adaptive running

Sometimes I have to laugh at the galra designs, from a purely affectionate frame of mind, because like. They’re so goshdanged lanky.

When they’re in action or in movement it’s all fluid and streamlined and intimidating looking, like- this species was probably developed at least partially to run down prey in a savanna or comparable setting like a pack of hyenas or a lion pride hunting- they’re built like sprinters, with those long, whippy limbs and big powerful hands.

But just hanging around, they look. Kind of hilarious, honestly, like. there’s just too much limb and shoulder for their head. If Kolivan, Antok and Ulaz didn’t have their fingers curled their fingertips would be on a level with their knees. They’re practically noodle people. Even more sturdy-built ones like Antok, Morvok, and Varkon have that whippy, elongated quality to them- stark with Morvok because he’s not even particularly tall, making his proportionate gangliness even odder-looking to a degree.

And I mean, on a general level, the looking a little silly thing is pretty much par the course for most creatures in nature. A cheetah could sure mess me up but their body and legs look too long for the rest of them. If anything that similarity between cheetahs and the galra might suggest galra are generally built less for endurance and more for sprinting, which would be reinforced because a common tactic in the Blade of Marmora’s fighting style is taking opponents on at a full run. (Keith does this too, even!) Big ribcage for big lung capacity, quite possibly a larger heart, long legs with (generally) well-defined calves and thighs- probably a build for running.

…Now I’m stuck on stuff I’ve said before about prey drives, and if the galra are more adapted to run things down rather than ambush them, they’re probably pretty good at tracking movement. Especially smaller things running in front of them. 

  • Mass Effect Andromeda: Introduces "Simulated Adaptive Matrix" aka SAM, linked to you (sees what you see), supports you from the ark with situational awareness/problem solving, "There's a very specific relationship there. It's more of a partner than EDI was. You're way closer emotionally to SAM."
  • Internet: Speculation is SAM is a reanimation of your mother, or designed by your mother, which would make it like a sibling, so it's unlikely to be a romance option. Even outside of that, I don't imagine much interest for an AI that is not yet confirmed to eventually gain a body or-
  • Me: [grabs them by the shoulders, wild-eyed] Listen. I have been playing Zombies, Run! for four years. Please just let me have this.

Quick fact. Ready?
Endurance training for a minimum of 5-6 hours every week can result in a physical enlargement of the heart itself known as Athlete’s Heart Syndrome.

The increase in size allows for the heart to pump out more blood with every beat, making it more efficient.
This is the body’s way of adapting to the increased oxygen demand being put on it during prolonged aerobic training.

Now, who wouldn’t want a bigger heart?

prompt: high school group project au where the SMH boys have to reinterpret whatever Western Classic they’re reading in english class and decide to go with Ice Dancing……so of course they have to convince that little figure skater transfer student to be in their group…..

anonymous asked:

A thought regarding the nature of Amethyst's weapon, and Bismuth's testimony that a whip is unusual for a quartz: perhaps the whip, along with Amethyst's shapeshifting virtuosity, expresses a flexibility and adaptability discouraged by Homeworld? (Whether the latter is a standard ability of amethysts remains to be seen--I've heard rumors that we're going to be meeting some more, but I'm waiting until the WInter '17 Bomb's legitimate airing.) Hope you're feeling better, by the way.

That’s a good point! In fact, Bismuth’s actual line is “Not every Quartz can make a whip like this,” which implies that other Quartzes can make whips, it’s just, they have fundamental differences from Amethyst’s that a skilled blacksmith can tell just by looking.

And flexibility is a pretty good way to put it. In this post I talked about how Amethyst’s other abilities, weapon aside, are all comparatively more flexible than those of other gems. The spin dash attacks that we see both her and Jasper do several times differ between the two of them.

Amethyst is able to manoeuvre more efficiently at the cost of overall power while Jasper has a lot of raw strength but it’s essentially a linear charge. And when we look at how Amethyst has always felt the need to change herself to adapt to the standards of the senior Crystal Gems and life on Earth, we get to see why flexibility is such an important trait for her. That’s why it’s not a huge surprise that Ame really likes to shape shift. 

When pushed very hard though, that versatility makes it difficult for her to pinpoint exactly who she is, which was the conflict central to On The Run, and never fully resolved.

As to whether Homeworld is against adaptability, I would say they’re not openly against it and annihilating gems who happen to be more versatile than are others. But Homeworld implicitly finds comfort in predictability and patterns. They are averse to change, perhaps because they don’t have a lot of extra padding if that change causes them to mess up. Recall that they are in a resource crisis. It’s likely that they’d rather tough it out with systems that might not be as efficient as they could be than change because of the risk of failure.

And it’s interesting that you mention it: There’s also a possibility that gems grown on Earth may, in line with the symbolical implications of Earth, be more adaptable. That everything on Earth supposedly grows and changes and has the opportunity to do so, may mean there’s something in the water, or in this case, soil, that makes it more conducive for gems to want to change things up.

I am going to submit a random headcanon to you:  

Stiles dragging the pack to play Laser Tag.

Stiles that played once, when he was twelve. He asked it as his birthday present, and John and Melissa drove them to the nearest place from Beacon Hills. Stiles was absolutely delighted, until they learned that they would be put with strangers to form a team. It all went downhill from there. 

They were left alone to be shot at fifteen seconds in, and had to hide under a ramp. Scott had an asthma attack when the fog machines started and Stiles, terrified, had to drag both of them out. He then fell into a full blown panic attack in the changing rooms.

So, not their best memory.

But fast forward seven years later. They are nineteen now, Scott is a werewolf and Stiles has been tortured and shot at. Laser tag is gonna be easy. Stiles is so ready to avenge their younger selves.

He only need a team.

Stiles prudently presents the idea during pack night. He’s not worried for most of them, he knows that most of his friends have an unhealthy love for violence and winning. He’s also ready to make Scott cry in order to convince Isaac.

The only unknown variable is their taciturn alpha. Somehow, convincing him to play with lasers in a room reeking of teenager’s hormones and sweat seems like a difficult task. But Stiles has prepared his speech, he has perfectly reasonable arguments, and he will bullshit about pack unity and trust exercises if need be.

Of course, because this is Derek and he likes to fuck up with Stiles’ expectations, he’s only finished the first sentence of his passionate plea when Derek raises one hand in the air to stop him.

Yes,” he breathes, and smiles. They all blink at him a little. Derek keeps smiling, bunny teeth showing and looking almost… excited.


Derek’s family apparently used to throw their kids into the woods to pitch them against each other for fun.

Stiles is not surprised.

Stiles is awfully not surprised.

This was the family whose genes created Peter Hale.

Not noticing their stunned silence, Derek describes his childhood memories. During their monthly run under the full moon, adults used to hide colored pieces of tissue everywhere. The next day, Derek, his sisters and cousins were all let loose, in several teams, into the wood. At dusk, the team that was able to bring back the more targets to their home base while protecting said home base from enemy raids won. The prize was some old trophy, bragging rights and first crack at every dish during the huge dinner.

Derek is trying so hard to communicate his enthusiasm for his claws-and-fangs-allowed, hunger-game version of catch the flag that his hands are moving a little bit in the air. It’s adorable.

When Scott tries to get back on the subject of laser tag (Stiles glares at him, because Derek was sharing things), Derek immediately nods and explains helpfully that there is a place supernatural-friendly just 45 minutes away from Beacon Hills. There is no protest in the pack. Stiles bats the air with his fist in victory.

Their first game together teaches Stiles a lot of things.

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Animalgamation #5 - red panda / owl.

These tree-dwelling creatures can sometimes be heard twittering at each other after dark. Their feet are adapted for running along tree limbs, so rather than perching to rest, they drape their whole bodies across branches.

Suggested by supidosan!

How to find a topic for your linguistics paper

I get occasional questions asking me for good topics to write an end-of-semester linguistics paper on. The bad news is, I don’t have a list of ideas that I can just pass out to people, because that’s not really how finding a topic works. The good news is, here’s a series of questions that will help you find something to write about for any linguistics course. 

1. What parts of the course did you find most interesting? 

Even if your prof gives you free rein as to your topic, it’s generally supposed to have something to do with the course. So go back to the syllabus, flip through your notes and readings, and think about what parts of the course you enjoyed more than others. Or if your course didn’t get to cover all the chapters in your textbook, have a leaf through the remaining ones and see if any of them look interesting. Another option is to go interdisciplinary: is there another area that you’re interested in (e.g. psychology, music, gender, bilingualism, children especially if you have them already in your life) that you could combine with some aspect of the course? 

Make a shortlist for yourself of a couple options and have a quick google to see if any of them look like they have lots more information available or turn into dead ends. Some courses may be fine with you replicating something that’s already out there, just for the experience of figuring it out yourself, while some may be more keen on you working on something brand new. 

2. Where are you going to get data? 

Linguistics papers generally analyze some sort of data, so where is that data going to come from? Certain types of courses tend to involve certain types of data sources, so you could follow the trend of whatever types of data sources you’ve been discussing in class, or be more unconventional and figure out how to cross-apply a different one. Common sources of linguistic data include: 

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My Toshiba Libretto 70CT finally got a few key upgrades.  It’s still got a few things that need tweaking, but it’s getting there.  Here’s what I did:

  • Updated the BIOS to version V6.40 from 1999!
  • Imaged the old hard drive onto a CF card, and swapped in a CF -> IDE adapter.  It runs silent and incredibly fast now.
  • Bought an old 16-bit PCMCIA CF card socket so I don’t have to use the external floppy drive to copy files back and forth. 
  • Bought a port expansion, providing me with serial, parallel, and VGA sockets (sadly no PS/2 mouse port).  A serial test with Hyperterminal to Vega (running 95C) was successful.
  • Installed 95Plus!
  • Tested Doom.

If I can find hardware specific drivers for the 70CT, I want try installing 95B from scratch.  It would let me take full advantage of all 8GB of CF card, in glorious FAT32.  Right now I’m limited to 1.5GB in FAT16, and all attempts at resizing to just under the 4GB limit render the drive unable to boot. 

Oh, and Critical Mass, one of my favorite old games, is apparently too taxing for this hardware to handle.  Bogus, man.

Could the fandom please stop bitching about a Young Avengers TV show. It’s first of all probably not going to be a TV show because Cassie is already in MCU and everything Young Avengers relates to MCU movie verse (with the Kree as the exception since they’ve been in AoS, but that’ll change with Captain Marvel). And while Jessica is on Netflix, her role for the Young Avengers can easily be given to Darcy, or someone else. 

Putting down Runaways, Cloak and Dagger, and the New Warriors is just wrong and stupid and makes you look like an asshole. 

(I’d insert the whole Veronica Mars “Let me try looking like I think you’re an asshole gif, but I can’t find one anywhere from the scene with Veronica and Lucifer’s still a bitch part, please send it to me if you have it)

If those shows do well then maybe Marvel will do some Young Avengers content when Cassie’s older. And no Marvel is not obligated to adapt Gillen’s run just because you like it more. 

anonymous asked:

Jedha is a cold desert moon, not a hot desert moon. The climate on the wookiepedia is listed as cold, and it's called cold in the novelization.

I didn’t say the desert was hot, nonny. deserts are often colder. I said everyone else is wearing much lighter clothing, including chirrut, baze, and bodhi. I did see one other rebel wearing a heavier coat but for the most part it doesn’t seem freezing. this is the equivalent of me wearing the heavy cassian parka (that I bought to survive chicago in january) in the middle of a california winter while everyone else is wearing much lighter jackets. joshua tree national park is a pretty cold desert but it’s not chicago.

Yeeeeeaah I’ve already lost interest in live action  Titans. I didn’t have high expectations for it to begin with for a lot of reasons but once I learned Johns is writing them again and he hinted at Gar also being on the team… and on a team that already has Raven. Yeah no….

Rant below cut.

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I don’t like the notion that Finn is extremely insecure and self-doubting, or that he can’t take a compliment. We have lines from the movie that refute this (“DID YOU SEE THAT?!” “I’m getting pretty good at this!” “That was pretty great.”- in regards to Rey complimenting his shooting), not to mention going after Rey on Starkiller base with no plan, just the believe that he could rescue her somehow. Plus, we know he was poised to be one of the best Stormtroopers in the Order, so there’s no way he doesn’t know how smart and skilled he really is. Sure, he was ostracized within his squad because of that, so I wouldn’t be surprised if he expressed doubt over making friends, or experienced a little bit of self-loathing due to his history as a stormtrooper, but Finn walking around thinking extremely little of himself just does not follow for me.

Limusaurus inextricabilis, a dinosaur whose name roughly translates to “lizard stuck in the mud”. Around 1.7m long (5′7″), and living in the Late Jurassic of China about 160 million years ago, it was the first ceratosaur known from Eastern Asia – and a very unusual one at that.

Unlike its carnivorous relations, Limusaurus was a herbivore, possessing a toothless beak and gastroliths preserved in its gizzard. With its long neck, tiny forelimbs, and hindlimbs adapted for fast running, it seems to have convergently evolved to closely resemble both the earlier Triassic shuvosaurid stem-crocs like Effigia and the later Cretaceous ornithomimosaurs.

So, we’ve spoken about the fact that Arthur Holmwood is a little underdeveloped before.  There’s nothing to dislike about him, and he seems perfectly nice, but if you asked me to describe him I would say “Uh…rich and nice and he has dogs?”

Well you know what?  In my weird-ass Dracula adaptation, I would totally run with that.  Arthur is a socially awkward April Ludgate/Will Graham type who gets along a lot better with animals than people.  He avoids hanging out with his fellow aristocrats, ducking out of parties as soon as his father’s back is turned, in favor of hanging out in the kennels.  Lucy quite likes Jack and Quincey, but as soon as she sees Arthur in a waistcoat under a mountain of puppies, she knows who she’s going to say yes to.

Of course, then Arthur’s dad dies and leaves him all his money, something he is totally unprepared for.  He isn’t really as book-smart as the doctors or the Harkers, and he isn’t good at fighting like Quincey, so he mostly tries to finance the vampire hunting mission while feeling deeply embarrassed about the fact that he’s so much richer than everyone else.  He goes on this way, keeping out of conversations and feeling like a third wheel, until they run across a lair guarded by hundreds of rats.

Arthur calls the hunting dogs.  His time has come.

anonymous asked:

Hi! I have a biology question for you. Its believed that many animals use bioluminescence to attract prey. I believe that works for insects, deep sea animals and stuff. But why then didn't those animals eventually evolve the instinct to avoid lights instead of going after them?

Yes, bioluminescence has widespread use amongst invertebrates, particularly marine invertebrates, as well as fishes and sharks etc., especially those that live in a deep sea habitat. 

Before I talk about bioluminescence specifically, I’ll just quickly run through some predator prey dynamics. The relationship between a predator and it’s prey can be seen as an arms race, i.e. the two are constantly evolving and adapting to try and have an edge over the other. For example, natural selection will favour a predator that can run faster and catch more prey than other members of the species, and be more likely to survive and produce more fast offspring, and thus the adaptation for faster running will evolve. On the flip side, there will also be a selective pressure for the prey species to become faster, and thus they evolve to outrun predators, and so you end up back to square one. This is also known as the Red Queen Hypothesis, after the Red Queen in Alice and Wonderland:

There is usually a balance met, an equilibrium between the effectiveness of both sides. Obviously animals can’t become infinitely fast - there were be physiological limitations, and various costs and for each adaptation - for example longer legs for running may make the animal more fragile and prone to breaking legs, or may make it lose body heat faster etc. Trade offs, and cost/benefit analyses, almost identical to those in economics, are fundamental to evolutionary biology. What adaptations are the most cost effective will change over a temporal scale, not only because of counter-adaptations in the other species, but also due to environmental and ecological factors which are constantly in flux. 

Usually the equilibrium tends to be in favour of the prey species, i.e. they have the edge, and in this example, more likely to outrun the predator. This due to something known as the life-dinner principle  - a predator will be running to catch it’s dinner, whereas the prey will be running for it’s life, i.e there is a much stronger selection pressure on the prey as for them it is a life or death situation, whereas the predator just loses a meal. This is why predators often pick off weak or injured prey - healthy adults will probably outrun them/be too dangerous/too much effort to catch. 

Additionally, one side of the race can “win” - if a predator becomes so good at catching prey it may wipe out the prey population, and will have to move on to different prey or die. Thus it’s usually in a predator’s interest not to be TOO good. This is also why predator population numbers are usually much smaller than their prey (predator populations rise -> more prey is eaten -> less food for everyone -> predators die of starvation and population falls -> prey population rises due to low numbers of predators -> cycle begins again, the classic example of this is the showshoe hare/lynx cycle ) 

Equally the prey could become so good at avoiding predation that, the predator again must move on to another prey source or die. We don’t really see these situations in nature because by definition, one side is extinct or is in a relationship with another species BUT we can see this happen with invasive species who outcompete native species and drive them to extinction. 

SO what your question seems to be asking is: why are bioluminescent predators that use light as a lure winning the arms race, why are prey species not evolving a counter adaptation, i.e. learning that bioluminescence is a trap? 

Well this luring behaviour is most common in the deep sea, and because of this, we have to take a lot of factors into account. First of all, bioluminescence in the deep sea is widely used and has many functions.  In can be used as camouflage, whereby light emitting organs line the belly of animals such as squid and fish, breaking up their silhouette from below.

It can be used as a defensive mechanism - many small crustaceans, plankton,  squid, and other invertebrates release clouds of bioluminescence ink to coat potential predators, making the predator itself more vulnerable to predation. 

Much like toxic animals on land like ladybirds and tree frogs use bright colours to advertise their toxic nature (aposematism), some animals like jellyfish use bioluminescence to signal their toxicity. Some animals, like dragonfish even use bioluminescent organs beneath their eyes as headlights to find prey.

A huge application for bioluminescence is communication, particularly for mate attraction. The deep sea is an unimaginably vast and empty place, so finding a mate in the darkness is very challenging. For example, ostracods (small shrimp like crustaceans) flash brightly to attract mates.

Since animals like ostracods are low in the food web, they are prey species for many deep sea animals, and thus many animals seek out flashing bioluminescence in order to find them. This is where luring animals, such as anglerfish come in, by mimicking bioluminescent prey species, they attract predators right to their mouth. Maybe now you can begin to see why simply avoiding lights to avoid predation wouldn’t be an option, it all comes back to costs and benefits

If an animal begins to avoid flashing lights, the benefit of not getting eaten may be outweighed by the cost of not finding food or not finding a mate (in evolutionary biology, not breeding is just as costly as dying). So, you can avoid predation, but will then either starve, or not pass on the genes for avoiding predation. Furthermore, the deep sea is so vast and spaced out that the probability of encountering a luring predator is negligible compared to  the probability of encountering your much more numerous prey species or mate. Thus, the proportion of the population lost to lure predation will be close to the rate of death from stochastic (random) events, and there will not be a strong selection pressure to develop an aversion for lures. 

Furthermore, luring predators like anglerfish tend to be opportunistic generalists - they will eat whatever they can get, and thus do not exert a strong predation pressure on any one species. If luring predators become more effective, and their population grows, then something similar to the lynx-hare cycle may occur. So all together, due to the deep sea environment and the ecology and population dynamics of the predator and prey species, arrive at equilibrium we have today - it’s not worth avoiding bioluminescence a) because it may have a direct cost to the prey, and b) the chances of being killed by traps is very low relative to the size of the prey population. 

We can look at terrestrial examples too. The larvae of fungus gnats (arachnocampa luminosa) in New Zealand live in caves and lay sticky bioluminescent threads from the ceiling to attract and trap flying insects. Flying insects such as moths use light (specifically starlight) for navigation, so adaptations for avoiding light are costly, as you may not be able to find food/mates as effectively. Furthermore, the populations of flying insects are so incredibly massive, that deaths from getting trapped in these rare caves is negligible, and thus there is not a strong selection pressure. 

Sorry if that was long, I hope it helps!

anonymous asked:

foolish. when you refuse to eat meat you refuse your right to the top of the food chain. The animals you campaign for would eat you alive given the chance.

Oh yes. Cows, pigs, chickens, etc., are such vicious predators

Look how ruthless they are

Truly murderous

Originally posted by mashable

But seriously, why do you think we’re at the top of the food chain? Do you have claws or sharp teeth? Are you adapted to run down a fast-moving prey animal, and then proceed to kill it with your bare hands? Do you have patterned skin for camouflage from prey animals? Does your mouth water at the thought of raw meat and the smell of blood? Are you a lion, or a shark, or a wolf? No. If eating meat was absolutely necessary for us this discussion would be over, but it’s not, which makes the killing of an animal unnecessary and therefore cruel.

(On a side note, why does this anon sound like a fucking villain from some cheesy anime, lmao)