Athena Parthenos (Ancient Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος; literally, “Athena the Virgin”) is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens. Its epithet was an essential character of the goddess herself. A number of replicas and works inspired by it, both ancient and modern, have been made.
A modern copy by Alan LeQuire stands in the reproduction of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee. LeQuire, a Nashville native, was awarded the commission to produce the Parthenon’s cult statue. His work was modeled on descriptions given of the original. The modern version took eight years to complete, and was unveiled to the public on May 20, 1990.
The modern version of Athena Parthenos is significant because of its scale and its attention to recreating Phidias’ work. The statue adds an additional dimension of realism to the replicated Parthenon, whose interior east room (the naos) was merely a large empty hall prior to the statue’s unveiling. The reproduced Athena Parthenos gives visitors the impression that they truly are inside an ancient place of worship.
The Nashville Athena Parthenos is made of a composite of gypsum cement and ground fiberglass. The head of Athena was assembled over an aluminum armature, and the lower part was made in steel. The four ten-inch H beams rest on a concrete structure that extends through the Parthenon floor and basement down to bedrock, to support the great weight of the statue. LeQuire made each of the 180 cast gypsum panels used to create the statue light enough to be lifted by one person and attached to the steel armature.
Nashville’s Athena stands 12.8 m tall, making her the largest piece of indoor sculpture in the Western World.