adam winkler


Aubrey Plaza and Chris Pratt in Parks and Recreation’s Season 7 Gag Reel.



The cast of Parks and Recreation waved goodbye to the show last week through a series of tweets and photos, sharing behind the scenes moments from the final day of shooting.

Parks and Recreation premiered in 2009, and will conclude next year on NBC after seven seasons on the air.


Kanye West’s long-awaited collection is hitting stores in the UK today, and i-D got their hands on the rapper-turned-designer’s clothes, created in collaboration with adidas, for a UK exclusive shoot. Nicole Maria Winkler and Adam Winder shot the functional, tonal collection of oversized sweatshirts, backpacks and bomber jackets on a diverse cast of young models. Similar to the casting of his shows we shot the world’s first “solutions-based” collection on a diverse, hyper-cool collection of kids.

Current gun control laws are frequently aimed at inner city, poor, black communities who are perceived as more dangerous than white gun owners.

Charles Gallagher, MA, PhD, the Chair of Sociology at LaSalle University, stated that some gun control laws are still founded on racial fears: “Whites walking down Main Street with an AK-47 are defenders of American values; a black man doing the same thing is Public Enemy No. 1." 

In the late 1960s, gun control laws were enacted in reaction to the militant, gun-carrying Black Panthers. 

 Adam Winkler, MA, JD, UCLA Constitutional Law Professor, stated "The KKK began as a gun-control organization. Before the Civil War, blacks were never allowed to own guns” so, after the Civil War, there was “constant pressure among white racists to keep guns out of the hands of African Americans because they would rise up and revolt.” 

In Virginia, in response to Nat Turner’s Rebellion (also called the Southampton Rebellion, in which slaves killed 55 to 65 people in the most fatal slave uprising in the United States) in 1831, a law was passed that prohibited free black people "to keep or carry any firelock of any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead and all laws allowing free black people to possess firearms were repealed.


Claire Gordon, "Gun Control Debate amongst African-Americans Involves Complicated History,”, Mar. 18, 2013

Michael L. Betsch, “Blacks Allegedly Victimized by ‘Racist’ Gun Control Laws,”, July 7, 2008

John Blake, “Does Race Shape Americans’ Passion for Guns?,”, Oct. 10, 2014

Barbara Chai, “Love Your Gun? Thank the Black Panthers, Says New Book,”, Sep. 21, 2011

Clayton E. Cramer, “The Racist Roots of Gun Control,”, 1993