active regions

This insect spray contains DEET, not to be confused with DDT. DDT is outlawed in most parts of the world because it is highly toxic to wildlife and isn’t that great for people either. DEET, when used appropriately is safe. DEET is also the only effective tick repellent in people. That’s it. Citronella, eucalyptus, peppermint oil, and the rest are not effective. If you are going to be doing outdoor activities in tick infested regions (basically anywhere in the world) you need DEET. The very minor worry about adverse effects are nothing compared to the very real life threatening diseases that ticks carry. It just isn’t worth playing roulette with your health because of concerns over DEET. Ask anyone with Lyme or other tick disease and I bet they will say they wish they had worn repellent. Also note that nothing is 100%. You still must check yourself for ticks after any outdoor activity. Tick borne diseases are going to be the new pandemic especially with climate change. Protect yourself.

The magnetic field lines between a pair of active regions formed a beautiful set of swaying arches, seen in this footage captured by our Solar Dynamics Observatory on April 24-26, 2017. 

These arches, which form a connection between regions of opposite magnetic polarity, are visible in exquisite detail in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Extreme ultraviolet light is typically invisible to our eyes, but is colorized here in gold. 

Take a closer look:

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Cascadia by Cody Cobb

In the words of the artist Cody Cobb:

The Cascadia region of North America is one of the most geologically active regions on Earth; the landscapes found there have been shaped through eons of earthquakes, eruptions and floods. My intent with these photographs is to capture a brief moment of stillness in the grand epochs of geological chaos.

Follow the Source Link for image sources and more information.


This is what is happening in the sun when it is too bright to see details.

nasa The magnetic field lines between a pair of active regions formed a beautiful set of swaying arches, seen in this footage captured by our Solar Dynamics Observatory on April 24-26, 2017.
These arches, which form a connection between regions of opposite magnetic polarity, are visible in exquisite detail in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Extreme ultraviolet light is typically invisible to our eyes, but is colorized here in gold. This video covers almost two days of activity.
Credits: NASA/SDO 

Cascading loops on the surface of the sun highlight an active region that had just rotated into view of our solar-observing spacecraft. We have observed this phenomenon numerous times, but this one was one of the longest and clearest sequences we have seen in years. 

The bright loops are actually charged particles spinning along the magnetic field lines! The action was captured in a combination of two wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light over a period of about 20 hours. 

Take a closer look:

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Lovely Loops

The upper one of a pair of new, solar active regions that just rotated into view of SDO offered a beautiful profile view of cascading loops spiraling above it (Jan. 15-16, 2012) following a solar flare eruption. These loop structures are made of superheated plasma, just one of which is the size of several Earths. With its ability to capture the Sun in amazing detail, SDO observed it all in extreme ultraviolet light.


Black Sun and Inverted Starfield 

Does this strange dark ball look somehow familiar? If so, that might be because it is our Sun. In the featured image from 2012, a detailed solar view was captured originally in a very specific color of red light, then rendered in black and white, and then color inverted. Once complete, the resulting image was added to a starfield, then also color inverted. Visible in the image of the Sun are long light filaments, dark active regions, prominences peeking around the edge, and a moving carpet of hot gas. The surface of our Sun can be a busy place, in particular during Solar Maximum, the time when its surface magnetic field is wound up the most. Besides an active Sun being so picturesque, the plasma expelled can also become picturesque when it impacts the Earth’s magnetosphere and creates auroras.

Credit: Jim Lafferty

Over a 22-hour period (May 2-3, 2017), strands of plasma at the sun’s edge shifted and twisted back and forth. In this close-up, the strands are being manipulated by strong magnetic forces associated with active regions on the sun. 

To give a sense of scale, the strands hover above the sun more than several times the size of Earth! The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. 

Learn more:

Credits: NASA/SDO

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Stretched Loops: When an active region rotated over to the edge of the sun, it presented us with a nice profile view of its elongated loops stretching and swaying above it (March 8/9, 2017). These loops are actually charged particles (made visible in extreme ultraviolet light) swirling along the magnetic field lines of the active region. The video covers about 30 hours of activity. Also of note is a darker twisting mass of plasma to the left of the active region being pulled and spun about by magnetic forces.

Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory, NASA

13 Things Anyone Who Loves A Highly Sensitive Person Should Know

Some people are just more sensitive than others, and that’s not always a bad thing. Approximately one in five people – women and men – can be classified HSP, or as a highly sensitive person, according to HSP researcher and psychologist Elaine Aron, Ph.D. That makes it highly likely you know and love someone with the personality trait.

Below are a few things to keep in mind about your highly sensitive loved ones.

1. We’re going to cry.

When we’re happy, when we’re sad and when we’re angry. That’s because highly sensitive people just naturally feel more deeply and react accordingly.

2. Not all of us are introverts.

Introversion does not equal sensitivity. In fact, according to Aron’s research, approximately 30 percent of highly sensitive people are extroverts.

3. Decisions make us nervous.

Highly sensitive individuals are notoriously bad at making choices – even if it’s just picking out where to go to dinner. This is mostly because we agonize over the possibility of making the wrong one. (What if the food is bad?!)

4. We notice that subtle change in your tone.

If you normally end each text message with an exclamation point and lately you’ve been using a period, you better believe we’ll pick up on it. Highly sensitive people are generally more intuitive when it comes to the tiny nuances of our environment and we’re more affected by shifts in other people’s moods.

5. We’re always willing to hear you vent.

Don’t be afraid to reach out to use us when you need a shoulder to lean on. Our overly-empathetic nature allows us to be excellent listeners when you need it, because when you feel pain so do we – and we want to do whatever we can to make you feel comfortable. Highly sensitive people make excellent teachers, therapists and managers for this reason.

6. Repetitive and loud noises are the worst.

Loud chewing, a barreling train, boisterous co-workers: You name it, we’re sensitive to it. That’s because chaotic or overstimulating environments have more of an influence on HSPs, according to Aron.

7. Our workplace habits are a bit atypical.

Working from home or in a quiet space is a dream for highly sensitive people – especially because it allows us to focus if we become too overwhelmed. However, don’t let our solo work ethic fool you. “Sensitive people can use their observations to their advantage … They’re going to rise to the top,” Aron previously told HuffPost. “They know how to bring ideas up without being ridiculed or scorned.” HSPs also make excellent team players due to our analytical nature and thoughtfulness for others’ ideas (just don’t force us to make the final decision on a project).

8. Don’t ask us to see that new slasher movie.

That same high empathy we experience for others combined with over-stimulation makes gory, violent films truly terrible for highly sensitive people.

9. Criticism is incredibly distressing.

As a result, we tend to avoid anything that may cause those feelings of shame. This may mean we engage in people-pleasing or self-deprecating behavior more than most of our peers. In other words, we’re far from perfect.

10. We’re constantly being told we take things too personally.

A joke at our expense sometimes just isn’t a joke to us. We know it’s a little silly to be upset, but what else are we supposed to do with all of our feelings?

11. We have a low pain tolerance.

Pass the ice, please. It doesn’t matter if it’s a broken arm or just a stubbed toe, any injury really hurts. This is because highly sensitive people are more affected by pain than others, according to Aron’s research.

12. We crave deep relationships.

According to Aron, highly sensitive people tend to get more bored in marriages than non-HSP couples, mostly due to the lack of meaningful interaction that naturally occurs as time goes on. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean we’re dissatisfied with the relationship – we just need to find a way to have more stimulating conversations.

13. We can’t just stop being highly sensitive.

A 2014 study published in the journal Brain and Behavior found that highly sensitive people experienced more activity in regions of the brain associated with empathy and awareness when exposed to pictures of emotional individuals than the average person. In other words, we’re neurologically wired to behave the way that we do.

With that in mind, know that the best way to love us is to support us. Try not to shame us for our sensitivity. Tell us it’s okay to feel the way we do. And in return, we’ll try not to tear up over your kind words (no promises, though). (source)

Anti-cancer drugs - DNA targeting

Include alkylating agents, intercalating agents, and chain cutters.

Alkylating agents

  • Highly electrophilic species, looking for nucleophilic sites to attack, and forming covalent bonds to bases in DNA 
  • Prevent replication and transcription 
  • Toxic side effects (e.g. alkylation of proteins) 
  • Bind in the major groove of DNA
  • Both types cross-link DNA by covalently bonding to nitrogen of base pairs.
  • Binding of nucleic acid bases results in miscoding and distortion. 
  • Distortion of DNA prevents excision by HMG proteinspermanent damage. 
  • Transcription and replication prevented, tumour growth slows. 

Two electrophilic sites on an anticancer drug can cause interstrand and intrastrand cross-linking.

  • Preference for 1,2-GG or 1,2-GC linkage sites, with interstrand or intrastrand linkage, is dictated by drug chemical structure 
  • Other linkage adducts are possible. Eg 1,3-GCG, 1,2-GA. 
  • Monofunctional adducts are also possible 

Chlormethine (a nitrogen mustard)

  •  Chlormethine is highly reactive, toxic side effects. 
  • Lead compound for many less toxic mustard derivatives. 
  • Methyl (CH3 ) group has positive inductive effect – promotes loss of chloride – see mechanism 

Less toxic chlormethine analogues:

  • Melphalan:  e- withdrawing ring lowers Nu strength of N, less reactive drug, less side effects, less toxic. Mimics PhAla, carried into cells by transport proteins. 
  • Uracil mustard:  Uracil ring is e-withdrawing, less reactive alkylating agent. Mimics a nucleic acid base, concentrates in fast growing cells.
  • Cyclophosphamide:  Most commonly used alkylating agent, Non-toxic, orally active prodrug. Acrolein associated with toxicity.
  • Busulfan: Causes interstrand cross-linking. Sulphonate group withdraws electrons, adjacent carbon subject to Nu attack by DNA bases. 
  • Dacarbazine – A diazine:  Prodrug activated by oxidation in liver, decomposes to form methyldiazonium ion. Alkylates guanine groups 


 Aminoacridines eg Proflavine

Antibiotics - Dactinomycin

  • Extra binding to sugar phosphate backbone by cyclic peptide 
  • Intercalates via minor groove of DNA double helix 
  • Prevents unwinding of DNA double helix 
  • Blocks transcription, blocks DNA-dependent RNA polymerase 

Anthracyclines eg Doxorubicin (adriamycin) 

  •  Extra binding to sugar phosphate backbone by NH3 Planar rings and Anthracyclines eg Doxorubicin (adriamycin) 
  • Intercalates via major groove of DNA double helix 
  •  A topoisomerase poison - blocks action of topoisomerase II by stabilising DNA-enzyme complex 


Calicheamicin g1 I antitumour agent 

  •  Nucleophilic attack on trisulphide chain starts a rearrangement process. 
  • This interacts with DNA to generate a DNA diradical, which reacts with oxygen, resulting in chain cutting.

Bleomycins (BLM)

  • Highly active head, neck, testicular cancer (Hodgkin lymphoma) 
  • Single and double-strand cleavage of DNA with several reduced metal ions and O2 , Fe(II) highest in vivo activity. 
  • Three regions - 
  • bithiazole DNA binding domain (DBD) locks BLM into the minor groove, 
  • carbohydrate domain (CHD) H-bonds BLM to sugar phosphate of DNA 
  • metal binding domain (MBD) bonds to Fe(II)    


  • A reaction with hydrogen peroxide gives Fe(III) and hydroxyl radicals which abstract H atoms and cut the DNA chain. 
  • Fe2+ + H2O2 Fe3+ + OH. + OH− Fenton mechanism 

Lungs and skin have low levels of BLM hydrolase - higher sensitivity and toxicity. Pneumonitis occurs in about 10% of patients, progresses to pulmonary fibrosis. Over-expressed in malignant cells, resistance to bleomycin    

Summary of Anti-Tumour Specificity for DNA 

Major groove alkylators 

  • GG interstrand - N-mustards, nitrosoureas. 
  • GG intrastrand - methanesulphonates. 
  • GC-interstrand - nitrosoureas, triazines. 

Minor groove intercalators 

  • GG interstrand – anthracyclines. 
  • GC-interstrand – actinomycins, acridines. 

Minor groove chain cutters 

  • GC or GT intrastrand – bleomycins 
The Functions & Feelings

Often there seems to be the idea that the Feeling Functions are the only ones that have anything to do with feelings - when they have rather to do with intra- and interpersonal, social processing and surely use the feelings of yourself & others as an ‘input’

Indeed, in the brain there is no such division between what gives you skills & what gives you the specific emotional reaction patters we call ‘personality’ . It’s more that every function comes with a certain mental state or ‘emotional climate’.

For example, Fi doms have high activity in an area associated with stating your own beliefs, but also with feelings of humility or at least self-reflection. (There are some very un-humble Fi doms but they usually still reflect on their own behavior alot. & I know many humble, generous Fi users. ), whereas Fe users have activity in a region that processes & interprets social feedback on a cognitive level but also plays a role in feeling embarassment. And all feelers have areas regarding to judging tone of voice & intention on a lot. 

An exeption might be Ti that ‘lies’ in rather isolated brain regions & may dampen impulses from deeper in the brain, though a few regions involved in Ti are also involved with humor - Which may explain why many a Ti-user’s first reaction to bad new might be to crack a dark joke or laugh at the absurdity before they switch over to full emotional processing later on. And, come to think of it,  why ENTPs and ESTPs are so very hilarious (combining two ‘funny’ functions, plus tert Fe which can be kinda ‘lighthearted’ at times.)

Extroverted Sensing

Associated Skills: Kinesthetic-spatial processing, crisis management, perceptiveness, adaptability, making an impression on people, facility for tool use including musical instruments

Mental State: ‘mobilized’, active, alert, in touch with insticts, attracion and repulsion to things

Emotional Climate: Energy, desire, will, relish in physical activity or presence, awareness of status, desire and force both physical and mental

Personality Traits: spontaneous, energetic, active, adventurous, realistic, present-focussed, often ‘sophisticated/mature’ relationship with the material where they greatly enjoy pleasing things but aren’t neccesary ‘bound’ to them and could just as easily lead a more bohemian life, sometimes but not always competitive, agressiv territorial or dominant, express feelings physically (through sex, punch wall when angry etc.)

Introverted Sensing

Associated Skills: Attention to detail, good memory, good at manual work & logistics,  anything that requires practice

Mental State: relaxed state of physical and mental comfort & focus, comparision of sensory stimuli, focus on prolonged state of activity, cozyness, convenience, quality

Emotional Climate:  feelings of comfort & discomfort, pleasant and unpleasant, familiar & unfamiliar - actually displays the  rigidness, stubborness and single-mindedness tseen as characteristicsonly when familiar ‘flow’ is disrupted

Personality Traits: discerning, pragmatic, hardy, cautious, reliable, loyal, down-to-earth, sometimes but not always slow to adapt, express care by physically providing/ taken care of you

Introverted Intuition

Associated Skills: Long-term planning, purposeful action, pattern dectection, prediction/vision, eye for potential, insight 

Mental State: reflective, sometimes wistful, ‘mystical’ state, zen like focus, ‘expert-like’

Emotional Climate: worry & anticipation, clarity & certainty

Personality Traits: Purposeful, philosophical, inert, contemplative, planning/preparedness, sense of purpose, lowkey idealistic, ambitious

Extroverted Intuition

Associated Skills: facility with language, inventiveness, creativity, ressourcefulness, speculation & extrapolation, abstract thought

Mental State: considering possibility & interconnection, high energy, high speed processing, ‘epiphany-like’,

Emotional Climate: Excitedness, enthusiam, playfulness, search, longing 

Personality Traits: open-minded, dreamy, eccentric, bubbly, poetic, mischievous

Extroverted Thinking

Associated Skills: Organization, management, leadership, methodical efficiency

Mental State: active but steady & purposeful, procedural energy, algorithmic action, identifying & removing ‘faults’.

Emotional Climate: criticism, comparision, control, power, confidence

Personality Traits: Cathegorical-consequential, straight priorities, decisive, industrious, hard-working, ambitious, results-oriented, pragmatic

Introverted Thinking

Associated Skills: Logical reasoning, problem solving 

Mental State: Detached Analysis, sorting, categorizing

Emotional Climate: Awe and fear, curiosity and confusion

Personality Traits: bold, independent, aloof, inquisitive

Introverted Feeling

Associated Skills: Artistic proficiency, interpersonal perceptiveness, authenticity

Mental State: Receptive LIstening, takiing in/absorbing surroundings

Emotional Climate: Like & dislike, priority sorting,  

Personality Traits: self-aware, sensitive, contemplative, ethical, creative, intense

Extroverted Feeling

Associated Skills: Social Proficiency, caretaking, servicing humans, persuasion

Mental State: Passion & Fervor, series of experienced moods

Emotional Climate: Approval or disapproval, embrassment or righteousness, cultivating appropiate atmospheres, mirroring others

Personality Traits: Usually a common sensey mature person with a passionate expressive side, emphatetic, generous, affectionate

(As the feeling functions  process, well, dynamic feelings, they’e the hardest to classify in a generalized manner here, too. Personality with F doms can depend a lot on enneagram, upbringing and/or social circle. Still, their conciousness is most likely full of “good/bad” statements and receptiveness to people)

Why are we so attached to things?

After witnessing the violent rage shown by babies whenever deprived of an item they considered their own, Jean Piaget, a founding father of child psychology, observed something profound about human nature. Our sense of ownership emerges incredibly early. Why are we so clingy? 

There’s a well-established phenomenon in psychology known as the endowment effect where we value items much more highly just as soon as we own them. In fact, in one experiment, neuroscientists scanned participants’ brains while they allocated various objects either to a basket labeled “mine,” or another labeled, “Alex’s.” When participants subsequently looked at their new things, their brains showed more activity in a region that usually flickers into life whenever we think about ourselves. 

Another reason we’re so fond of our possessions is that from a young age we believe they have a unique essence. Psychologists showed us this by using an illusion to convince three to six-year-olds they built a copying machine, a device that could create perfect replicas of any item. When offered a choice between their favorite toy or an apparently exact copy, the majority of the children favored the original. In fact, they were often horrified at the prospect of taking home a copy.

This magical thinking about objects isn’t something we grow out of. Rather it persists into adulthood while becoming ever more elaborate. For example, consider the huge value placed on items that have been owned by celebrities. It’s as if the buyers believed the objects they’d purchased were somehow imbued with the essence of their former celebrity owners. For similar reasons, many of us are reluctant to part with family heirlooms which help us feel connected to lost loved ones. But, sometimes our attachment to our things can go too far. Part of the cause of hoarding disorder is an exaggerated sense of responsibility and protectiveness toward one’s belongings. That’s why people with this condition find it so difficult to throw anything away.

Perhaps there will always be something uniquely satisfying about holding an object in our hands and calling it our own.

From the TED-Ed Lesson Why are we so attached to our things? - Christian Jarrett

Animation by Avi Ofer

No doubt about it, functional neuroimaging technologies have brought the fresh, modern zing of neuroscience to old stereotypes.

Allan and Barbara Pease, for example, purport to demonstrate in their book Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps the striking sex differences in the sheer volume of brain devoted to emotion processing. A brain diagram of ‘Emotion in men’ shows two blobs in the right hemisphere. As the text explains, emotion in men is highly compartmentalised, meaning that ‘a man can argue logic and words (left brain) and then switch to spatial solutions (right front brain) without becoming emotional about the issue. It’s as if emotion is in a little room of its own’. But in the illustration of ‘Emotion in women’ there are more than a dozen blobs scattered across both hemispheres of the brain. What this means, according to the Peases, is that ‘women’s emotions can switch on simultaneously with most other brain functions’. Or, to call a spade a spade, emotion can cloud all and any of a woman’s mental activities.

These emotion maps of the male and female brain, the Peases inform readers, are based on fMRI research by neuroscientist Sandra Witelson. In order ‘to locate the position of emotion in the brain’, she used ‘emotionally-charged images that were shown first to the right hemisphere via the left eye and ear and then to the left hemisphere via the right eye and ear.’ Should readers have both the time and the resources to check out the six Witelson references in the book’s bibliography, they will find only two studies published after functional neuroimaging techniques first began to be substantively put to use by cognitive neuroscientists in the 1980s. One study did not involve brain research (it is a survey of handedness in gay men and women). The other is a comparison of corpus callosum size in right- and mixed-handed people. It might also be worth mentioning that it was a postmortem study. Possibly Sandra Witelson really did present her samples of dead brain tissue with emotionally charged images – but if she did, it’s not mentioned in the published report.

It may be that the Peases were referring to functional neuroimaging research published by Sandra Witelson and colleagues in 2004. It’s hard to know: this study used PET rather than fMRI; stimuli were presented in the normal two-eyed, two-eared fashion; and the male/female blob tallies and locations are dissimilar to those presented by the Peases. However, this study did at least look at brain activity while men and women performed one of two emotion-matching tasks. The easier task involved deciding which of two faces match the emotion of a third, target, face. The harder task involved deciding which of two faces match the emotion expressed in a voice. According to Susan Pinker’s summary of Witelson’s results, ‘[w]hen women looked at pictures of people’s facial expressions, both cerebral hemispheres were activated and there was greater activity in the amygdala, the almond-shaped seat of emotion buried deep in the brain. In men, perception of emotion was usually localised in one hemisphere’. Pinker then goes on to suggest that since research also shows that women have a thicker corpus callosum, allowing speedy interhemispheric transmission of information (a claim that [..] is under serious scientific dispute), ‘the hardware for women’s processing of emotion seems to take up more space and have a more efficient transportation grid than men’s. Scientists infer that this allows women to process emotion with dispatch.’

In fact, the researchers found no differences in how quickly men and women performed the tasks. It’s also worth noting that although the statement ‘both cerebral hemispheres were activated’ in women might conjure up an image much like that presented by the Peases, with activity over a generous portion of the female brain, this is not the case. Rather – and take a deep breath before reading on – in the easy task women showed greater activation than men in left fusiform gyrus, right amygdala and left inferior frontal gyrus. In the hard task they showed greater activity in left thalamus, right fusiform gyrus and left anterior cingulate. Men, meanwhile, showed greater activity than women in right medial frontal gyrus and right superior occipital gyrus for the easy task, and in left inferior frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal gyrus for the hard task. Or, rather less technically, women always had two left blobs and one right blob, while men had either two right blobs or two left blobs, depending on the task – painting a rather less striking image of contrast. (Bear in mind, too, that blobs represent differences in brain activity, not brain activity per se. If a search for regions activated more in men yields a blob-free left hemisphere, for example, that doesn’t mean that that hemisphere is switched off in men. Rather, it means that the researchers didn’t find any regions in the hemisphere that were activated more in men than in women.)

Does this complicated-sounding list of brain activations tell us something interesting about gender difference in emotional experience? The researchers, like Pinker, certainly think so. They conclude that their ‘findings suggest that men tend to modulate their reaction to stimuli, and engage in analysis and association, whereas women tend to draw more on primary emotional reference.’ (By this they mean that only women find others’ emotions innately arousing.) As you will have already realised, a simpler, and more familiar, way to put the same idea would be to say that men are thinkers and women are feelers.

So does this neuroimaging study simply confirm what everyone already suspected – that ‘men may take a more analytic approach’ to emotion processing while ‘women are more emotionally centred’? Or is it possible that these interpretations are […] unwittingly projecting assumptions about gender onto the vast unknown that is the brain?

[…] it’s worth noting that Witelson’s neuroimaging study compared just eight men with eight women on each task – a modest-sized sample. Could the sex differences in brain activation be spurious? When looking for changes in blood flow between two conditions, researchers search in thousands of tiny sections of the brain (called voxels), and many researchers are now arguing that the threshold commonly set for declaring that a difference is ‘significant’ just isn’t high enough. To illustrate this point, some researchers recently scanned an Atlantic salmon while showing it emotionally charged photographs. The salmon – which, by the way, ‘was not alive at the time of scanning’ – was ‘asked to determine what emotion the individual in the photo must have been experiencing.’ Using standard statistical procedures, they found significant brain activity in one small region of the dead fish’s brain while it performed the empathising task, compared with brain activity during ‘rest’. The researchers conclude not that this particular region of the brain is involved in postmortem piscine empathising, but that the kind of statistical thresholds commonly used in neuroimaging studies (including Witelson’s emotion-matching study) are inadequate because they allow too many spurious results through the net.

Cordelia Fine: Delusions of Gender - The Real Science Behind Sex Differences (2010)

(kiemelés tőlem)


Does this strange dark ball look somehow familiar? If so, that might be because it is our Sun. In the featured image from 2012, a detailed solar view was captured originally in a very specific color of red light, then rendered in black and white, and then color inverted. Once complete, the resulting image was added to astarfield, then also color inverted. Visible in the image of the Sun are long light filaments, dark active regions, prominences peeking around the edge, and a moving carpet of hot gas. The surface of our Sun can be a busy place, in particular during Solar Maximum, the time when its surface magnetic field is wound up the most. Besides an active Sun being so picturesque, theplasma expelled can also become picturesque when it impacts the Earth’s magnetosphere and creates auroras.

Image Credit & Copyright: Jim Lafferty

Time And Space

Mad as a cut snake – or save Eric Coulter

Originally posted by felywrites

My first (and most likely last) one-shot about Captain Boomerang! :D I haven’t read much about him or anything with Australian slang so it was pretty hard getting the hang of it. I had to alter most or all of his story to fit in the divergent universe but I hope you still like it! 

If anything is so wrong you can´t stand it tell me & I will change it :D

Thank you for reading! :)

Oneshot word count: 8140

@tigpooh67 @scorpio2009 @pathybo

Digger: a soldier

Lightning stroke over the glass dome in the interrogation room at the candor headquarters, the raging storm and the pounding rain mirroring the emotions, overshadowing the scene inside.

The young leader was kneeling on the floor, hands folded in front of him, still wearing his trademark smirk as he looked up at his biggest nemesis. Standing over him, Four had his gun cocked ready to end his life.

But not even now staring right into the face of death was Eric scared. Dying had never been part of his fear landscape and if he had to leave this life now, at least he knew the guilt of killing him would forever wear down the man that claims to be the epitome of dauntless.

That was enough Legacy for him.

Keep reading


Book 11,2017: ‘The Chibok Girls,The Boko Haram Kidnappings and Islamist Militancy in Nigeria’ by Helon Habila.

A broken heart I had reading this book. The unbelievable atrocities and pain caused by an evil set of 'animals’ are brought to light in this book. This writer gives you an almost thorough insight into the families of the kidnapped girls.

The impact of this sect’s activities on a region and the country as a whole is clearly divulged in this book.

A tragedy happened when 276 girls were kidnapped from a school in Chibok.

Bring back our girls!

Never forget.


In commemoration of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope completing its 100,000th orbit in its 18th year of exploration and discovery, scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., have aimed Hubble to take a snapshot of a dazzling region of celestial birth and renewal.

Hubble peered into a small portion of the nebula near the star cluster NGC 2074 (upper, left). The region is a firestorm of raw stellar creation, perhaps triggered by a nearby supernova explosion. It lies about 170,000 light-years away near the Tarantula nebula, one of the most active star-forming regions in our Local Group of galaxies.

The three-dimensional-looking image reveals dramatic ridges and valleys of dust, serpent-head “pillars of creation,” and gaseous filaments glowing fiercely under torrential ultraviolet radiation. The region is on the edge of a dark molecular cloud that is an incubator for the birth of new stars.

The high-energy radiation blazing out from clusters of hot young stars already born in NGC 2074 is sculpting the wall of the nebula by slowly eroding it away. Another young cluster may be hidden beneath a circle of brilliant blue gas at center, bottom.

In this approximately 100-light-year-wide fantasy-like landscape, dark towers of dust rise above a glowing wall of gases on the surface of the molecular cloud. The seahorse-shaped pillar at lower, right is approximately 20 light-years long, roughly four times the distance between our Sun and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri.

The region is in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite of our Milky Way galaxy. It is a fascinating laboratory for observing star-formation regions and their evolution. Dwarf galaxies like the LMC are considered to be the primitive building blocks of larger galaxies.

This representative color image was taken on August 10, 2008, with Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Red shows emission from sulfur atoms, green from glowing hydrogen, and blue from glowing oxygen.

For additional information, contact:

Ray Villard / Cheryl Gundy / Donna Weaver
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
410-338-4514 / 410-338-4707 / 410-338-4493 / /

Mario Livio
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.

Object Name: NGC 2074

Image Type: Astronomical

Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Livio (STScI)

Time And Space

Powerful magnetic forces above an active region on the Sun twisted and pulled at a blob of plasma until it lost its connections and blew out into space (Mar. 26, 2014). The resultant swirling presented its own kind of graceful, almost ballet-like bends and sweeps. To offer some kind of size perspective that blob, before it broke away, was easily larger than several Earths. The event was observed in extreme ultraviolet light over about 5.5 hours.

Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory/NASA