee Nation. “Cherokee Braves” is lettered in red in the center of the white stripe.

The 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles was organized in July 1861, under the command of Colonel John Drew, and consisted of full-blood Cherokees. The 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles was organized under the command of Colonel Stand Waite, and consisted of Cherokees of mixed blood. A portion of Drew’s regiment deserted in late 1861; the majority of the remainder deserted following the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Fort Wayne in October 1862.

The remaining members of Drew’s regiment combined with Waite’s and were reorganized as the 1st Regiment Cherokee Mounted Rifles; during the Civil War Waite’s regiment participated in twenty-seven major engagements and numerous skirmishes. Most of his activities utilized guerilla warfare tactics.

The flag was one of two captured by Lieutenant David Whittaker of Company B, 10th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry at Locust Grove, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, on July 3, 1862.

Following the Battle of Locust Grove, Lieutenant Whittaker continued his military career, serving as provost marshal for the 1st Division of the Army of the Frontier and in St. Louis, Missouri. While in St. Louis, he was a member of a Board of Officers that examined and reported upon the qualifications of applicants for appointment as commissioned officers of colored troops. He was mustered out of service on August 19, 1864 at the expiration of his enlistment.

Returning to Doniphan County, Kansas, Whittaker was elected to the Kansas legislature in 1869 and re-elected the following year. In March 1869 he was appointed one of the commissioners to audit civilian claims from the 1864 Price Raid. In 1870 Whittaker was appointed adjutant general of Kansas and confirmed by the Kansas Senate with the rank of colonel. He served in that capacity during Governor James Harvey’s term of office. David Whittaker died on September 6, 1904 at Topeka, Kansas.

Image Courtesy Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield; WICR 30118
info courtesy: Civil War Virtual Museum

anonymous asked:

What do you think the relationship between Hamilton and Marquis de Lafayette was? Asides from the 'OMG he's my BFF'.

Lafayette described Hamilton as, “my beloved friend in whose brotherly affection I felt equally proud and happy.” They loved one another as brothers. 

They befriended each other almost instantaneously, Hamilton was assigned to him as a liaison officer in 1778. To his wife, Adrienne de Lafayette, Lafayette wrote this of Hamilton: “Among the general’s aide de camp is a man whom I love very much and about whom I have occasionally spoken to you. That man is Colonel Hamilton.” 

When Alexander Scammell resigned as adjutant general, Lafayette was among the two generals who lobbied to have Hamilton to fill the spot. Lafayette addressed him as, mon cher colonel” as well as “mon cher hamilton”. There are also a letter to Alexander Hamilton from Lafayette in 1779, “What is the matter with my dear Hamilton and by what chance do I live in fruitless expectation of some lines from him? Does it begin to be the play in your, or rather in our Country, to take European airs, and forget friends as soon as they have turned their heels—Indeed my good friend I cannot help being somewhat angry against you, which makes into my heart a ridiculous fighting between love and anger, and as the first will never go off, you must behave better with me that anger might be more decently dismissed. Many Ships & Pacquets are arrived in France—letters were spread every where, and not a word from any friend any fellow soldier of mine in all the Army—Not even from my dear and respected General, from the family, from that idle fellow Col Hamilton. Is it not too much.”

I believe it was possible there was something going on between them- like the Hamilton-Laurens relationship. In a later letter to Lafayette from Hamilton he uses the word love so many times in the letter. 

Memorandum for the Adjutant General Regarding the Shortage of Beer on the West Coast. 9/15/1943

File Unit: SECT 435, Coffee, Tea, Beverages, Drinks, 1942 - 1947Series: Formerly Security Classified General Correspondence, 1942 - 1947Record Group 492: Records of Mediterranean Theater of Operations, United States Army, 1942 - 194

seattle-duck said: How long have chaplains been commissioned officers vs civilians? Does every country do it?

You know that’s a good question and one I hadn’t really considered so I went digging.

Troops of the 4th Brigade celebrating Mass and Holy Communion, run by the Catholic Chaplain Padre Device, by the side of a deserted farmhouse, very close to the front line.

Turns out that by the War pretty much all nations had a dedicated branch of service for chaplains. Most armies going back to at least classical Greece and Persia took religious practitioners along with them and from the 18th century onward these positions became increasingly formalised.
Using Australia as an example (because what else would I use?) the Australian Army Chaplains Department was formed in 1913 when representatives of the four major Christian denominations in Australia, Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Methodist, met with the Australian Army’s Adjutant General. They decided on appointing a chaplain general from each of the denominations to head the department and a chaplain of each denomination being attached to each infantry and light horse brigade.

Captain Crawford, Chaplain 20th Battalion, conducting a burial service on the battlefield.

Chaplains were commissioned as officers from the beginning. Although the chaplain generals had no equivalent military rank, the four classes of chaplain corresponded to the relative ranks of colonel, lieutenant colonel, major, and captain. While the original plan incorporated an equal number of chaplains for each denomination, the numbers were revised after the start of the First World War. Allocation of positions was now based on the proportion of each denomination in the population according to the 1911 census. During the course of the war 414 clergymen served in the Australian Imperial Force with the most numerous being the 175 Anglicans followed by 86 Catholics, 76 Presbyterians, 54 Methodists and 29 “other”.

Roman Catholic soldiers attending Mass in a gully on the Gallipoli Peninsula. The chaplain celebrating Mass is Father John Drinan Murphy.

From what I can tell most of the major nations followed a similar path with chaplains in their militaries although their methods for determining numbers for denominations may have differed. What is common to all was that chaplains were all commissioned officers with very wide but also very poorly defined duties and responsibilities. They provided the obvious religious pastoral care and gave funerary services but most also took their roles much further, working to keep up morale of the soldiers under their care. They organised entertainment, sporting tournaments (commonly boxing), music and theatre as well as religious services. They also organised scholarly diversions giving lectures on many and varied subjects and organising tours for soldiers on leave.
Many also worked with the medical services, some even going as far as to serve as stretcher bearers or orderlies at casualty clearing stations. Another commonly accepted role was to write to families of the deceased, giving them what information they could, which was usually more than the official communication. Basically think of Father Mulcahy from MASH and you’ve got the right idea.

The Telegram | Casualties of War

Thank you again @jules-fraser for making this wonderful moodboard! 

Response to the @thelallybrochlibrary ‘Queerlander’ prompt #13: Claire has a relationship with a female nurse during the War. 

Chapter 1: Bedside Manners | Chapter 2: The Telegram 

“Emily sighed, licking her lips, “A small comfort in this chaos… Claire… make me forget.” Fresh tears welled in her eyes and that was enough to make me do what I did next.“

Chapter 2: The Telegram


It had been 8 months since I’d last seen Frank. We managed to meet each other in a little village in France, close to where I had been posted. Letters were almost non-existent between us. Often times I had no idea where he was and he wasn’t exactly allowed to tell me his location. It was rather odd to be married in the war, especially since I felt like we only had just begun our lives together. This wasn’t how it was supposed to be.

Several months had passed since Emily and I had kissed, we both had silently agreed to not speak about it. A one time thing.

Since then we had both been promoted as Senior Nurses, both in charge of supervising the junior nurses and orderlies. I felt I had a real purpose in this bloody war. If I could help ease the pain of anyone, then I was helping in the only way I knew how.

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[Lafayette’s] friend Alexander Hamilton was unhappy with the little glory that fell to the lot of an aide-de-camp and hoped for a more responsible post. He had asked for a command in Lafayette’s Light Division, but it had been dispersed without heed to his request. Now that an important post had been opened by the resignation of Colonel Alexander Scammel as adjutant-general, Hamilton hoped to be named in Scammel’s place. He had appealed to Lafayette to use his celebrated influence with Washington on his behalf. Lafayette, who had lost none of his fine hand in recommending Frenchmen for promotions and rewards, proved no less skillful in advocating his American friend’s cause. Since Washington had consulted him on the matter, he had taken the liberty of writing to Washington from Paramus designating Hamilton as ‘the officer whom I should like to see in that station.’
—  Lafayette In America by Louis Gottschalk, Book 3, pg. 158. Despite Lafayette’s attempt to help Alexander, Washington chose General Hand to replace Scammel–to Hamilton’s chagrin. The recommendation letter is dated November 28, 1780. 

anonymous asked:

Firstly wanted to say I'm so sorry for all of what's happening on the west coast and I am keeping you in my thoughts that you stay safe and this ends soon. I live on the east coast but even though it's not affecting me as personally I am sending you all the love I have. Love you so much and I don't want to see anything happen to you! I guess my question is I saw what you posted on the founding fathers when you turned 15 and was wondering if you could do the same at ages 19!

Thank you so much. 

At age nineteen, Benjamin Franklin published an essay called, “A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain.”  

At age nineteen, George Washington was appointed an adjutant-general of the militia with the rank of major. He also accompanied his dying older brother Lawrence to the Barbados, where Washington got small-pox. 

At age nineteen, John Adams graduated from Harvard College and became a schoolmaster in Worcester. 

At age nineteen, Thomas Jefferson graduated from the College of William and Mary in only two years of studies. 

At age nineteen, John Jay graduated from King’s College. 

At age nineteen, James Madison, in his second year at College of New Jersey, was writing “abusive” poems about students who belonged to there other of the college’s two debating societies. John Witherspoon, president of the college said of him that he “never knew” his student “to do, or to say, an improper thing.

At age nineteen, Alexander Hamilton (1755) was officially matriculated into King’s College and had his first public oratory appearance at the liberty pole at the college.

At age nineteen, James Monroe accepted the offer to be an aide-de-camp for General Stirling, withered at Valley Forge, communicated with many foreign officers, solders, aide de camps and other generals, fought in the Battle of Brandywine and fought in the Battle of Germantown.

Portrait of John Trumbull by John Singleton Copley, painted in 1780.

Copley painted this portrait while visiting John Trumbull, his friend and fellow art student, while Trumbull was in prison. Trumbull had come to London to study art during the revolution against all advice warning him to do otherwise and was later imprisoned out of spite following the hanging of John André. The line of thought was that this former aide-de-camp was an American Adjutant General and since André had been the British Adjutant General, he’d be the perfect candidate for getting revenge. They got him charged with suspicions of being a spy and he was thrown in jail. Trumbull was later released with the help of their teacher, Benjamin West, and a promise that Trumbull would leave the country immediately. The prison bars of his cell can be seen painted in the background.

Photo Credit: Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts

The new Adjutant

Part 1 of “Adjutant”

Part 2 

Hi guys! I’m back again with a General Hux X fem!Reader fanfic. Enjoy!

———

- (Y/N), have you heard the news?! - your friend Mitaka was very excited and literally flew to your table during the lunch.

- What are you talking about? - you where surprised, because nothing special where happening in last few days.

- You’re going to be the new general adjutant! - he grabbed you by a shoulders trying not to scream.

- Is this a new joke? Not very fu-

- I’m not joking! You really need to listen the announcements, (Y/N). Huxes last helper died in that catastrophe last week, they where searching for a new one.

- So why are you thinking that I’m going to be next adjutant?

- Because you’re the best officer in our unit, and have you seen how Hux looking at y-

- No no no, I’ve heard this too many times, there is no ‘special gaze’, okay? Nobody sees it except you, it’s your fantasies. He’s cold with me as with everyone else.

- Sooo… Are you saying that he didn’t searched for you when there was a fire everywhere?

- It’s just-

- Screaming ‘where is Mrs (Y/L/N) ?!’

- He just worried about his workers, that’s it, - you’ve suddenly felt a heat rising to your cheeks.

- He doesn’t call anybody else by ‘mrs’ or 'mr’. And he definitely didn’t ran in searching of somebody else that night, and he-

- Okay okay, enough, - you where turning red, what made Mitaka chuckle, - But you will see that I’m not going to-

Suddenly a voice in the loudspeakers began to speak:

“ First Order made a decision to raise to the rank of General Adjutant officer (Y/F/N). Congratulations, soon you will be delivered all the instructions… ”

You’ve heard a squeak but didn’t even raised your head to see Mitaka’s gaze.

- Shut. Up.

anonymous asked:

Do you have any obscure facts about John André that you think most casual John André or history fans don't know? Or facts that you wish more people knew?

I mean, that depends on what you’d consider obscure. John André, as a figure in history, is often pretty overlooked. Speaking from the standpoint of someone who grew up in the American schooling system, the only thing I ever really learned about André in class was that he was a partner, so to speak, of the TRAITOROUS BENEDICT ARNOLD.

So, from that, there’s a ton that I think most people –– even those interested in history and John André –– may not know.

I think, to me, one of the most interesting things I’ve come across is the fact that he essentially served as an events coordinator for the big wigs of the British army before he became Adjutant General. This is around the time when he planned the Mischianza in 1778, which was a huge party for Gen. William Howe’s resignation. It was #legendary.

Another fun fact about André that most people don’t know is that he was a POW for pretty much all of 1776. He was captured by General Montgomery at Fort Saint-Jean in November of 1775. I’m about 75% sure that everyone’s favorite snek-in-the-grass, Aaron Burr, was serving as Montgomery’s aide-de-camp at the time. So, before André met Tallmadge, Hamilton, and that whole crew, there’s a very good chance he’d already been acquainted with Burr.

Basically, after that, André was brought down to Pennsylvania and just hung out for a year. Apparently, he gave his captors his word that he wouldn’t try and escape (and that was enough for them), so he was allowed to do pretty much whatever he wanted in that town until he was finally traded back to the British in December of 1776.

There’s a ton more, I think, but those are two of my favorites.

Brig. Gen. Michael J. Garshak, the adjutant general of Idaho and commander of the Idaho National Guard, shadows Staff Sgt. Jeremy Johnson, a 124th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron crew chief, while he prepares to launch an A-10 Thunderbolt II assigned to the 190th Fighter Squadron at Gowen Field, Boise, Idaho Aug. 5, 2018. Garshak was learning more about the A-10 and how the Idaho Air National Guard utilizes it for both training and combat missions. (U.S. Air National Guard photo by Master Sgt. Joshua C. Allmaras)

Fini Flight - Brig. Gen. Scott L. Kelly, 175th Wing Commander, performs a maneuver during his final flight in an A-10C aircraft at Warfield Air National Guard, Baltimore, Maryland, October 17, 2015. Kelly’s fini flight marked the end of his service as wing commander because he is transitioning to be the assistant adjutant general – Air for the Maryland National Guard. (Air National Guard photo by 2nd Lt. Benjamin Hughes)

Counseling

September 1775

There were benefactors in St Croix, friends of Reverend Knox, that would be throwing their hands up in protest over the way that St George’s Chapel had become an arsenal of rifles, powder, and musket balls.  They’d be appalled to see a holy space used to promote violence against the King’s own countrymen, a community churchyard used for marching drills.

Hamilton really only cared about how he should report in to his superior.

Keep reading

A Relic of Thermidor

Recently, I acquired this item as an addition to my humble collection of revolutionary “souvenirs”: a copy of the official Bulletin des lois of the French Republic, n.° 29. It records the decrees that the National Convention passed in the fateful session of 9 Thermidor, Year II (27 July 1794), between around 1 o’clock in the afternoon and midnight. This bulletin consists of eight pages, and its measurements are 18 x 12.1 cm (7.1 x 4.7 inches).

The Bulletin des lois was instituted by the decree of 14 Frimaire, upon the proposal of Billaud-Varenne ; the purpose was to render the decisions of the National Convention more transparent, as well as to make its decrees more well-known in the local communes of the Republic. The first issue of the was published on 22 Prairial (10 June 1794), and even if its name was changed several times, the institution of the Bulletin was continued until 1931.

The session of 9 Thermidor started around 11 o’clock in the morning ; although we do not have an authentic record, the events are well-known. Following several interventions (notably by Tallien, Billaud-Varenne, Barère, Vadier, Bourdon de l’Oise), Louchet proposed a décret d’arrestation against Maximilien Robespierre, which was passed by the Convention (n.° 131). Famously, Augustin Robespierre demanded to share his brother’s fate, which resulted in a décret d’arrestation being passed against him, too (n.° 132). After several more interventions, further decrees were voted against Couthon and Saint-Just, as well as against Lebas, who, in turn, demanded to share the fate of his allies and friends (n.° 133). Dumas, the president of the tribunal, was arrested, as were numerous high-ranking officials of the National Guard, i.e. Hanriot, Boulanger, Lavallete, Dufraise, d’Aubigny and Sijas (n.° 134). Several decrees were passed in order to prevent or contain the ensuing insurrection: the suppression of every rank above chef de légion (n.° 135), the summoning of the municipality and the department (n.° 136), the appointment of Barras to general of the Parisian armed forces (n.° 137), and the mise hors la loi of M. Robespierre, A. Robespierre, Couthon, Saint-Just and Lebas (n.° 138), as well as of the municipal officials who were taking part in the insurrection (n.° 139). Finally, the Convention passed a decree that forbade the sections to support the Commune’s insurrection (n.° 140), as well as a well-known proclamation to the French people (n.° 141).


(N°. 131) LAW which orders that Maximilien Robespierre will be put under arrest.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that Maximilien Robespierre, one of its members, will immediately be put under arrest.

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed COLLOT-D'HERBOIS, president ; A. DUMONT, BRIVAL and LEGENDRE, secretaries.

(N°. 132). LAW ordering that Robespierre the younger will be put under arrest.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES […]


[…] that Robespierre the younger, one of its members, will immediately be put under arrest.

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed COLLOT-D'HERBOIS, president ; A. DUMONT, BRIVAL and LEGENDRE, secretaries.

(N.° 133.) LAW ordering that Saint-Just, Couthon and Lebas will be put under arrest.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that Saint-Just, Couthon and Lebas, three of its members, will immediately put under arrest.

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed THURIOT, ex-president ; BAR, A. DUMONT and PORTIEZ, secretaries.

(N.° 134.) LAW which puts Dumas, president of the revolutionary tribunal, Henriot and other leaders and officers of the National Guard of Paris, under arrest.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that Dumas, president of the revolutionary tribunal, Henriot, Boulanger, Lavalette, Dufraise, leaders of the national guard of Paris as well as the general adjutants and aides-de-camp of Hanriot; and d’Aubigni, former assistant of the minister of war, and Prosper Sijas, assistant in the commission of the movement and organisation of ground forces, will be put under arrest. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed COLLOT-D'HERBOIS, president ; A. DUMONT, BRIVAL and LEGENDRE, secretaries.

(N.° 135.) LAW which suppresses every rank [that is] superior to the one of chef de légion, and charges the mayor of Paris, the national agent and the one who will be responsible for commanding the national guard, with ensuring the security of the national representation.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, after having heard the report of its Committees of Public Safety and General Security, DECREES:

ART. 1. Every command, every rank [that is] superior to the one of chef de légion, are suppressed.

The National Guard will resume its original organisation; consequently, each chef de légion will command in his turn.

2. The mayor of Paris, the national agent, and the one who will be in charge of commanding the National Guard, will ensure the security of the national representation : […]


[…] they will be accountable, on their life, for all the troubles which could occur in Paris.

The present decree will immediately be sent to the mayor of Paris. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed COLLOT-D'HERBOIS, president ; A. DUMONT, BRIVAL and LEGENDRE, secretaries.

(N.° 136.) LAW which summons to the bar of the Convention the municipality and the department of Paris.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that the municipality and the department of Paris will instantly be summoned to the bar in order to receive the indication of the orders of the National Convention there. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed THURIOT, ex-president ; BAR, LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and A. DUMONT, secretaries.

(N.° 137.) LAW which appoints the representative of the people Barras to commandant-general of the armed force of Paris.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, after having heard its two committees of Public Safety and of General Security, DECREES that the representative of the people Barras is appointed to commandant-general of the armed force of Paris, which will be obliged to obey him in everything that he will order to it.

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed THURIOT, ex-president ; LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and A. DUMONT, secretaries.

(N.° 138.) LAW ordering that Robespierre the elder and all who escaped the décret d’arrestation [that was] issued against them, are outlawed.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, after having heard its Committees of General Security and Public Safety, DECREES that Robespierre the elder and all those who escaped the décret d’arrestation [that was] issued against them, are outlawed. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed VOULLAND, ex-president ; BAR, LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and PORTIEZ, secretaries.

(N.° 139.) LAW ordering that the mayor and the rebel municipal officers of the commune of Paris, are outlawed.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that the mayor, all municipal  and notable officers […]


[…] of the commune of Paris who have taken part in the rebellion, and who have received in their midst the individuals [whose arrest was] decreed, are outlawed.

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed VOULLAND, ex-president ; BAR, LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and PORTIEZ, secretaries.

(N.° 140.) LAW which forbids to the sections of Paris to obey the municipality, [which was] outlawed.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION counts on the zeal, the patriotism and the loyalty of the sections of Paris towards the indivisible Republic, and expressly forbids them to obey to a conspiratorial municipality which the National Convention just outlawed.

The present decree will immediately be sent to the 48 sections of Paris. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed THURIOT, ex-president ; LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and A: DUMONT, secretaries.

(N.° 141.) PROCLAMATION of the National Convention, to the French People.

9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.

CITIZENS,

Amidst the most significant victories, a new danger threatens the Republic; it is especially great, as public opinion is weakened, and as a part of the citizens lets itself be led to the abyss by the ascendant of some reputations.

The works of the Convention are infertile, the courage of the armies becomes nil, if the French citizens weigh up a few men and the patrie. Personal passions have usurped the rank of the public good, some leaders of the armed force seem to threaten the national authority.

The revolutionary government, subject of the hatred of the enemies of France, is attacked in our midst; the forms of republican power reach their ruin; the aristocracy seems to triumph, and the royalists are ready to reappear.

Citizens, do you want to lose six years of the revolution, of sacrifices and of courage within one day? Do you want to return under the yoke which you have smashed? No, no doubt. The National Convention will not cease for one moment to watch over the rights of public liberty. Thus, it invites the citizens of Paris, to the aid of their reunion, of their intelligence, of their patriotism for the preservation of the precious trust which the French people has confided to it; so that they primarily watch over the military authority, always ambitious, and often usurping. Liberty is nothing in the country where the military is in charge of the civil life. […]


[…] If you do not support the national representation, the constituted authorities are without subordination and the armies without direction; the victories become a curse, and the French people is delivered to all furies of the interior divisions and to all vengeances of tyrants. Hear the voice of the patrie, instead of combining your cries with the ones of the malevolent, of the aristocrats and of the enemies of the people, and the patrie will again be saved once more.

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION DECREES that the present proclamation will be printed immediately and sent to all sections of Paris, to all communes and to the armies of the Republic. 

Stamped by the inspector. Signed S. E. MONNEL.

Collated with the original, by us, the president and secretaries of the National Convention. Paris, 9 Thermidor, second year of the French Republic, one and indivisible. Signed THURIOT, ex-president ; LEVASSEUR (de la Meurthe) and A. DUMONT, secretaries.

Conform copy: The members of the agency of the dispatch of Laws

Bernard, Grandville.


While this piece certainly differs from my other revolutionary “souvenirs”, I am pleased to add it to my small collection ; it is a record of one of the most fateful days of the Revolution, a humble relic of eventful times.

What do you think, citizens? Have a nice day!