addressee

My two cents on the first ‘you’

Alright so I have been thinking about the thing and I have concluded that I think that “is the first you singular or plural” is pretty much a particularly fruitful way to approach the scene. Hear me out.

Who is Cas referring to up to this moment? The three of them. After saying “you’re my family” he turns specifically to Mary and nods, like he’s telling her “yes, you too”. So far, “you” means “Dean, Sam, and Mary”.

Why would he suddenly shift from a “you” that means “Dean, Sam, and Mary” to a “you” that means something different? He’s making a speech and it makes no sense for him to change who he’s addressing to with no indication he’s doing so. I think his addressee is the same - the three of them.

If the speech ended here, if he said the thing about not wanting to see them die now, the scene would be Cas tells Dean, Sam and Mary that he loves them. Period. Dean wouldn’t stand out particularly - yes, the camera cuts to him immediately and the direction of Cas’ eyes and everything, but Cas’ words themselves wouldn’t give you reasons to think that there’s something in them that hints at specific feelings he has for Dean.

But…!

Cas feels the need to clarify what he meant with that “you”. Which would be absolutely unnecessary and make no sense unless you assume that Cas loves Dean in a way that differs from his feelings for Sam and Mary.

He’s been talking to his family, to the three of them, why would he feel the need to clarify that he means the three of them?

Because there is a chance that they might have assumed he was referring to Dean. There is a chance that Sam and Mary would think he was talking to Dean only, not to them. Because everyone in that room knows that Cas’ feelings for Dean are not the same as Cas’ feelings for Sam and Mary, so Cas is saying “I am expressing my love for all of you”.

Sam’s face here could either mean (or mean a mixture of both, more likely) “oh, you mean you love me too” or “oh you love Dean so much and it’s so obvious I thought you were only talking about him”. Kinda.

Basically Cas says I love you. And by you I don’t just mean Dean which I know each of us knows I love because literally every pebble outside knows that because the entire universe knows, in fact it’s so obvious you’re probably thinking that’s what I meant with ‘I love you’ right, so what I’m saying is that I mean that I care deeply about all of you because you all are my family and you all have been important to me and made me into the person I am now.

Basically the point is that everything he’s said before the “I love all of you” can be interpreted in two different ways - i.e. applied to Dean only (and it gets certain connotations) or applied to the three of them (and it gets different connotations). And the fact that Cas clarifies it, means that he’s aware of that possible dualism and he’s aware that everyone in the room is aware of it.

And if Perez is making the characters acknowledge that dualism (i.e Cas’ feelings for Dean being different than Cas’ feelings for the others), it means that that dualism is real.

Basically the scene isn’t telling us the nature of Cas’ feelings for Dean. That needs to happen still. It’s a little sign telling us that they’re different than Cas’ feelings for Sam or Mary.

In 11x23 Cas made a pained face when Dean told him that he was their brother. That’s what we’re exploring right now: is it possible to use the same label for Cas’ and Dean’s relationship as for Cas’ and Sam’s relationship? It’s pretty much what Robbie Thompson foreshadowed at with the line “what about Sastiel” - in the context of the episode it was a joke, but nothing is just a joke from a meta point of view it means, what’s the difference between ‘Dean and Cas’ and ‘Sam and Cas’?

Basically, in order to make Destiel shift from subtext to text, you have to answer the question ‘what about Sastiel’ first, i.e. elaborate on the difference between Cas’ feelings for Sam and Cas’ feelings for Dean. And Cas’ speech in 12x12 of course doesn’t mean all of this stuff textually, but, extradiegetically, it’s a sign that the show is setting the ground for the answers to that kind of questions.

A Love Poem - CIL 04, 5296

Transcription

Translation:

O, would that it be permitted to hold your delicate arms, 

fastened around my neck, and to offer kisses to your tender lips.

Go now, darling, and trust your joys to the winds;

trust me, the nature of men is fickle.

Often while I lie awake in the middle of the night, lost in love,

I reflect on these things with myself: many are they whom Fortune has lifted up high;

and in the same way these, suddenly thrown down headlong, she now oppresses:

just as when Venus has unexpectedly joined the bodies of lovers,

daylight divides them, and (they?)…

Bibliography:

Milnor, Kristina. “Gender and Genre: The Case of CIL 4. 5296.” In Graffiti and the Literary Landscape in Roman Pompeii. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

(The picture and transcription are taken from this source, p 198 and 209. There is obviously MUCH more scholarship on this, but Milnor is a good starting place.)

I’d recommend looking up Rebecca Benefiel if you want more information specifically about graffiti in domestic spaces.

Comments:

A beautiful love poem from one woman to another, neatly inscribed on the wall inside a house in Pompeii. There’s much to say about this poem, but I’ll keep it brief! There’s a lot of debate as to whether this was actually written by a woman, to a woman, and scholars sometimes bend over backwards to try to justify another explanation. But I (and many others) argue that it rejects the involvement of men both thematically and grammatically. The speaker does not seem interested in men’s “fickle nature.” The gender of the speaker can be determined by the perdita in line 4: a nominative, feminine perfect passive participle. The gender of the addressee is shown by pupula, a vocative, feminine noun (a diminutive term of endearment, literally meaning “little girl,” but probably more like “darling,” or maybe even “baby”?)

Please add your own translations, comments, and bibliography if you like!

Thanks to @ciceronian for the great request!

anonymous asked:

Hi love! Off of MITAM, I'd say that 'Hey Angel' is the most polarizing song. People either love or hate it. It isn't about the lyrics (RIP Spaces for that reason.). What do you think makes Hey Angel different from other tracks to cause such a reaction? Do you like the song? Thanks for your opinion!

Hi!

I LOVE HEY ANGEL. 

I love MITAM, MITAM promo, how the guys looked during MITAM, everything about it. 

Hey Angel has one of my favorite phrases in all of MITAM: a beautiful noise. It could be the title of my autobiography, if my life turns out as well as that phrase. 

The thing is, I think the reason some love Hey Angel and some hate it is because of the abstract poetics of the lyrics, and the relatively slow beat of the music. Too slow for dance or exercise, too abstract to sing along to, Hey Angel fits a certain mood. I don’t think I could listen to it all the time, but it fits a certain mood.

Remember these tweets?

If we look at the dates of the tweets, we can see that the lyrics were presented in the sequence in which they appear in the song (Harry has a finicky, type-A fastidiousness– a chocolate soufflé maker’s obsessive-compulsiveness– that I appreciate and adore). The fandom sort of lost it when Harry did these tweets. I think everyone was expecting a sad, acoustic song, not the song that showed up on MITAM, which was actually a Midnight Memories stadium-type anthem with big synth and amps. 

I think the impersonal nature of the lyrics, the fact that the “Angel” isn’t a romantic interest but a hypothetical, rhetorical addressee, confuses some listeners and turns them off. 

Hey Angel was written by Julian Bunetta, Jamie Scott, John Ryan, and Ed Drewett. None of the boys wrote on the song. But I feel like Harry really liked this song. Julian had said that the final version was very different from the initial “danky little version with bad-attitude singing,” and I can’t help thinking that Louis might have manipulated the producer into the version today, with the heavy ‘90′s The Verve type sound. 

The only other thing I’ll say about Hey Angel is the absolute, kick ass bridge:

Yeah, I see you at the bar, at the edge of my bed
Backseat of my car, in the back of my head
I come alive when I hear your voice
It’s a beautiful sound, it’s a beautiful noise

So much to love here. The poetry of seeing you in all the familiar and sexually suggestive places: bar, bed, car. And then not being able to separate myself from you– you’re at the back of my head, inside my mind, in the deepest portion where all the old memories are. So far back, so deeply buried, that you’re impossible to exorcise. Your voice isn’t even made of words. It doesn’t even have to make sense. It could be a hum, a sigh, a groan, a breath. It’s a beautiful noise. It’s sublime and it’s evanescent at the same time. It’s perfection and it’s chaos. It’s an oxymoron and it’s uniquely you.

Then the harmony? Liam singing the melody, Louis hovering in an inverted triad a fourth above? It’s a sustained pedal on the V (dominant) chord, inverted so that the Liam sings the top triad note on the bottom, and Louis sings the bass note on top (in a fourth interval), then back to the I (tonic) chord, with Louis singing the same top note– only now the note is part of a completely different, tonic or home, key. Anyway, it’s great to hear Louis and Liam sing together, and to sing like this, it’s the very definition of heaven. 

Thank you for the ask!

Sea

Japanese honorifics
  • -San: is the most common honorific and is equivalent to Mr., Miss, Ms. or Mrs. It is the all-purpose honorific and can be used in any situation were politeness is required
  • -Sama: is one level higher than "-san" and is used to confer great respect
  • -Dono: this one comes from the word "tono" which means "lord". It is an even higher level than "-sama" and confers utmost respect
  • -Kun: suffix used at the end of boys' names to express familiarity or endearment. It is also sometimes used by men among friends, or when addressing someone younger or of a lower station
  • -Chan: is used to express endearment, mostly towards girls. It is also used for little boys, pets, and even among lovers. It gives a sense of childish cuteness
  • Bozu: informal way to refer to a boy similar to the English terms of "kid" or "squirt"
  • Senpai/ Sempai: title which suggests that the addressee is one's senior in a group or organization. It is most often used in a school setting, where underclassmen refers to their upperclassmen as "sempai". It can also be used in the workplace, such as when a newer employee addresses an employee who has seniority in the company
  • Kohai: is the opposite of "sempai" and is used towards underclassmen in school or newcomers in the workplace. It connotes that the addressee is of a lower station
  • Sensei: literally meaning "one who has come before", this title is used for teachers, doctors, or masters of any profession or art
  • -[Blank]: is usually forgotten in these lists, but it is perhaps the most significant difference between Japanese and English. The lack of honorific means that the speaker has permission to address the person in a very intimate way. Usually only family, spouses, or very close friends have this kind of permission. Known as yobisute, it can be gratifying when someone who has earned the intimacy starts to call one by one's name without the honorific. But when that intimacy hasn't been earned, it can be very insulting.

@the-flame-and-hawks-eye

​ replied to your post

“@the-flame-and-hawks-eye replied to your post “*whispers* imagine Ed…”

SHE’S SO FREAKING PROUD AND JUST LOVES THEM SO MUCH AND OMFG HEADCANON ACCEPTED. HE CALLS HER FIRST OF ALL THE MEN TO TELL HER. AND ROY HEARS SECOND AND IS SO OFFEND AND SHE JUST SMILES

“I can’t believe Fullmetal told you before he told me,” Roy huffed, crossing his arms over his chest and glaring at the informal wedding invitation his captain had dropped on his desk. The golden letters read, “formal invitation to follow.”

A rare teasing smile touched Riza’s lips. “Are you really surprised, sir? You always were at odds with him. If I didn’t know you two better I’d be shocked he invited you at all.”

Roy stood and crossed the office to the window, staring absently at the rapidly darkening street below. He was silent for a time, the quiet permeating the otherwise empty office, until: “How long ago did he tell you,” he asked pointedly. 

Riza watched his back warily, knowing that he’d be offended if he knew the truth. Still, it wasn’t in her to lie to him. “He told me during his layover in the West, on his way out of Amestris last year.”

Roy whipped around to stare at her wide-eyed. “He proposed to her last year,” he yelped indignantly. “But that means,” Roy counted back mentally, “he was barely eighteen!”

“Yes, sir. I’m glad you can still count,” she replied dryly.

He shook his head in disbelief before returning to his chair with an irritated sigh. He ran his fingers through his hair, then laughed hollowly. “How is it that Fullmetal is getting married when I was still in the military academy at his age?”

A trickle of sadness slid down Riza’s spine as she watched the subtle shift in her General’s expression. The disgruntled pinch in his brow gave way to something softer, more akin to regret, and the shimmer in his onyx eyes dulled.

“If it’s any consolation, sir, you were somewhat deprived of the opportunity before the war,” she offered. Right away she knew the words were a mistake as anguish flashed across Roy’s face. He shot her an affronted look, not bothering to mask his emotions in the absence of their other subordinates, but did not reply.

Riza wanted to tear herself away, to snatch her words back from the air and shove them in the trash along with every other thing she wished she could say to him. Instead, she stood by the desk with her spine ramrod straight, feeling the weight of the silence that wedged itself into the narrow space that separated her from the General. It settled on her shoulders and curled up in her lungs as she exhaled every unspoken promise that laid beside her each night.

It was a rapping on the office door that broke Riza’s destructive train of thought. She refocused on the general as his head snapped up from its resting place in his hands. He straightened in his seat and jerked his chin towards the door.

Riza strode stiffly across the room and poked her head into the outer office. A mousy sergeant saluted her, a stack of letters tucked under her left arm. Riza took the papers and thanked her quietly before withdrawing back into the room.

As she sifted through the new mail, Edward’s surprisingly neat handwriting caught her eye, and she frowned at the words staring back at her:

Brigadier General Roy Mustang and Captain Riza Hawkeye
Office #379
East City Headquarters

Riza’s brow furrowed at the oddness of the addressee line as she opened the letter and read. She gasped as her eyes slid across the paper and by the end of the letter her stomach was bubbling with apprehension and excitement.

“Captain, what is it?” Riza looked up and smiled broadly at Roy’s confused expression.

“Edward has requested that we participate in the wedding proceedings,” she said, feeling pride welling up in her chest. “He would be honored if you would walk Winry down the aisle, sir.” Roy’s black eyes widened, his jaw going slack as he stared at her in shock.

“He wants me to act as the father of the bride,” he said incredulously.

“Yes, sir. He said it was Winry’s request.” She hesitated before continuing, heat beginning to rise in her cheeks. “She also requested that I fill the role of mother of the bride.”

Roy started laughing then, his shoulders shaking with amusement. When he caught his breath he leaned forward in his chair, a mischievous glint in his eye, and said, “Write him back that we accept his offer. Tomorrow you and I will need to pick up a chess set; Fullmetal seems to have taken an interest.”

When ‘du’ actually means ‘jeg’

Hei~! I am going to talk a lot about something that might be very obvious, but it might be nice to point it out all the same. (Plus, I don’t know that much about Norwegian yet, so it might all be bullshit, but still… here goes)

At du er aleine

The sentence that stabbed my heart right before Isak’s worried face cut to a pitch-black screen. Why would she tell Isak he is alone? Why would she break her ties with him? Doesn’t seem to fit the guilt she’s feeling when she looks at his black eye?

Or, actually.. it does. It fits the pattern of the clip, which shows Sana cutting ties with everyone. And distancing herself from Isak might be a way for her to cope with the guilt. She feels betrayed and she feels guilty, so she is pushing everyone away. So who’s alone? Not Isak, who’s shown walking with his beautiful boyfriend, a beautiful dandelion stuck behind his ear, distracting onlookers from the black eye he’s sporting. It’s Sana, and that’s exactly what she’s telling him.

‘You’, as you probably will know, is a second person pronoun. It is a grammatical device we use to refer to the person we’re addressing. Sounds easy ;) (hehe). But there’s more to it. Because research on a corpus of spoken Dutch (similar to both English and Norwegian) shows that only half of the instances of ‘jij’/’je’ (you) are deictic, i.e. refer to the addressee. The other occurrences were uses of what is called a ‘generic you’ referring to a person or group of people in general, but as it may be contextually restricted, it can also be used for self-reference, thus meaning ‘I’. And, because of its characteristics as a second person pronoun prototypically used to refer to the addressee, its use for anything else still invites the addressee to identify themselves with what is being said. So like in:

You just get sad when you look at someone shutting everyone out (*cough* too soon?)

‘you’ actually means ‘I’, but probably more so than when I had just used ‘I’, you are invited to apply it to yourself, place yourself in the described situation; it might even distract from applying it to the speaker, even though it refers to them.

So, if you’re one of the people who thought Sana was actually talking about herself, that she wasn’t saying Isak (and anyone else, for that matter) is alone, but instead that she herself is, you’re probably not wrong. Linguistics has your back. Here’s to hoping Isak’s got Sana’s, because the blatant contrast with last season’s du er ikke alene, must mean he knows something’s up, and that it’s bad.

There needs to be a new way to ask people how they’re doing where it’s already assumed that the addressee is dying inside as they helplessly watch our nation being led off a cliff by a fascist sweet potato. 

You know, something that says “How would things being going for you today in the universe where Hillary won the electoral college?” but more pithy.

The Joker x Reader - Job Application”

You infiltrated Gotham Bank’s headquarters two weeks ago as a mortgage specialist. You need to retrieve as much information as possible about their vault and then make your move. Until then, pretending to be normal and actually come to a regular job sure is boring as hell. Thank God you have a husband that is equally bored without his Pumpkin, this way he can make your present day better with the “Job Application” you just received from him in the mail.

“Mrs. Doll?” one of your co-workers knocks on your cubicle’s wall, handing you over an envelope marked as urgent as you nod a yes to answer his question.

“Thank you,” you smile when you recognize J’s handwriting on the small package:

To: Mrs. Kira Doll (which is your alias for this inside job) URGENT (to be opened only by the addressee)

From: Mr. Jo Ker

What is he up to? you wonder and open the envelope as soon as the guy leaves.

                                      ***********

Princess, I heard you guys are hiring so I’m applying, the little note on top of the first page lets you know.

               GOTHAM BANK JOB APPLICATION

First name: Jo

Middle initial: B (=Batsy sucks –there was no other place to write this down)

Last name: Ker

Date of birth: When I was born, I guess - duh!

Age (optional): is just a number

Current address: Penthouse (main) but you can also reach me at one of my hideouts

E-mail: DaddysKinkyPrincess  (this really is his e-mail)

Aliases/ Previously used names: I’m not making this up- Mister J, King of Gotham, Clown Prince of Crime

Your smile gets wider. And you unconsciously start biting your nails, amused and continue to read.

Preferred nickname you would like us to use if you get hired (optional): Daddy; Oh my God, yes! (My wife says this a lot in the bedroom so it counts)

You snort, giggling.

Sex: Masc _ Fem _    as much as possible

Eyes: very blue. My wife says she gets lost in them (although she got lost on her way to the kitchen once and I swear it wasn’t my fault).

Hehehehe, escapes your lips again and you struggle to keep it down but it’s hard.

Height (optional): Tall. My Queen says and I quote: “I will climb that like a tree!” (and she does)

Weight (optional): Ask my Doll, she’s very familiar with my weight, if you get my drift XD

He actually wrote that down: XD. You try so hard not to laugh like crazy. You don’t know what got into him but you sure love it.

Position desired: that’s a tough one, it depends what I’m in the mood for- top, bottom, against the wall, couch, floor, desk, car etc.

Current occupation: Sex God, gangster

Wow, that’s a good one, you think, not bored anymore, entertained to the maximum.

Reason for leaving current job: I’m not, just bored without my Kitten

Skills: Killing, stealing, blackmailing, rough sex, excellent kisser

Weaknesses: none. Hold on, I thought it said “witnesses”, LOL. But still none. Actually, my wife insists she’s my weakness so to get her off my back, mark her as my weakness.

Ahhhhh, you sigh, touching your blushing cheeks, how sweet.

Hobbies (optional): staring at my wife’s ass, undressing her, showing her who her Daddy is, aggravating Batsy, breaking out of Arkham, looking sexy with no effort

You are so flattered right now: aggravating Batsy came after “staring at my wife’s ass” and you feel on cloud 9.

Special accommodations you might need/ requests: I wanna get laid tonight- three times, but actually striving for four

And he hand wrote this:

                         Accept __      Decline

There is no option to decline so you mark an X next to Accept

You also include a note with your response:

             Dear Mr. Jo Ker,

Thank you for your interest in obtaining a job with our company. We are pleased to inform you that due to your impeccable application and resume you are hired.

You grab the stamp on your desk and stamp your paper with: HIRED.

And also sir, you will get laid tonight.

Special requests: pink champagne, chocolate covered strawberries, bubble bath, background music (Baby, I told you before your moans and my screams don’t count).

                        Accept __    Decline

And you don’t give him the option to decline, but you kiss the paper next to Decline, so that your red lipstick makes it better.

You put everything into a new envelope, mark it as URGENT and sent it to one of the PO Boxes you have across the street inside the postal office. The Joker has one of your henchmen waiting there for sure.

After about 3 hours, you get a small package. You impatiently open it and your note is marked with an X by Accept for your request. You look inside and you see a pair of black, lacy thongs on the bottom of the tiny box with a sticker on them.

You take out the sticker and can’t help it but laugh with all your heart when you read it:

Dear Madam,

Wear this for tonight, no strings attached - literally: it’s a very skimpy piece of lingerie.

Thank God he was bored at home because this made your day and you have to make sure to thank him tonight the best way you know how. It’s going to be fun:

                 Accept _X_     Decline


Also read- Masterlist:

http://diyunho.tumblr.com/post/153664676321/joker-x-reader-masterlist

Based on this post by @languagecollector !

I also made a German version of this list.


Nouns

un correspondant - penpal
une lettre - letter
une carte postale - postcard
un timbre - stamp
un colis - parcel
une enveloppe - envelope
le papier à lettres - note/letter paper
une adresse - address
un code postal - postcode
un expéditeur - sender
un destinataire - addressee
un facteur - postman
une boîte aux lettres - letterbox / mailbox
un affranchissement - postage
le courrier postal - snail mail
un e-mail - e-mail
la distribution - delivery
une écriture - handwriting
un bureau de poste - post office
une correspondence - correspondence

Verbs

écrire une lettre - to write a letter
envoyer qc par la poste - to send sth by snail mail      
envoyer une lettre - to post a letter
recevoir qc - receive sth
ouvrir une lettre - to open a letter

Adjectives

écrit à la main - handwritten
tapé à la machine - typewritten
décoré - decorated
à l’étranger - overseas

Phrases

Cher / Chère … - Dear …
Merci pour ta lettre. - Thank you for your letter.
Je suis désolé de ne pas t'avoir écrit depuis si longtemps. -  I am very sorry I haven’t written for so long.
Dans l'attente d'une réponse très prochaine de ta part. -  I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Écris-moi vite. -  Write back soon.
Prends soin de toi. - Take care.
Amitiés, -  With best wishes,
Tous mes vœux, - Best wishes,
Bisous, - Much love, (Kisses)

The preservation of the unsent letter is its arresting feature. Neither the writing nor the sending is remarkable (we often make drafts of letters and discard them), but the gesture of keeping the message when we have no intention of sending it. By saving the letter, we are in some sense ‘sending’ it after all. We are not relinquishing our idea or dismissing it as foolish or unworthy (as we do when we tear up a letter); on the contrary, we are giving it an extra vote of confidence. We are, in effect, saying that our idea is too precious to be entrusted to the gaze of the actual addressee, who may not grasp its worth, so we 'send’ it to his equivalent in fantasy, on whom we can absolutely count for an understanding and appreciative reading.
—  Janet Malcolm, The Silent Woman
Certainty in Sasuke’s 「また今度な」“Mata kondo na” in Comparison to Itachi’s 「また今度だ」”Mata kondo da”

I happened to find a tumblr blog that pinpoints difference between Sasuke’s and Itachi’s 「また今度」mata kondo dialogues. There, the blogger thinks Sasuke’s dialogue shows more emotion, emphasis, and remarking meaning of sentence. It implies strong desire, even if it is something hard for the speaker to do. I feel like have to exaggerate things because brief explanation is just not enough to fulfill a crazy fan girl’s need.

For the sake of proper writting, let me give reference in advance regarding what dialogues I will talk about:

「また今度だ」”Mata kondo da” refers to some dialogues spoken by Itachi to Sasuke in various occations in their past before the Uchiha Clan Downfall. It is often translated as, “Maybe next time.”

「また今度な」”Mata kondo na” refers to a dialogue spoken by Sasuke to Sakura by the time he departed from Konoha (Naruto, 699:15). It is often translated as, “I’ll see you soon.”

Both of dialogues have similarity in「また今度」 mata kondo part, in which literally 「また」mata means ‘again’ and 「今度」kondo means ‘this time’ or depends on the context it can also be ‘next time’. Mata kondo in general is used to politely decline an offer.

The only difference between two dialogues is that Itachi used 「だ」da, whereas Sasuke used「な」na in the end of sentence. This slight difference, however, makes all the big gap regarding the volume of certainty the speakers indicate in their speeches.


ITACHI’S「また今度だ」MATA KONDO DA

To be honest, I am not quite sure which group da is belong to, as some people say it a copula and some others consider it as a particle. The first group states that da is equivalent to English to-be and working as if it were verbs when it is combined with noun  (used to predicate sentences). But it is not fully correct since for sentences in which a copula is required in English, the corresponding sentences in Japanese  do not require a copula [Dalrymple, in Kusutani]. Japanese verbs are also not conjungated for person or number although they do change in forms to reflect honorific considerations that have to do with respect, humility, and politeness [Cipris, in Kusutani].

I don’t want to give you headache, so I will just skip all these debates and focus on practical usage of da.

  •   Da plainly completes a sentence. If you add da after a noun, it makes a full sentence. For example, sakana means fish, but  sakana da means “(It’s a) fish
  •   Da expresses existence of something or shows certain thing is. When you say, “sakana da,” it may refer something that is indeed a fish, or refer to the availablity of the fish
  • Da is sometimes used to replace other parts of a sentence when all person involved in conversation are clear with the context. For example: a customer in restaurant say to the waiter, “Watashi wa unagi da.” (lit. I am an eel). Of course, the person does not claim himself as an eel. The more proper meaning will be “I want to order eel.” However, it is not necessary to explain it in full sentence, since both parties have understood the context.
  • Da always declarative, never interrogative (although, there are some examples that make me unsure about this point)
  • Da expresses assertion. According to online dictionary, assertion is positive statement or declaration that often without support or reason.

Regarding its differences with desu:

  • Desu is more formal and polite than da. Thus, many sentences are almost identical in meaning and differ in the speaker’s politeness to the addressee and in nuance of how assured the person of their statement
  • Both desu and da express assertion, but desu is less assertive than da
  • Unlike da, desu can be used in interrogative sentence
  • Da is somewhat manlier than desu

From literature approach that has been explained above, in my opinion, da in Itachi’s dialogue “Mata kondo da” has following usages:

(1)    To plainly complete a sentence

(2)    To express assertion

(3)    To note casualty in the relationship and manly way of speaking

The direct translation of the said dialogue is “(It’s) next time again” and contextually translated as “Maybe next time.”

“Mata kondo” it is a polite statement of rejection by making promise for future chance. However, in the promise, there is tone of assertion. You can say that the speaker is basically uncertain about the promise. It is made without much willing from the speaker, and in certain level, can be considered as an empty promise.

Character Wise

Itachi Uchiha was only four years old when Third Shinobi World War broke out. Traumatized a lot by all the dreadful happenings, the young Itachi loved peace so much that he wanted to keep it no matter what it might cost. He began to learn history and his exceptional intelligence had made his horizon greatly widen; he saw the far future and became very concerned about it. He was even stated to have wisdom that was on par with a Hokage’s at such a young age.

Natural prodigy that passed Chuunin Exams at age 11 and was promoted to Anbu captain by age 13, Itachi was used to take very big decisions that none ever could dream of. Something that even a Hokage was feeling very remorse to know the burden on the young boy’s shoulder.

Before the night of Uchiha Clan Massacre, Itachi was really close to his brother, Sasuke. He loved him so much and paid attention to him in way his father did not. He watched his brother progress whenever he had time to. But, how could he have time if he was already occupied as double agent?

Despite his love for his brother, Itachi was rarely home and not able to keep eyes on Sasuke’s training.  In the end, he could only reject his brother plead by saying “Yuruze Sasuke … Mata kondo da” (lit. Forgive me, Sasuke … Maybe next time) while poking Sasuke in forehead.

I’m quite sure the lack of certainty his promise due to the difficult position he was in. Double agent job obviously didn’t let him to have spare time. He was aware that he might not be able to fulfil the promise, yet he couldn’t bring himself to directly refuse Sasuke.

PART 2: SASUKE’S「また今度な」MATA KONDO NA

I have explained about Japanese sentence-final particles (shuujoshi) in my another post, so you can skip this part if you still remember the whole explanation. But in case you forget, the following paragraphs are what sentence-final particles is.

Sentence-final particles (shuujoshi) are group of Japanese particles located in the end of sentence. The basic function of sentence-final particles is to express the speaker’s feeling or to seek confirmation from the addressee. Sentence-final particles are essential in spoken Japanese. These determine or greatly alter the function of the sentence. The speaker also must intertwine his/her emotion into the speech to make it seem relevant. By dropping the sentence-final particles, your speech will get less impression. Adachi [2002:261] stated that not using final particle at all gives the impression that the speaker isn’t really interested in what is said.

Basically sentence-final particles give volume to the speech, or in certain point, are the heart of the speech as it carries the speaker’s tone as well as impression. In addition, sentece-final particles also indicate territory of information, which means it determines to whom the information (aka the speech) belongs. Territory of information is divided into four: (1) the speaker’s but not the addressee’s;  (2) not the speaker’s but the addressee’s; (3) both the speaker’s and the addressee’s; (4) or belonging to neither the speaker nor the addressee.

Japanese is very subtle as they often drop the subject and sometimes the object of the sentence. Understanding of sentence-final particles may let you know about how the speaker truly feels when he/she delivers the speech, whether the speech is direct or indirect, and whether or not the speaker needs a feedback from the addressee.

Sentence final-particle na (from now on is particle na) is basically used to give confirmation or agreement in the sentence, to express the speaker’s feeling, emphasizes expressiveness, and stating hope or desire.

Particle na according to Moriyama [1998:174, in source] has contexts as following: (1) to express impression and awe; (2) to state desire; (3) to indicate decision and politely asking; (4) to ask agreement, get answer; (5) when it is following a command, it will make the command more polite.

Tomita [1991:171, in source] states that particle na has following functions: (1) to prevent; (2) to give command; (3) to express the speaker’s emotion or feeling; (4) to emphasize the topic or statement to the addressee; (5) to make the addressee agree or have same opinion with the speaker; (6) to emphasize personal opinion; (7) to make sure to the speaker him/herself about what is he/she thinking or doing.

Particle na has special property to convey a tone of ‘camaraderie’ [Naomi Ogi, 2014].

From the explanation above, particle na in Sasuke’s dialogue “Mata kondo na” has following usages:

(1)    To express the speaker’s emotion or feeling

(2)    To state strong desire

(3)    To emphasize the statement

(4)    To make the addressee agree or have same opinion with the speaker;

(5)    To make sure to the speaker him/herself about what is he/she thinking or doing.

Like Itachi’s dialogue, Sasuke’s dialogue is also a polite statement of rejection by making promise for future chance. However, there is big difference regarding the speaker’s will of what is being said.

This dialogue has indeed implied that the speaker does really mean what he says. He puts his emotion and feeling into the speech and indicates a strong desire to fulfill the promise. There is big amount of certainty in what is being said.

Particle na in this is dialogue is meant to both the speaker and the addressee. So, it’s important to him to make the addresse agree with his opinion, while he basically makes the promise to himself.

Character Wise

Sasuke was seventeen years old when he stated that he would do a revolution. In order to accomplish his goal, he needed to cut his bound to everyone from the past, especially from someone who had filled his lonely existence. Someone who was precious to him in golden old days and whom he had tried to kill more than once. He was prepared to take all the hate with him and walk in the darkness alone.

But Sasuke got his senses knocked back to him and realized that he was wrong. He then brought himself to ask forgiveness from someone whom he needed to apologize the most: Sakura. He apologized and she forgave him. She was kind and loving as ever. In parting days, Sakura even went as far as asking to join his journey. He refused her. She was not part of his sins, so she could not join him.

She didn’t seem to understand as she looked so depressed. It might be because of it, Sasuke wanted to make everything clear with her by saying, “Mata kondo na … Arigatou.” (lit. I’ll see you soon … Thank you.)

Sasuke was never a man with words. However, regarding Sakura, he always conveyed his heart directly. This time, Sasuke made the promise and the way he said it indicated that really meant it. He puts his emotion and feeling into the speech and indicates a strong desire to fulfill the promise. It’s important to him to make Sakura agree with his opinion by emphasizing it, while he basically makes the promise to himself.

And with that, this long rambling has come into conclusion. I am too lazy to sum it up with neat sentences, so forgive me for this  improper ending after all the ruckus I have already started.

Basically “Mata kondo” is polite statement of rejection by making promise for future chance. Both of Itachi’s and Sasuke’s dialogue carry the same promise. However, there is different amount of certainty indicated in those dialogues.

In Itachi’s dialogue, there is tone of assertion. Itachi was basically uncertain whether he was able to fulfil the promise, or aware that he might not be able to fulfill the promise, yet he couldn’t bring himself to directly refuse Sasuke’s plead.

In Sasuke’s dialogue, there is strong desire from him to fulfill the promise. The dialogue is meant to both Sakura and Sasuke. So, Sasuke has promised not only to Sakura, but also to himself. And it is important for him to emphasizes this to Sakura, as well as make her agree with his opinion.

I’m neither native in Japanese nor majoring Japanese linguistic, so there might be inaccuracy in my rambling and I am really, really sorry for that. My literatures come from online journals and articles and I want to add them if I have time. I hope this post is not as bad as I suspect it to be. If you find any mistake within the explanation, please kindly tell me so I can edit it out.

Based on this vocabulary list by @languagecollector


Nouns

der Brieffreund - pen pal 
der Brief - letter
die Postkarte - postcard
die Briefmarke - stamp
das Paket / das Päckchen - package / parcel
der Briefumschlag - envelope
das Briefpapier - note/letter paper
die Adresse - address
die Postleitzahl - postcode / zip code
der Absender - sender
der Empfänger / der Adressat - addressee
der Postbote - postman
der Briefkasten - letterbox / mailbox
das Porto - postage
die Briefpost - snail mail
die E-mail - e-mail
die Lieferung - delivery
die Handschrift - handwriting
die Poststelle / das Postamt - post office 
der Briefwechsel - correspondence 
Übersee-, ins Ausland - overseas 

Verbs

einen Brief schreiben - to write a letter
etw. (ver)schicken - to send sth.
etw. zur Post bringen - to bring sth. to the post office, to mail sth. 
einen Brief einwerfen - to post a letter 
Briefe austauschen - to correspond by letter 

 Adjectives

von Hand geschrieben - handwritten
abgetippt - typewritten
verziert - decorated

Phrases

Liebe,r … - Dear… 
Ich hoffe, dir geht es gut - I hope you’re doing well 
Ich freue mich darauf, von dir zu hören / Ich freue mich auf deine Antwort - I look forward to hearing from you 
Ich hoffe, du kannst so schnell/bald wie möglich antworten - I hope you can answer as fast/soon as possible 
Bitte schreib zurück - Please write back 
Liebe Grüße / Viele Grüße - Kind regards
Deine… - Yours …

pastelkingalex  asked:

Hey hey hey!! Could I get KuroKen with Kuro helping Kenma through a panic attack or a depressive episode??

Unknown Number

Kenma could feel himself shaking long before he managed to find an empty stall. But the real panic only started to set in in full force as he slumped against the wall, sliding into a sitting position and wrapping his arms around his knees– shuddering, shallow breaths and the blurred lines of the stall door, the wall, the toilet next to him, the crush of anxiety on his chest forcing the air out of his lungs, disconnecting him from his surroundings. It seemed as though he was looking at everything through the wrong end of a smudged telescope, but even more sickening was the cold familiarity of the feeling.

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General Guide To Common Korean Words Used In Fics 

Korean is used frequently in k-pop or k-drama fanfics. And while they do capture aspects of Korean culture that you can’t convey otherwise, I found there are common misconceptions about certain words or variations thereof. 

So I decided to make a small compilation of such terms to clarify what situations they are used in best! I hope you find it useful~

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Royai Week 17: Day 5

So this is a combination of angst and fluff. Because I have a pattern this week and can’t simply write fluff to save my life.

Day One Day Two Day Three Day Four

Theme: Letters

Words: 3,994

Riza removed the rest of the hangers from the closet and set them in the box. It was already filled with other miscellaneous items she had found and gathered from around the bedroom. A small bedside lamp, a couple of empty picture frames that had been hidden behind the dresser, one of Hayate’s balls, and an old book about the alchemical properties of gases. Just small things that the movers had missed when they took the large furniture out of the apartment.

Not that they really needed to move the furniture out of the apartment. The presidential mansion would be fully furnished when they moved in.

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Letters from the Depths of Solitude. On Forgetting

You will forget me eventually. Day after day, month after month, year after year. There are things that demand your attention. You will yield to distractions sooner or later. You will walk past me one day without as much as looking, and if you look, you would not recognize, and if you recognize, you will recognize me–not yourself. I am no longer you. Forgetting is a task; it is an accomplishment. “Succeed in forgetting,” as Derrida says once. “that Letter that chance or mischance returned to me and that I would succeed in forgetting without you” (The Post Card, 1987, 115). He is speaking about the letter lost (because of the mistake in address) that has returned to him. The addressee begs him to send it once again, and he refuses. Text expires; text expires quickly. He says many wondrous things: teleorgasmization, disastrologies, telethisthat. He calls telephone a parasite. Two people speaking, each having this–at the time–receiver and a spiral cord, I would assume, as a cord attaching one to the motherly entity of connection, a matrix, a womb. Each with one’s own parasite drinking the voice from the ear. You will return to me, over and over and over again, but one day an arrow will nevertheless strike a new division in the clock face, a wheel will advance a notch, and you will forget me. It is an event that looks impossible today, but it will be so, it is undeniable, it is as certain as day and night, the sun and the Moon.

(Written in a golden glittering pen.)

“The notion that speech wounds appears to rely on this inseparable and incongruous relation between body and speech, but also, consequently, between speech and its effects. If the speaker addresses his or her body to the one addressed, then it is not merely the body of the speaker that comes into play: it is the body of the addressee as well. Is the one speaking merely speaking, or is the one speaking comporting her or his body toward the other, exposing the body of the other as vulnerable to address. As an “instrument” of a violent rhetoricity, the body of the speaker exceeds the words that are spoken, exposing the addressed body as no longer (and not ever fully) in its own control.”
—Judith Butler, Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative

“In society, nothing is without meaning. Nothing has no content. Society is made of words, whose meanings the powerful control, or try to. At a certain point, when those who are hurt by them become real, some words are recognized as the acts that they are.”
—Catharine A. MacKinnon, Only Words

“Words, like sticks and stones, can assault; they can injure; they can exclude.”
—Mari J Matsuda, Charles R. Lawrence III, Richard Delgado, Kimberle Williams Crenshaw, Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, And The First Amendment (from the back cover)

The Great Philippine Experiment

The year was 1899…this vast archipelago under a government run by its own inhabitants. Untried. Untested. It was to be our very own national experiment. Known to be the first republic in Asia, this experiment was begun with bright optimism for the future. Pulsating with authority from Malolos, Bulacan, this new fledgling government, beginning on June 12, 1898, upon the proclamation of independence, laid down the foundation of what was to be a vast network of government bureaucracy, connecting the islands via cable telegram, and a complex chain of command among its own ground forces. If this government, for the first time run by Filipinos, was to work, it had to be efficient and orderly. There is no freedom with anarchy. In an age of roadless provinces, roaming bandits from the mountains, small pockets of armies made up of farmers, clerks, etc. that loosely answered to the government in Malolos, and in a country composed of islands, this was a great challenge. And for it to work at all with a few resources was an astounding feat. And at the center of it all, of this great undertaking, was a simple modest lawyer, maimed with polio, but with almost a prophetic insight that saw through other aristocrats who sought to erode this authority for selfish gain, and the Americans who initially appeared to support the new independent government but subjugated it in the end. 

*Apolinario Mabini, captioned by the American press as the Philippine “Secretary of State,” at Anda Street Police Station, 1900. From the Donovan McCune Collection. 

When Apolinario Mabini arrived late, being carried via hammock by community effort, from Laguna to Kawit, Cavite, on that fateful day of June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo saw Mabini’s potential, by the adviser of Felipe Agoncillo, the government’s diplomat. And Mabini took on the role of an adviser, without a care for any credit. He drafted all the decrees that Aguinaldo issued from June 1898 up to the time that he resigned on May 7, 1899. Ingeniously, he laid down the foundation of local government units in the provinces by a decree signed by Aguinaldo, assigning to liberated towns an election of their own leaders, and justices of the peace. He also guided the regulation of the flow of information, from the center of government in Malolos to its constituents, at the time when new technology came to the islands–technology such as the Telegraph, Trains, the Telephone. 

*Colorized image of a field telegraph station in an altar of a church in Caloocan, 1899. From the Universität Wien (University of Vienna).

The Malolos government word conventions on official letters via telegrams, the chain of command of the Chief Executive, and what was supposed to be a provisional constitution of the new Republic until it was truly ratified by a true body that represented the full spectrum of voices among the people, was all Mabini’s idea. He also set the town for the government’s foreign policy, and still insisting up to the end, that compromise with the Americans by agreeing for autonomy instead of independence, was wrong in every way, advocating the Philippine position’s legality.

*Captioned by the French press as “The Philippine Committee in Hong Kong.” Fourth from the left was Galicano Apacible, Mabini’s long time friend and regular addressee of his correspondence, 1898.

Mabini, maimed as he was, never batted an eye when rebuking what he thought was wrong leadership. He did not hold back on President Aguinaldo who hesitated to punish the excesses of the army, some of which were rape of women, and the lording over of the towns. Cracks of this great national project was already being seen, not because of the wrong structure established but because of a leadership that favors the few over the many, and one that hesitates to stand for justice. In a scathing rebuke, Mabini wrote a letter to Aguinaldo on February 28, 1899, amidst the Philippine-American War that broke out on February 4:

“We already see the disastrous effects of weakness. Not only the army but also the people notice this. And for the same reason that there is the belief that we do not punish the guilty, some soldiers might say that here it is nothing to disobey a general, while in other places such a thing is punished by musketry. If you will punish the companies that will disobey in the future, the people will say that you punish them because the soldiers are not from Kawit. At this rate, our soldiers will never know what discipline is.

Because you did not mete out punishment at the proper time to the soldiers of P– who committed abuses in Malabon, similar abuses were committed in Polo, is now here accompanied by two persons with mangled bodies, one of who is the chief of barrio Maisan himself, who was the victim of looting by seventy soldiers of P. These soldiers arrested all the men of the place, beating them with the butt of their guns.

If the townspeople do not help us, we cannot accomplish anything except being beaten by our enemies. Our soldiers will be weak if the people will not help them with food and other things they need.

God has given you the prestige that you enjoy so that you can use it to give peace and order to your people, and this cannot be accomplished if the abuses are not stopped. Without peace and order, you will lose prestige you have won, because it will come to be known that we do not know how to govern.

In these calamitous times, we need military dictatorship, not to control the townspeople, but above all, to suppress the abuses of the army, and nobody can do this but you, Chief.

If we have the people on our side, we can be sure that we shall triumph, if not today, tomorrow, or the day after. If we do not have the people with us, we shall perish. If the Americans pose serious dangers for us, our own countrymen would pose for us greater ones as a result of the abuses that can be committed against them, abuses that are often the cause of revolutions.”

[Emphasis mine].

The letter only gave a glimpse of the problems of this new government, and it would be exacerbated by the war. It is the perennial lesson of history, that nations, states, and kingdoms do not crumble from without but from within. The government only stood when people like Mabini were on the helm of leadership. It fell “like a house of cards” when they were not, when it was pulled from all directions by leaders with different selfish interest. “Woe to the Revolution,” Mabini said, “when the people, overburdened by contributions and consumed by abuses, turn to their enemies for salvation!”

Many of the landed gentry in the Malolos Congress, saw that compromise with the Americans by accepting autonomy was good, disregarding the already shed blood of the people who sacrificed their lives for freedom from American control. They heaped upon Mabini various black propaganda, calling him, “Camara Negra” or the Black Cabinet, implying he was the real scheming power behind the throne, or that he suffered from syphilis hence his being paraplegic. But Mabini stood by Aguinaldo’s side so long as Aguinaldo still had faith in his advice. But it wouldn’t be so, for long. With Aguinaldo easily swayed, Mabini and the like-minded members of the Cabinet stepped down willingly on May 7, 1899 to give way to the autonomists. Mabini retired and stayed in Rosales, Pangasinan, where he was eventually captured by the Americans.

As Mabini have predicted, the republic predictably capitulated. President Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans on March 23, 1901 at Palanan, Isabela, and he swore allegiance to the American flag under duress. But the story didn’t end there. It went on under different circumstances, under different set of leaders, and when the People spoke once again, of independencia

The experiment, the Republica Filipina, the First Philippine Republic, inaugurated today 118 years ago, led by luminaries such as Mabini and a throng of other thinkers and heroes, echoes to us today amidst the same euphoria of optimism that it had when it was cheered upon in the streets of Malolos, and the halls of the Barasoain. Indeed, as with all representative democracies around the world, we are only as weak as when we assail our own values and own ideals. 

Would we dare look at the painful lessons of the past to guide our future?  


*Image above, including the standardized insignia of the Republica Filipina, from PCDSPO 2010-2016 designed by Derrick Macutay.