There is nothing that I love more than a bowl of pasta with tomato sauce. Tomato sauce is inexpensive, versatile, and so easy to make. You can literally let it stew for hours unattended while you do your thing. I am known amongst my friends and family as the tomato sauce queen. Here are some of my tips and also some of my favorite recipes. 🍅
Thick Tomato Sauce
The only way to make thick tomato sauce is to use canned tomatoes. Fresh tomatoes create a thinner sauce. Trust me. Don’t believe the haters who say that a complex sauce can’t be created in a half hour. They are liars! Thick tomato sauce is great for anything from ravioli to shells. It’s also better for weird pasta shapes (like wheels) than thin pasta, because it coats better.
1. Pricing. There are different qualities of canned tomatoes, different brands costing anywhere from 89 cents to $6.00. You can taste a slight difference with the tomatoes themselves, but not enough to warrant dropping lots of money. I recommend just going to your local Dollar Store and buying bulk cans of whatever is cheapest. One 12 oz can of tomatoes makes two meals for me.
2. Canned variety. Sometimes I like to buy “fire roasted tomatoes” or “herbed tomatoes” to mix it up. Even with the stronger varieties, any initial taste they have will be mostly covered up by whatever you put in the sauce. Remember: fresh herbs are always better than dried ones!
3. Building your sauce. If you’re going to put anything that needs cooking in your sauce (NOT meat, but any garlic, onions, mushrooms, carrots) cook these in a sauce pan first. Use oil, not butter. Add any dried herbs or spices you want to this initial mix.
4. Get going. Add your tomato sauce to the pan and get it bubbling. Now is the time to add anything that doesn’t need cooking (olives, capers, anchovies, pickled anything). I like to use brines in my sauces, so I add them at this point. For example, if I’m making a puttanesca sauce, I’ll add my black olives and pour the black olive juice right into my pan.
5. Taste it. Take a spoonful and taste it. If you don’t like it’s taste, add some more spices. If it’s too acidic, add tomato paste. At this point you can either turn it on low and let it cook for an hour, which creates a very rich and thick sauce. Or, you can cook some meat or veggies and add your fresh herbs. Always ad your fresh herbs in right before you’re about to eat! Otherwise they’ll wilt and you won’t taste their flavor.
Some easy thick sauces:
Puttanesca: From Series of Unfortunate events (and also Italy). Cook garlic and onions first. Don’t let them brown too much, just get them not raw. Add your canned tomatoes, let the sauce sizzle while adding salt and pepper (don’t go crazy on the salt). Add anchovies, black olives, capers, and other pickled things (pickled mushrooms, jalapeños, pearl onions, etc). Pour your black olive juice right into the sauce pan. Let it cook until the sauce has absorbed the olive juice. Top with cheese.
Marinara: Brown some garlic and onions in olive oil. Add tomato paste to the pan after the onions and garlic have turned golden, and swirl it around so that it gets toasted. Add your canned tomatoes and any dried herbs you may be using (thyme, parsley, oregano… but be gentle with your oregano pouring). Let reduce if you added the dried herbs, otherwise add fresh herbs and serve immediately. Put this on your pizza or in your lasagna.
Bolognese: Cook your meat first with oil, seasoning with cumin, garlic powder, pepper and salt. Or whatever spice blend you enjoy. Remove the cooked meat, and use the juices as the base for your tomato sauce. Pour your canned tomatoes and mix the sauces. Add chopped carrots or your other favorite vegetables. Cook until the veggies are fork tender, and add your meat back in. Hearty and warming!
Thin Tomato Sauce
This type of sauce always reminds me of summertime at my parent’s house when my mom would make her basil tomato sauce (see bellow). A thin sauce doesn’t have to be lighter than a thick sauce, but it definitely interacts with pasta differently and really needs a long pasta or a penne pasta to properly pick it up.
1. Fresh tomatoes. You don’t need to spend your lifesavings on beautiful heirloom tomatoes (in fact I’d urge you to just eat any heirloom tomato you happen upon raw). Any old tomato will do, even ones that are starting to sag and move towards the end of their lives. One fresh tomato makes two meals for me.
2. Cutting tomatoes. Cut the bottom of the tomato off and slice your tomato that way, cutting into the core. This way, no part of your tomato goes unused. For quick cooking, chop the tomato up small. If you have more time, leave large chunks to caramelize. You get a bit more flavor this way, but we don’t all have the luxury of time, so don’t stress about it.
3. Sauce base. With this type of tomato sauce, your base is 90% oil. The tomatoes themselves aren’t heavy enough to carry themselves, so do not skimp on the oil. I recommend cooking garlic and onions and browning them before adding your tomatoes. Allow them to dissolve into the sauce while you do your dishes or whatever.
4. Acidity. Fresh tomatoes can make for a really acidic sauce. Make sure to cook some veggies or meat to help balance out the flavor. Cook these in a separate pan while your tomatoes are reducing. Remove them, and pour their juices into the sauce. I recommend bacon.
5. Too much reducing/gloppy sauce. You may have to add water if your sauce becomes too reduced. Don’t worry if you add too much water, just let the sauce reduce to a comfortable consistency. Add your fresh herbs minutes before it’s done. I would skip the spices or dried herbs, their taste is too powerful for this sort of sauce.
Some easy thin sauce combos:
Hello onion: Caramelize half an onion. Chop it up into thin slices so that it will cook faster. Cook bacon and pour the drippings over the cooking onion. Add your fresh tomatoes and add water to help everything reduce. Be careful adding salt, the pasta will have salt from the bacon juices already. Add the crumbled bacon after you’ve turned the sauce off.
Mom’s basil sauce: Using olive oil and chopped garlic, cook tomatoes with salt and pepper. Add basil when the tomatoes have reduced.
Veggie blast: Brown onions and garlic (or not). After they’ve browned, add your favorite veggies to the sauce. I have a soft spot for squashes so I like to use eggplant and whatever squash we have in our fridge. I encourage you to get creative and to try different things. Add your tomatoes shortly after adding your veggies, because you don’t want the veggies to overcook and becoming mushy. Add spinach or kale after the sauce has reduced, and season heavily with salt and pepper. Seriously, veggies need salt.
Synopsis: Peter wants to ask you to the dance, but can never quite finish what he has to say.
Warnings: Nothing! This is quite fluffy :)
A/N: Hey! This is my first fic so please excuse how messy it is! I just kind of came up with the idea for this suddenly and just rolled with it. Hopefully, it isn’t too bad :/. Any feedback would be much appreciated! And if you actually like my writing then I’ll be taking requests :)
“So- I was wondering- if you’d- well- maybe- uh gotothedancewithme?”
“I’m sorry what was that Peter?” You said as you looked up from your phone. “Michelle was just sending me pictures of her biology notes.”
Peter sighed and shook his head.
“Don’t worry about it (Y/N).” He mumbled and quickly away from your locker.
You looked at him walking away, confused. For the past few days, Peter had been talking to you at the strangest of times.
Firstly, in History on Monday he leaned over and whispered something in your ear. You had only caught a few words so you had turned around and asked him to repeat what he said. He just shook his head. You shrugged it off and turned back around.
Next, on Tuesday, you were in Gym class playing dodge ball. Whilst trying to avoid flash’s deadly throws Peter had wandered up behind you.
“Hey (Y/N) can I ask you something?”
“You just did.” You said, smiling. “But anyway what’s up?”
“I was wondering if I- well if you would- only if you want to-” Peter began.
Your hand reached up to your head automatically at the memory. Flash really needs to learn how to throw softer.
“Oh my goodness (Y/N)! Are you alright?” Peter exclaimed, hands reaching up to your face.
“I’m fine, I’m fine Peter.” You replied, walking away to sit on the bench.
“Are you sure? I feel like Flash meant that for me.” Peter said.
“Peter don’t worry about it. I’ll be fine!” You assured him.
You sat down on the bench and Peter sat beside you. His hand reached up and touched your cheek lightly. You looked at him and smiled.
“What were you saying before Peter?” You asked.
“Oh right! I was going to ask-”
“PARKER GET BACK IN THE GAME! YOU DID NOT GET OUT YET!” Coach shouted at Peter.
Peter sighed and got up and walked back into the game. You wondered what he was going to say when a sharp pain shot through your head and you forgot about Peter for the moment.
Peter’s sweet words and acts always surprised you. You had been friends since the start of high school and he had been nothing but kind to you. You never argued with him, never got annoyed by him. He was the one you could go to with any problem. And recently he was making your heart flutter. Over the past few weeks, Peter’s touch always caused your cheeks to turn a light shade of red. Whenever you heard his voice you look up automatically in order to find him. His laugh was one of the sweetest things you’d ever heard. Oh, and those eyes. You could just lose yourself in them.
The bell rang and you were pulled out of your thoughts. You walked down to Chemistry. The class that Peter had tried to ask you something once again.
Yesterday, on Wednesday afternoon, Peter had partnered up with you in Chemistry to complete the experiment your teacher had set. It was a particularly complicated experiment and you were glad Peter had paired up with you as he was much better at Chemistry than you.
Halfway through the experiment whilst you were holding a beaker of some kind of dangerous chemical, Peter leaned over and attempted to ask you something once more.
“Could you have me that beaker you’re holding (Y/N)?”
“Sure thing Peter. What even is our end goal here?” You asked in a confused voice.
“Well once I get the right amount of Hydrochloric acid to add to this sodium hydroxide solution, I’ll be able to neutralise the mixture. Cause you know, the hydrogen ions will join with the hydroxide ions to produce water.” Peter stated confidently.
You raised an eyebrow and smirked. This boy was way too smart and he knew it.
“Right… I’m just going to let you stay in charge of this experiment Einstein.” You said.
Peter blushed and quickly turned back to the experiment to pour the contents of your beaker into the one on the table. The blue mixture turned green which indicated that the experiment had worked. You knew that at least.
“Well done you two! The first pair done!” Your chemistry teacher said as she walked by your table.
“I have to say that it was mostly Peter Miss. I’m just his glamorous assistant!” You replied.
Your teacher chuckled before walking over to the next table. You looked over to Peter to find him already staring. Now it was your turn to blush.
“What’s up Peter?” You asked quietly.
“I- um- I’ve been trying to ask for a while but now seems like to the perfect time to ask.” Peter whispered, looking down at his shoes.
You placed your finger underneath his chin and lifted his head up to he was looking at you properly. He opened his mouth to speak before being interrupted by the sound of smashing glass from across the classroom. You both turned to see Flash and Ned standing in front of your teacher, having some sort of disagreement over whose fault it was. You rolled your eyes and turned back to Peter.
“What were you saying, Peter?”
“Nevermind.” He muttered. “I’m going to go help Ned clear up the mess.”
Peter walked away from you and over to Ned, who had unfortunately been the one your teacher had deemed responsible for the accident.
You sighed. Now you could only think of the possibilities of what Peter wanted to ask you. Clearly, something important if he kept trying to ask you. Last night your imagination had created so many scenarios of what it could be. You had woken up this Thursday morning from a dream of Peter asking you to homecoming. You shook your head at the thought of the dream. Despite the fact that you would happily accept his offer you were sure Peter only saw you as a friend. He was probably going to ask you to help him create a plan to ask Liz Allen or Michelle to homecoming. You thought of asking Ned about what Peter keeps trying to ask you. He probably knows.
As you approached the Chemistry classroom you saw Ned walking up to the classroom as well. You rushed forward and tapped him on the shoulder.
“Oh hey (Y/N)!” Ned greeted you.
“Hey Ned. I was wondering if I could ask you something about Peter?” You said.
“Sure go ahead.” Ned answered, a slightly puzzled look on his face.
“Well since Monday, Peter has been trying to ask me a question. But I don’t know what that question is because whenever he tries to say it to me something happens and he never finishes what he was going to say.” You explained. “So, I was wondering if you knew what he going to say so I could just give him an answer when I next see him?”
“Oh yeah, he wants to know if you’ll go to homecoming with him.” Ned replied casually.
“WHAT?!” You exclaimed.
Ned’s eyes widened suddenly, realising what he had just said. You felt your face turning red. Peter wanted to take you to homecoming? He actually wanted to take you? You took a deep breath and looked at Ned, who was looking at you nervously.
“I was not meant to say that. Please do not tell Peter I told you that!” Ned blurted out.
“Tell me what?”
You and Ned both looked around and saw Peter standing beside you a confused look upon his face. You turned around instantly and rushed into the classroom. What on earth were you going to say to him now that you knew what he wanted to ask you? If he wants to take you to homecoming… does that mean he likes you? You sat down in your place and rubbed your temples. This was way too much to take in.
You froze as you felt Peter take his place next to you. You pretended to be looking down at some random notes in your chemistry book.
“Are those notes really that interesting?” You heard Peter ask jokingly.
You shook your head, not looking up. Peter sighed. He needed to ask you to homecoming before the day ends. He had tried to ask you this morning but you hadn’t heard him once again. Something always happened or got in the way of him asking you. He wanted to take you so badly. It could be the night that he asks you to be his girlfriend. Peter had wanted you to be his since the day of decathlon nationals. Neither of you could sleep the night before the day of the competition, so you decided to take a midnight swim in the hotel pool. That night was one of the best moments in his life. From the moment you walked out of your hotel room in a deep purple swimsuit that accentuated your body in all the right places he hadn’t been able to look at you without the feeling of butterflies in his stomach. He remembered when you had been too scared to let go of the edge of the pool at the deeper end, so he placed his hands around your waist and held you close as you floated in the pool. Peter replayed that moment in his head more than enough times. He wanted to hold you that close again. He had to hold you that close again.
“What is it (Y/N)?” Peter asked, turning to you.
“My answer is yes.” You said, your cheeks heating up.
“Huh?” Peter looked at you with a puzzled expression. “What do you mean?”
“The question you’ve been trying to ask me over the past couple of days. My answer is yes.”
Peter’s face turned as red as you imagined yours currently was. His mouth hung open slightly and his eyes were wide. You smiled sweetly at him, hoping that he hadn’t changed his mind about taking you to homecoming.
“How did you-” Peter began.
“Ned. You know he can’t keep a secret.” You interrupted him, laughing lightly.
“I don’t know whether to thank him or punch him right now.” Peter glared over at Ned who was currently having some sort of heated discussion with Flash, whilst Michelle filmed it.
“I- uh- hope the offer is still available.” You said.
Peter turned back to you, a huge grin on his face. He grabbed your hand and brought it to his lips. Peter kissed your hand gently and you felt your face heat up. You lowered your hand down from Peter’s face and leaned in slowly. Peter froze, as you pressed your lips against his. Peter’s eyes were wide but they quickly closed as he felt your start to pull away. He placed his hand on your neck and held you in your place. You tasted a mixture of peppermint and apple on Peter’s lips whilst his free hand made its way to your waist. He pulled away and rested his forehead against yours.
What recipes can I make in only a pot or pan with inexpensive ingredients? (Btw I love your blog)
Hey Anon! Thank you for the kind words :D
For inexpensive staples you should look into stocking:
Rice - one big bag can last usually 2 or more months but its worth the investment Sugar - one bag can last a while Beans - I’m looking at dried as they’re less expensive than canned, but you can buy a small bag a week if you want. Vinegar - For most recipes I’d recommend Red wine or Apple Cider vinegar, but white can work as well. A large bottle isn’t too pricey and will last a while.
Inexpensive ingredients can range, but my usual go-to when I’m budgeting my meals more are these: Lentils (dried is less expensive then cans) Another type of beans (chickpea, Kidney, Black-eyed) Cooking Onion (you can usually buy a bag for $2 and they last a month) Garlic Tomato Mushrooms Cabbage Carrots Soy sauce and or hot sauce
Using these ingredients you can make a few different recipes.
These are my own, and based on what I’ve made in the past. I don’t now your access to spices, and spices can be quite expensive so I’ll leave them as optional, however flavour will be better with spices.
Vegetable Stock Veggie stock is super easy to make, and requires your veggie scraps, a pot and a freezer. For me, it saved me about $3 a week. Although seeming like a small amount, that’s ~$156 a year.
As you cook more, you can cut off the ends of the veggies (such as the tops of carrots, the ends of broccoli or mushrooms, the skins of garlic or onion). Rather than throwing them out, you can store these ends in a bag or container and collect them in the freezer. when your container is full, put them in a pot and cover with water. Add any herbs (oregano, Thyme, Bay) and salt and pepper to taste. Bring your pot to the boil and then reduce to a simmer. Cook for 25-35 minutes. Once done, drain the broth into a bowl, you can just try to pour it carefully or if you have a strainer to use, drain it through the strainer. Discard the boiled veggie scraps. You can store the broth in the fridge for up to 4 days or the freezer for up to 5 months.
Lentil Cabbage Soup If you have been collecting veggie scraps or have some homemade veggie stock available to you you can easily make this dish. Its a quick, light meal that you can also add cooked rice to if you desire.
½ cup sliced Cabbage 1/3 cup lentils (or another bean) - pre-cooked 1 clove minced Garlic Pepper and salt to taste 2 cups Vegetable stock 1 tsp soy sauce or hot sauce ½ cup cooked rice (optional)*
Bring your veggie stock to a boil with the pepper and garlic. Mix in the hot sauce or soy sauce. Taste and add salt to your preference. Add the lentils and if using rice, spoon the rice out into a bowl. Add your cabbage to the soup and cook for 1-2 minutes. Once the cabbage is cooked, pour into the bowl over rice(if using) and enjoy!
*You can use rice, pasta or quinoa for this recipe
Red beans and rice Assuming you have invested in a large bag of rice to use for the month, this is a great protein packed starch to have along side veggies.
1 Cup rice 1 ¾ cups water ½ cup red beans or lentils ½ cup chopped tomato Salt to taste
If using white rice and pre-cooked lentils/beans, add the rice and tomato to a pan with your salt. Add 1 ¾ cups of water and bring to the boil. once at the boil, reduce to medium heat and cook for 15-18 minutes. At the 13 - 15 minute mark, add your beans/lentils and continue cooking. Once the water has boiled away, fluff your rice.
If using brown rice
pre-cooked lentils/beans, add the rice and tomato to a pan with your salt. Add 2 ½ cups of water and bring to the boil. reduce to medium heat and cook for 25 - 30 minutes.
At the 23 - 25 minute mark, add your beans/lentils and continue cooking. Once the water has boiled away, fluff your rice.
You can also add Mexican chili spice or paprika to the rice to add flavour.
Cabbage Rolls This recipe will use most of the ingredients listed above, and can be used to make lunches or dinners for a while. The lentil filling will last in the fridge for half a week to 5 days.
Cabbage - take off the leaves and use the largest outside leaves for this recipe 1 ½ Cup Lentils (cooked) 1 medium Tomato diced (or ½ large tomato) 2-3 Sliced Mushroom ½ diced Onion 2 cloves Garlic, minced 1 tsp soy sauce or hot sauce (different flavour depending on what you add) 1 cup water Pepper and Salt to Taste Recommended but not required - 1 tsp Mexican chili spice, 1/2 tsp ginger or ginger powder
Bring a pot of water to a boil, in this pot you will be blanching the cabbage leaves. This will help wrap the filling in the cabbage leaves without the rolls coming undone or being too bitter. Submerge a few leaves at a time and cook for 1 to 3 minutes. Set the cabbage leaves aside and begin working on the filling.
For the filling Have the lentils cooked ahead of time or use a 400ml can of lentils for this. In your pan, add a few TBS of water or vegetable stock instead of oil to cook your Onion and mushroom. Add the onion and mushroom to the pan and cook on medium heat for 5 minutes or until soft. Add the garlic and any spices you’re using excluding Salt. This includes soy sauce or hot sauce(I’d recommend Sriracha). Add your tomato and ½ the extra water. After 7-10 minutes add the Lentils. If your pot is drying out, add more water to the pot as you cook. Since you’re not using oil, the risk of your dish sticking is higher so you want to keep a layer of water/sauce in the pot while cooking. Cook for 10 -13 minutes, and keep adding water up to the 8 minute mark. Once the filling starts looking like a saucy ‘meat like’ filling you can take it off the heat.
Spoon your filling into you cabbage leaves and roll them up. You can store the filling on its own and make up blanched leaves or store the full rolls for almost a week.
Cole Slaw This is a simple oil and vinegar dressed coleslaw,
1 cup Cabbage - Cut into thin strips ½ cup Carrot - cut into thin strips
¼ cup vinegar 1tsp sugar Salt and pepper to taste 1 clove diced Garlic Optional (but reccomended) 2TBS Olive or peanut oil
Prepare the dressing first, using the Vinegar, Salt, pepper, sugar, garlic and Oil. (note: The oil makes this recipe more palatable, but its not required. This dressing is to wilt down the cabbage and carrot and add some acid to the recipe).
Cut up your carrot, and cabbage. Add to a bowl with your vinegar dressing and let rest for 15-20 minutes or until the cabbage wilts. This can be stored for 1 - 1 ½ week.
Lentil Slaw This is a little off the beaten path, but a nice no-cook meal like the cole slaw above.
1 cup Cabbage - Cut into thin strips ½ cup Carrot - cut into thin strips ½ cup lentils (cooked) Optional - 1/2 cup Diced Tomato
¼ cup vinegar 1tsp sugar Salt and pepper to taste 1 clove diced Garlic Optional (but reccomended) 2TBS Olive or peanut oil
Prepare the dressing first, using the Vinegar, Salt, pepper, sugar, garlic and Oil. (note: The oil makes this recipe more palatable, but its not required. This dressing is to wilt down the cabbage and carrot and add some acid to the recipe). I highly recommend Apple Cider vinegar or Red Wine vinegar for this recipe but you can use white vinegar.
Cut up your carrot, and cabbage. Add to a bowl with your vinegar dressing and let rest for 15-20 minutes. Prepare your lentils and diced tomato (if using). You can add an extra bulb of garlic to your lentil mix if wanted.
Once the Cabbage is wilted, mix in your lentils (and tomato if using). Once mixed you can serve.
———————————————————————————————————– One little note - Most of these recipes I do by sight, so I’ve never written them out until now. The ratios may need a little tweaking when you make them so taste as you go. I tend to eat low salt, low sugar so my taste is very different from the average westerner.
Always glad to help! Finding new good music is a great thing.
I don’t know how much doom you know so I’ll just list a bunch that I like. I will post the list (not in any order, all kinds of doom), so that perhaps, some others will add to it. Cheers! :)
What type of stones are good for people with boredline personality disorder? Also do you know anything that can help balance my emotions?
To balance your emotion use the following herbs in excess. Drink them in tea at least thrice a day, smoke them at least thrice a day, or, and I recomend this most highly, make a tincture out of all of them and add three to six drops into a drink at least two tmes a day.
Herbs for BPD: (*Make sure starred herbs do not interact with any of your medications, if you take any.) Chamomile, *St. John’s Wort, *Valerian, Kava Kava, red raspberry leaf, lavender, *yerba mate, lemon balm, cocao, CBD oil, *marajuana.
To use the crystals, infuse them in water or in the tea or juice you use with your herbs for your treatment. Wear them in jewelry. Meditate with them on important points on the body; forehead, lips, chest, wrists, palms, ankles. Sleep with them. But them in a diffuser with essential oils, slipping the crystal(s) inside as well.
Crystals for BPD: Lithium quartz, rose quartz, lepidolite, amethyst, blue calcite, kunzite.
You didn’t ask, but I will list some helpful essential oils as well.
Essential oils for BPD: Frankeincense, myrrh, lavender, German chamomile, spearmint, blood orange, bergamot, cedarwood, cypress wood, bay, pine, juniper, and clary sage.
*Bolded = most highly recommended.
**Disclaimer: I also have BOD. Below are things which have helped me.
Here are a few other tips; Add DHA (
Docosahexaenoic acid), 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan
), and SAM-e (
S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine) to yout vitamin regamin. They have control and regulate serotonin, increasing it during times of depression and lowering it gradually during times of mania.
Learn DBT skills. Doing this has saved me so, so much grief. Learn about deep breathing, distraction, how to stop dissociation, how to calm impulsivity, how not to see in only black and white/good and evil, and learn about Wise Mind, Logic Mind, and Emotion Mind. This information is avalible online. DBT Skills.
prompt; Skinny!StevexTony, sweater weather, Tony Trying to make Steve cocoa and somehow fucking it up because Tony cannot food
[A/N: So I put out a call for prompts the other day, and I’ve been slowly working on them. This is the first one I’ve managed to finish.]
Tony couldn’t stop watching Steve on the trip home. He tried not to; he tried to talk to Thor about tracking down the rogue Asgardian who’d set the trap, he tried to confer with Bruce about the biochemical analysis, he tried to discuss the necessary changes to field operations with Natasha.
But his eyes kept sliding back to Steve, curled on a seat at the very back of the quinjet. He’d changed into the emergency sweats and t-shirt they kept on the ‘jet for post-Hulk Bruce, but even those were laughably too large. De-serumed Steve wasn’t just small – Tony was small, or at least short – Steve was tiny. They were going to have to order clothes for him from the boys’ department.
Steve didn’t look back at Tony, not once during the whole three-hour flight. He didn’t look at any of the others, either. He held out his arm resignedly when Bruce asked for a blood sample; he grunted and muttered in response to questions; he just shrugged when anyone asked after his state of health.
Tony knew – knew, beyond all shadow of doubt – that Steve didn’t want anyone fussing over him, but it was hard not to worry. Tony had heard about how sickly and frail Steve had been as a kid, and seeing it now was really driving it home. A stiff wind would knock him over; he could catch a cold and die of pneumonia before they ever caught up with the villain who’d done it. And Christ, it was December, that joyous time of year when it seemed like everyone was sick anyway.
Tony felt a sudden spurt of sympathy for Barnes, who’d grown up with this version of Steve and had to endure dozens of actual brushes with death – not to mention Steve’s constant and wholly inadvisable state of “FIGHT ME” when it came to bullies and assholes, no matter if they were twice his size and outnumbered him ten-to-one.
Tony thought briefly about calling Barnes to ask for help, or at least advice, but he and Sam were off on a mission and pretty much everyone on the team was hoping they’d take advantage of the radio silence to work out their weirdly aggressive sexual tension (it had given Tony new appreciation for the team putting up with the way he and Steve had circled each other before finally getting together). So calling Barnes was out unless an actual immediate emergency cropped up.
This a blended hair oil made from the highest quality oils, for all hair types, and you can customize by choosing any fragrance to be added. These select oils are combined to create a rich blend that penetrate the hair shaft as well protecting the outer hair shaft, conditioning and moisturizing.
Sunflower oil - high oleic concentration (Omega 9) prevents brittle hair, vitamins A, B, C, E & natural UV protection protect and nourish.
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Our green, red and orange photosynthesizing friends need care beyond being wet and I will elaborate what are the key points of aquatic plant nutrition.
Liebig’s law of the minimum states that the least available nutrient is the limiter of growth. Or positively put, fertilizing the scarcest nutrient(s) will improve growth, often greatly. Of the law is an gross oversimplification of the biological processes behind plant metabolism, but in the aquatic practice it makes an good estimate.
Derived from air and water: Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon as H2O, O2 and CO2. Water is obviously abundant underwater, Oxygen diffuses into water through the surface as well as produced by photosynthesis and thus most often abundant too. While Carbon Dioxide also diffuses into the water and is produced by the decay of organic matter, the conzentrations are rather low and in general the limiting factor of photosynthesis and plant metabolism. One can decide to artificially dissolve CO2 in one aquarium, enabling the use of high intensity lighting, leading to an much higher metabolic rate and growth but also to more demand for other nutrients, of course. Still, common aquatic plants are adapted to conzentrations found in aquaria without additional CO2 source, so you don’t have to do any work here.
Primary Macronutrients, Potassium, Phosphorus and Nitrogen, typically encountered as K+ , PO43- and as parts of the Nitrogen Cycle, NH3/NH4+, NO2-, NO3-. Nitrogen and Phosphorus are generally present in large amounts from fish food and certain substrates, but very heavy planted tanks and tanks under high light need additional fertilization here. Potassium is one minor cation in natural waters and found in traces in organic matter, but it is also needed approximately as much as Nitrate (NO3-), meaning it is in high demand. Water changes are thus the most notable source in home aquaria, but are often insufficient. Thus additional Potassium fertilization is a good way to improve growth in an otherwise unfertilized tank.
Secondary and Tertiary Macronutrients: Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur. Calcium and Magnesium are as Ca2+ and Mg2+ the major contributors to the General Hardness, GH. They are abundant in all but the softest waters. Sulfur is as Sulfate, SO42-, is a common anion in natural waters and only in very low demand, thus abundant. Unless you plan to never do water changes or have extremely soft waters and lots of plants under high light and additional CO2, you will have no need to fertilize them.
Iron and the rest: They are all traces elements needed to ensure proper metabolism, and the only notable sources is organic matter, aka fish food (or certain substrates). While the demand is low, the supply is even lower. Fertilizing Micronutrients is often the best first step into fertilization and often leads to great improvements in growth and plant health.
The Delivery, fertilizing the water column and the substrate:
Contrary to terrestrial plants, aquatic plants not only can take up nutrients
from the substrate
through their roots, but also from the water column. There are many aquatic plants that have roots reduced to mere tools to secure themselves in the substrate or on rocks, some even having no roots at all. No aquatic plant will choose death over having to take up nutrients through the water column, thus fertilizing the water column will be enough to ensure survival and even decent growth. For the best growth however, nutrition through the substrate is also recommended, as there are still many plants in the hobby that root quite heavily, such as Echinodorus spp. and most carpet plants. There are three major types of substrates used in the hobby:
Inert substrates, such as sand or gravel: They contain no available nutrients not do they anything else. Nutrients are added as detritus/mulm gets in between the grains or when the aquarists add root tabs or other substrate fertilizer to them. Sand in particular hardly allows any detritus to get into it, therefore root tabs are highly recommended. Gravel will also benefit from them, of course.
Clay-based substrate, such as Eco-Complete or other substrates. These substrates are themselves just as inert as sand or gravel, but have a trick to get nutritious: Replacement of silicate through ions with lower charge diffusive processes gives clay particles in small negative charge, making adsorb cations, This is called Cation-Exchange-Capability (CEC), meaning in effect clay based substrates can collect cations like a sponge, just waiting for plant to pick them up. This is a notable effect and greatly increases the fertility of the substrate, but still not the best case.
Substrates with organics in it, such as aquasoils or an dirted tank. An dirted tank being an tank where the substrate is organic potting soil capped with a layer sand or gravel. These substrates contain actually nutrients themselves, though it’s mostly Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Still, hummus in a dirted tank has an even higher CEC than clay, is also all-around better. Aquasoils being pellets of compressed and burned volcanic ash have also a notable CEC, making it also all around better than clay-based substrates. Aquasoils in particular also buffer the water to a lower pH and soften it too, that is beneficial for many fish in the hobby and the lowered pH in the substrate helps roots taking up nutrients. On the downside, aquasoils are expensive and sometimes leech toxic ammonia in the first few weeks.
Making your own fertilizer
Buying bottled fertilizer in a fish store is not very efficient, you pay mostly for water. It is up to hundert times cheaper to buy a few substances from vendors such as GLA or TNC and mix up your own fertilizer. Or for those who want it simpler, using these substances for an fertilization system such as Estimative Index (EI). EI in particular aims to supply nutrition to densely planted tanks with high light and additional CO2, but downscaling it to one fourth is also suitable for tanks without additional CO2.
Simple recipe for EI-style fertilizer, the dosage is 5 ml of each solution daily per 40 liter/10 g of water:
Macro-Solution: Dissolve 60 g KNO3, 10 g KH2PO4 in 1 liter of reasonably pure water like RO or destilled water. If you have plants with a high potassium demand, you may dissolve 20 g KSO4 too.
Micro-Solution: Dissolve 1.9 g of TNC Micro-nutrient mix or 2.3 g of CSM+B in 1 liter of reasonably pure water. You may add some ascorbic acid to increase the shelf time, though I found that is often not necessary.
As a tip, you measure 5 ml easily with an syringe or and dosing pump (like from a dispenser)
Feel free to ask/PM me questions if you have some.
One of the many plants growing in my garden that
were already present by the time we bougt the house, is a small elderbush. This
year, it’ll be in bloom for the first time, so I decided to dedicate one post
to something my Mom used to make every late May or early June every since I
ELDER FLOWER SYRUP
It certainly cannot compared to the dull and way too sweet syrup you can buy at the
grocery stores. There’s nothing like home-made, is there?
Ingredients for approximately 5-7 bottles:
30 Elder-flower umbels
3 l Water
80 g Citric Acid
3 Organic Lemons cut into slices
3 kg Sugar
How it is made:
Make sure that your Elder-flower umbels are clean and bug-free.
Wash and put them into a big bucket.
Add the citric acid, the water and lemon slices - stir well.
Cover the bucket with a dish cloth and let rest for 3 days. Stir
once a day.
Strain the liquid though a linen tissue and add 1 kg sugar per
1 liter of juice.
Cook the mixture for 3-5 minutes and fill the (still hot)
liquid into clean bottles. Seal the bottles right afterwards.
Store in a cool and dark place so you can enjoy them until …
like forever. Unless you don’t drink it right away.
To enjoy the wonderful fresh an lemony flavor of Elder-flower juice
like your everyday syrup. Water : Syrup = approximately 7 : 1
Now there’s something even better for the grown up
wine drinkers among us. A delicious and refreshing thing that came all the way
from Italy to find a huge fan-base among the Austrians, even though
it got a crazy name:
It all started in late Summer 2010 in a former Austrian, now Italian region
called Southern Tirol. Soon afterwards, the sparkling drink, that sort of is a daytime-type of Mojito, found
its place in every bar and Biergarten in Austria and Bavaria and step by
step dethroned the former favorite
wine-cocktail Aperol Spritz.
Of course, just like the reddish Aperol
Liquor-White Wine mixture, a Hugo is easily made at home. This is what you’ll
for a Hugo:
150 ml Prosecco
1 shot Elder-Flower Syrup
Mint or Lemon Balm
100 ml Sparkling Water
It’s served with
ice cubes and straw in a bulgy Wine glass and makes sure, that everyone
who has once tried it, will fall in love with it. Believe me, everyone I know,
According to Swedish folklore one can
see the Elf-King and his entourage when sitting under an elder bush during
sunset on Midsummer’s day. Hmm, I wonder if the king ever travels all
the way southwards to Austria. Oh and the plant also plays an important role as a household remedy since a tea brewed from
elder-flowers is used to cure fever and the symptoms of the common cold.
Its almost black berries contain even more Vitamin C than the flower umbels, but you’ll
have to wait a few more months until August or September to be able to collect
so upon doing more research,I’ve found that acid reflux isn’t caused by “having too much acid” (as most doctors believe), it’s caused by your esophageal sphincter not closing after you eat something. since it remains open, it allows your stomach acid to splash up into your esophagus and cause heartburn symptoms. (more seriously, it can burn your esophagus)
this is caused by a motility disorder, wherein the muscle remaining open after ingestion.
doctors believe that people who experienced acid reflux have too much acid in their stomachs, which is a completely different disease. people who don’t have this disease’s stomach produce a correct amount of acid. so they prescribe them proton pump inhibitors or medication that reduces the acid like antacids. (or H2 blockers) PPI’s are long-term and reduces your hydrochloric acid for a long period of time. this can lead to malabsorption over a long period of time and inappropriate indigestion. H2 blockers temporarily reduce your stomach acid and cause similar things.
you need to talk to your doctor about this and wean yourself off of the PPI’s and stop taking the H2 blockers. it worsens the problem in the long run and isn’t treating the problem, only the symptoms.
if you have anymore info about this, please feel free to add!