acidification

Let's get one thing straight:

Badlands National Park is not in defiance of the president, they are in support of the American People. They don’t work for him, they work for US. Climate change is a direct threat to our national resources, and the most severe threat facing our parks today. This is not a political issue, this is not Democrats vs. Republicans, this is data-backed endangerment of our open spaces and federal lands. If a building is deemed structurally unsound, you fix it, you don’t claim that scientists are lying to you about serious fatigue in the load-bearing members, or else it comes crashing down around you. Climate change is no different, nobody has ever tried to claim that forest fires are a myth invented by the Chinese.

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A Breakthrough for Coral Reef Restoration   

Dr. David Vaughan is working to combat the crisis in the world’s coral reefs—that is, that humans have lost 25 to 40 percent of the world’s corals in recent decades due largely to seawater temperature rise and ocean acidification.

Vaughan has developed a game-changing technique called “micro-fragmenting” that allows corals to grow more than 25 times faster than normal, which could rapidly restore the dwindling population of healthy coral reefs. The Atlantic visited Dr. Vaughan in the Florida Keys to uncover how the process works and understand how much hope there is to revitalize our reefs.

Author: Sam Price-Waldman

via: The Atlantic

Ocean acidification and the development of calcifying organisms

What is ocean acidification?
Increased CO2 results in a lowering of pH in the ocean, making it more acidic.
Since cold water absorbs CO2 more easily than warm water, polar regions are more at risk.

How does it impact calcifying organisms?
It decreases the saturation state of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), meaning that animals which produce calcium carbonate shells or skeletons (such as molluscs, echinoderms, and corals) will be severely impacted. Their skeletons and shells may become stunted, deformed, and more porous (see below).


Pictured Above:
Echinoderm larvae from tropical, temperate and polar sea urchins under different pH levels (note: the lower the pH, the more acidic). This figure shows that increasing acidity significantly inhibits their development (Byrne et al., 2013). Scale bars = 200 µm. 

Whats going to happen?
- Species extinctions
- A decrease in biodiversity, species richness, and biomass of coral reefs
- Food webs will be simplified
- Habitat complexity will be reduced
- A shift from coral reefs to seagrass/algae based ecosystems in some areas

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restingbitchfaceisnotsadface  asked:

"I can start with how I went to marine science camp as a kid and end with that time I accidentally brought a flamethrower into the county courthouse" --- PLEASE EXPLAIN IM SO CONFUSED D:

So, when I was a kid, my parents worked full time, so during the summer, my sister and I were enrolled in day-camp so we’d be adequately tired when we got home, and my FAVORITE  camp was Marine Science Camp, run by MSI on the banks of redwood creek, right off the San Francisco bay.  It was AWESOME: we got to dissect squid, there was a literal shark tank, which we got to fish leopard sharks out of and Tag Them For Scientific Research, ad we’d go out on the boat once a week and do things like haul a net full of fish out, use a scoop to study benthic creatures and look at plankton under a microscope.  I realize now we were essentially doing transects, dissections and other field/lab work for a bunch of grad students but it was FUN.  

I totally wanted to be a marine biologist when I grew up and would tell anyone who asked me what I was into about nematocyts and oceanic acidification until The Adult realized their mistake and fled.

At the same time, I was pursing an aggressive interest in the visual arts, which my parents heavily encouraged, becuase they are excellent parents and because it;s was a QUIET hobby unlikely to result in bodily harm, unlike my sister, who got into karate and Theater, which is a surprising dangerous combination.

But then i got to college and realized an issue with this plan: I, hands down, SUCK at chemistry.  I did okay in into becuase I’m great at taking standardized tests, and the teacher got suspended halfway through the semester for getting into a fistfight with another prof for poaching his grad student, but Organic Chemistry was a disaster.  I’ve never been good at arithmetic, and balancing chemical equations is something i need the dang molecule models for. So marine bio was a No-Go.

So I switched my major over to Art, which turned out to be kind of a disaster (the school managed to lose an entire semester of my grades because the Art Department kept really sloppy records and i ended up dropping out and resuming college elsewhere) and AMAZING, becuase I took a human figure drawing course with professor [REDACTED] who announced on the third day of class:  “SWEET THE FOOLS JUST GAVE ME TENURE.  CAN’T FIRE ME NOW, SO LEMME SHOW YOU HOW TO MAKE A FLAMETHROWER”

The thing she actually taught us was how to modify a culinary butane torch to empty the canister at a much higher rate than any manufacturer anywhere recommends, which gives you and AWESOME bigass jet of blue flame, but only lasts about 30 seconds per container.  She also showed us how to make bandeliers so we could carry multiple containers, “just in case”.

In more practical lessons, we were in class when the first gov’t shutdown happened, so we didn’t have money for models, so she oped to bring in various animals for us to draw instead.  there was the usual cats and dogs, but also chickens, horses, a farm hog, a 12-foot Burmese Python and a baby deer that had been abandoned on her porch.  It was really fun, both becuase animals are amazing, and becuase they don’t hold still, so you learn to draw REAL FAST, which is a skill that’s served me well since.

A few years later, I was summoned for Jury Duty, and had to show up at the courthouse for selection.  HOWEVER, I’d put my usual bag in the wash the previous night, so I grabbed my old school backpack to take with me because I knew I had a sketchbook in there to amuse myself with.

I forgot I also had my flamethrower in there.

I live in a pretty low-crime area, so the metal detectors are actually pretty far into the building- you don’t get scanned until you’re actually going into the courtroom.  So for about three hours beforehand, I was sitting in the hallway having a Nice Chat with one of the state park rangers and the CEO of the local call center.  We get called in, and as we walk through, my backpack sets off the alarm.

“Fuck.” I say abruptly remembering what would have set it off.

“Do you have anything metal in your backpack?” the security guy asks me.  I think he was expecting me to say glasses.

“I forgot that I have my flamethrower in here. I’ll just leave this outside.”  I explain, hoping I’m not about to be arrested.

“Please open your bag or leave it outs- your WHAT?”  Dude stops halfway through his routine.

“Flamethrower.  I made it in art class and will definitely be leaving it here.” I say, carefully putting my bag on the table, zipper open , and pointing at the small butane torch.  The guard looks at it, looks at me (pls note, I am small, white, feminine and conventionally attractive so YOU BET privilege was happening here), before deciding that Art People Are Dumb and waving me in after wanding me to make sure I hadn’t accidentally brought anything else in my pockets.

I was not selected for jury duty.

In other news, I still have it, and it still works.  I use it for mass-toasting creme brulee.

rollingstone.com
The Point of No Return: Climate Change Nightmares Are Already Here
The worst predicted impacts of climate change are starting to happen — and much faster than climate scientists expected

It is important that you understand the seriousness of this situation.  Though there is extensive coverage in print and online media, climate change gets less press than celebrity diet secrets and rap feuds.  Write to your senators and congressmen.  Sign petitions.  Organize and take part in demonstrations.  Activism is important.  

We are not going to save everything.  The world is going to change.  People are dying and will continue to die.  Property will be destroyed, possibly whole cities.  Some species will go extinct. We need to act now, and pressure our elected officials to pass serious legislation to mitigate climate change.  We don’t have to lose everything.

Sharing and liking tumblr posts isn’t enough. You must do more.

Why Should I Care For the Oceans?

We’ve all heard it:

“Why does it matter if we overfish tuna? It tastes so good!”

“If the oceans dried up tomorrow, why would I care? I live 500miles away from any body of water!”

The thing is, without the oceans, we would all be dead. Our planet would probably look like Mars. There would be no freshwater, no food for us to eat, no suitable climate for us to survive.

(Photo: Getty Images/iStockphoto)

Whether you live by the coast, or only see the ocean once a year on holiday, the ocean has an impact on your life. Every breath you take, every food or drinks you have… is thanks to our oceans. Every single individual and living being on this planet is deeply connected, and extremely dependent upon our seas.

The oceans regulates climate, weather, and temperature. They act as carbon dioxide ‘sinks’ from the atmosphere. They hold 97% of the Earth’s water. They govern our Earth’s chemistry; all the microbes and microscopic organisms at the very bottom of the food chain support our own existence. The oceans are also crucial for our economies, health and security.

(Photo credit: Brian Skerry)

The past generations have been raised with the idea that the ocean is huge (and it is) and resilient, and that we could basically take from or put into the oceans as much as we wanted. Now, we found out that we cant go on this way. This mentality is part of our problem and it needs to change.

While we have made tremendous discoveries about the oceans over the last few decades, we have also caused more destruction to the sea than ever before. Many fisheries stocks are overfished, catastrophic fishing techniques are destroying the habitats and depleting populations, many marine species are on the verge of extinction, coral reefs are dying, pollution run-offs from agricultural farms are creating dead-zones where nothing can grow or live, millions of gallons of oil have devastated the Gulf of Mexico, bigger and faster container ships create noise pollution for marine mammals and endangers them…The list goes on, and on. We have had so much impact that we have actually changed the pH of the oceans! 

Pretty overwhelming, uh? 

So yes, you should care, because if the oceans crash, we as a species are crashing with them. The entire planet Earth will be gone. And if that’s not enough of a wake-up call for you, I don’t know what else could be!

While all the current marine conservation issues appear huge and insurmountable, there is still hope. Each individual can make a difference now. YOU can make better choices about which fish to consume (or not at all!) and ask about the way they were caught or raised, YOU can encourage sustainable fishing practices, YOU can decide not to use fertilizer or pesticides in your backyard, YOU can bring your own reusable bag to the grocery store and stop using plastics, YOU can stop using products with microbeads, YOU can participate in beach clean-ups, YOU can start your own research and discover even more awesome things about the oceans… YOU can spread the word to your skeptic friends! Have people follow in your footsteps; inspire your friends and family. Be the change :) !

(Photo source: Flickr)

“If you want to have an impact on history and help secure a better future for all that you care about, be alive now” - Sylvia Earle

What are scientists up to in your national marine sanctuaries?

In Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, researchers are kicking off an expedition to explore the sanctuary’s deep-sea ecosystems!

Using a remotely operated vehicle, scientists from Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary will explore the sanctuary’s deep-water ecosystems. Photo: Charleston Lab

Located off the coast of Southern California, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary protects remarkable biodiversity, productive ecosystems, and sensitive species and habitats. But more than a quarter of this ocean treasure remains unmapped and little-explored. This month, a research expedition will change that.

Throughout April and May, a team of NOAA-led researchers will explore the sanctuary’s deep seafloor environment. Deep-sea environments like those in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary provide nurseries and habitat for commercially-important species such as lobster, squid, and sea urchins. Some deep coral reefs may also produce chemicals that could be key to the next generation of medicines. However, these habitats are under threat. The two-week cruise on board the NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada will shine a light on how these ecosystems are impacted by a variety of stresses facing them, such as ocean acidification.

When we burn fossil fuels like oil and gas, we release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When the ocean absorbs this carbon dioxide, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH and the amounts of available calcium carbonate minerals. This is known as ocean acidification. Calcium carbonate minerals are the building blocks for the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms, including deep-sea corals.

Lophelia pertusa (white coral at left and lower-right) is a deep-sea coral that is sensitive to ocean acidification. Photo: NOAA

2014 survey results indicate that corals in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are already experiencing effects from ocean acidification, and waters in this area are projected to become even more acidic. Corals support extensive fish and invertebrate populations, including commercially-fished species, so it is important to monitor the potentially harmful effects ocean acidification has on deep-sea corals. Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the ocean acidification team will collect samples of Lophelia pertusa, a stony reef-building deep-sea coral found in the sanctuary. Researchers will also monitor water chemistry in and around reefs to help measure local effects of increased carbon dioxide emissions and to assess this ecosystem’s overall vulnerability to ocean acidification.

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anonymous asked:

Zoos and Aquariums do more to protect species in the wild than any other program, and once a wild habitat is gone it's GONE. Captivity is often their only hope until we can rehabilitate them somewhere. Why do so many people who call themselves vegan have zero understanding of how any of this works? : /

Hi, alumni from the Conservation Biology and Ecology program at Arizona State University here. Let me break it down for you from an evidence-based perspective, since my being vegan leads you to believe I’m just talking out of my ass or something.

In not one of my classes was it ever stated that zoos are fundamental to wildlife conservation. In fact, my biology conservation professor said captivity in zoos is very antithetical to the physical and mental health of large land mammals, especially elephants and big cats.

Animals, especially far-roaming species, exhibit stereotypical behavior in order to cope with their cramped, unnatural living conditions (i.e. bar biting, circling, pacing).

Rehabilitation programs only work when endangered species have an environment to return to (in many cases, they do not), and the most successful programs I have seen are in closed facilities - not zoos open to the public.

Human beings are causing the sixth mass extinction event, and zoos are not going to help stop global warming, deforestation, ocean acidification, or poaching. Zoos aren’t even a temporary stop-gap solution. It’s a feel-good option for people who want to stare at wild animals in an artificial environment.

Unlike wildlife sanctuaries, which put the animals’ welfare first and foremost, zoos place a large amount of importance on giftshop and ticket sales, and that prioritizes species that are easily identifiable to the public - not animals who are the most threatened.

Captive-breeding in zoos will only go so far, and it is estimated that relying on captive-bred animals only (and not capturing more from the wild) will only allow 100-years of breeding before the species becomes so inbred they are no longer genetically viable.

Zoos have been known to kill “surplus” animals.

The vast majority of zoos DO NOT release animals back into the wild.

Sometimes zoos sell “surplus” animals to circuses, canned hunting facilities, or the exotic pet trade.

Chances are, many of you have seen Blackfish and boycott SeaWorld. While that is admirable, zoos are simply an extension of the captive animal entertainment industry. Some zoos even make their animals perform tricks to the detriment of the animals.

Do Zoos Really Teach Visitors Anything?

Zoos teach young children, as well as adults, that it is acceptable to keep animals in cages and pens for the rest of their lives, rather than live in their natural habitats.

Zoos are inherently cruel because profits come first, and animals cannot consent to captivity.

The fact of the matter is, you don’t need a BS in Conservation Biology to understand how placing wild animals in pens for us to pay money to look at sounds dubious and suspect. We need to use our critical thinking skills and stop being dogmatically worshipful of these institutions that profit from the captivity of sentient, living beings.

Do you care about our planet?

The animal industry has done a really good job of paying off the right people to keep their mouths shut about their role in hurting our planet, because everyone only talks about cars and light bulbs.

However, animal agriculture is the number one cause of:

• greenhouse gases
• habitat loss/deforestation
• species extinction
• ocean acidification
• ocean dead zones
• coral bleaching
• climate change
• water shortages
• desertification

Earth Day is meant to celebrate the earth and bring awareness to how much we need to protect it. So in light of that, today would be a great day to go vegan!

Every day a vegan can save:

• 1100 gallons/~4167 litres of water
• 30 square feet/~2.8 sq meters of forest
• 45 pounds/~20kg of grains
• 20 lbs/9 kg of CO2 emissions
• 1 animal’s life

It’s one of the single most effective things you can do for our planet, and you can’t go fully vegan, it’s still helpful to cut back whenever you can. If anyone has any questions at all please don’t hesitate to message me.

Please leave all animal products off your plate, not just for the sake of animals and yourself, but for our entire planet. Happy Earth Day!

independent.co.uk
Great Barrier Reef cannot be saved
The Great Barrier Reef – a canary in the coal mine for global warming – can no longer be saved in its present form partly because of the “extraordinary rapidity” of climate change, experts have conceded. Instead, action should be taken to maintain the World Heritage Site's 'ecological function' as its ecological health declines, they reportedly recommended.

Warming Oceans May Threaten Krill, a Cornerstone of the Antarctic Ecosystem

“Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the water mean greater levels of ocean acidification,” Dr. Kawaguchi, whose laboratory holds the only research tanks in the world used to breed and study krill. “This interrupts the physiology of krill. It stops the eggs hatching, or the larvae developing.”

Some scientists worry that krill, one of the most abundant animal species on earth, may not be able to adapt to global warming.Credit: Rob King/Australian Antarctic Division                    

anonymous asked:

Prompt if you'd like: Alex comes back from a conference in Prof. Chic (glasses, sweaters, and button ups) and Maggie teases/flirts with her favorite hot nerd. something something needing tutoring in biology

She doesn’t have time to change before she catches her plane back to National City.

She doesn’t have time to change, so she endures the seven hour flight in her blazer, her pantsuit, her soft blue button-up. Her heels.

She kicks off the damn shoes – they really do hurt more than getting punched by a Kryptonian – the moment she sits down, and a few hours into the flight, she slips her contacts out and puts her glasses on.

She’s been concentrating so hard, reading so much – reviewing so many journal articles, both in prep for and in residual excitement from, her presentation on the latest in bioengineered mechanisms for combating ocean acidification – that her eyes have long-since started to sting, and much as she tends to avoid wearing her glasses in public, the reward of reading the rest of the flight through without that nagging pain more than compensates.

James picks her up from the airport, full of hugs and smiles and questions and damn, Alex, you’re always beautiful, but Maggie is going to flip when she sees you like this that have her laughing, that have her blushing, that have her so, so happy to be back home.

And James is right.

About Maggie.

About the way Maggie’s jaw drops when Alex steps through the door, heels loud on their hardwood floor, glasses still set on her nose, blazer just as sharp as it was the first day the met.

About the way Maggie stammers and splutters and gulps.

About the way Maggie collects herself with the clearing of her throat, and replaces her stunned look with a smirk, with confident eyes that border on cocky in just the way she knows Alex likes.

In just the way she knows Alex loves.

“I hope everyone was able to actually listen to your revolutionary nerd ideas instead of just stare at you, Danvers,” she grins, her eyes raking up and down Alex’s suddenly very awake body slow, heady. Wanting.

“Incidentally, they were,” Alex purses her lips and suppresses a grin, taking great care to move slowly, slowly, slowly, as she puts down her bag and steps across the living room toward her girlfriend, eyes never once leaving her face.

“Then again,” she stops just inches away from Maggie’s body, running her fingers through her hair and looking down thickly at her eyes, her lips. “I wasn’t wearing my glasses while I presented.”

Maggie nearly hisses with want at Alex’s closeness, at her touch.

“Those are just for me, huh, Danvers?”

Alex grins. “And the people on the plane with me.” She tilts her head Maggie-style and grins deeper. “And James.”

“Mmm, but do all those people get to touch you like this?” Maggie wants to know, slipping her hands under Alex’s blazer, fingers starting to tease the buttons of her collared shirt.

“Only you, babe,” Alex kisses her deep, kisses her passionate, kisses her way back home.

Maggie sighs into the kiss, into both of their smiles.

“So if the glasses are only for me… and this body is only for me…” Maggie hesitates as her eyes check with Alex that her possessiveness feels warm, not stifling, that her flirtation feels like love, not like ownership. 

Alex bites her lip in answer, and Maggie smirks and continues. “Do I also get private biology tutoring from my very… very… hot nerd doctor girlfriend?”

“Hot nerd doctor girlfriend,” Alex chuckles into her lips, and Maggie inhales sharply as Alex traces her tongue down to her throat.

“What can I say, Danvers? You take my breath away, you take my words away…”

“We can start with anatomy,” Alex breathes into Maggie’s ear, and god, is she grateful they sound-proofed their apartment.

Group Project... (Parker x Reader)

(A/N) HII! So, I’ve been working on all the requests so far and I’m so excited for what I have in store for you guys, in the mean time, I hope you all can enjoy something I’ve been working on for a while. While there was no official request, it was something I had a lot of fun writing, enjoy!

“I have no clue what this is supposed to be.” I said, my eyes widening as I glanced at my friends laptop screen.


“Oh, come on… it’s obviously something to do with chemical compositions of water…” (Y/F/N) said. My face read disbelief.


“You’re delusional…. how are you in AP CHEM?” I asked sarcastically. She laughed a little before closing the picture, returning to the random game of solitaire she was playing instead of working on our group project.


“Nick, you got anything on aragonite saturation? We should include that in our presentation if we decide to go in depth about the acidification effects on water.” Nick looked at me as I spoke.


“Yeah, I got some reports about the reliability of the testing, but it’s outdated and scientists have switched to more modern method of study,” Nick replied, pulling up the various articles he found to show me.


“Interesting, can you find more information about the new tests?” I asked.


“Yeah, I’m on it.”


“Peter…” I called across the lab table, he looked up startled. “How’s your progress on the physical properties of water?”


“Uh… go—good.” He stuttered avoiding my eye.


“Do you think you have enough to pull the presentation together?” I asked hopefully.


“Oh… yeah—definitely…” he trailed off, glancing up once to meet my eye before blushing intensely looking back to the laptop screen.


“Good good…,” I trailed off returning to my own research.


It was obvious Peter was uncomfortable with the group he was placed in for our chemistry project, he clearly wasn’t friends with any of us, and he preferred to do his work alone as opposed to in the group, like I had been pushing for all of us to do. Peter insisted he could handle completing the work that was meant for two people on his own, leaving the three of us, me, Nick and (Y/F/N) to tackle the chemical properties of water, and its affect on the ecosystem.


“Ok, presentations are Monday, that gives us one more class day to work on it. We still need to start on the slideshow and practicing if we want a good grade,” I said with three minutes left in class.


“We’ll work on the slides tomorrow. Don’t worry, we got this,” (Y/F/N) said, still playing the solitaire game from earlier.


“Yeah, well that doesn’t make up for the fact that we’ll probably need to work on this over the weekend. We still need to incorporate all the information we’ve found into one, smooth presentation.” I glanced over at Peter who hasn’t looked up from his computer and who hasn’t said a word, apart from when I forced him to update me on his progress.


“Peter, what do you think?” I asked, curious about someone else’s opinion.


He looked up, his eyes shifting from me to (Y/F/N). He opened his mouth to respond when the deafening bell sounded instead. Nick and (Y/F/N) sprinted out of the room, having packed up a few minutes earlier, leaving Peter and yourself to pack up together.


“If you need any help at all with your part, I’m always open,” I offered Peter. He glanced up at me, mumbling a quiet thanks before looking back at his backpack.


“Honestly, I’m not just trying to be nice. Anyways, the whole project is about tying the chemical and physical properties together, so it might help if we collaborate or something…” I said, following Peter out of the empty lab room and down the hall to his locker.


“Ok, thanks… for the offer,” he said, opening his locker quickly and grabbing his sweatshirt before slamming it shut. “I’ll see you tomorrow, (Y/N).”


“See you…,” I trailed off, my voice quieting in the busy halls of the emptying school as I was left alone in a sea of people.



“So what’s our status on this project?” I asked no one in particular, closing my eyes and rubbing my forehead in attempt to alleviate the headache I have.


“We have the background and intro slide done,” Nick said, making a face as if we spent the entire class period working as efficiently as possible.


“Ugh….” I groaned, my head falling into the table as a sign of defeat. “So we definitely have to do this over the weekend…”


“Yeah… sorry (Y/N), not gonna happen. I have soccer practice all day tomorrow, and then playoffs Sunday. I’m booked solid,” (Y/F/N) said, her eyes growing tired at the mere thought of all the energy she’ll soon exhaust.


“Nick?” I asked hopefully.


“Sorry… the football tournament, we have like— three games.”


“Peter, please tell me you’ve got my back,” I begged my head on the table and giving my best pout to him.


“Yeah, yeah, I—I have no plans,” he said, his gaze quickly diverting back to the slideshow we had been working on.

“Great, meet me at the library tomorrow, noon?” I asked, hoping he’d look at me for confirmation.

“Noon sounds fine.” The bell rang, and the room cleared. Like usual, I was left the last in the room with only the teacher. I waved goodbye to him as I left.

I began my walk home, but the brisk wind cut against my cheeks, burning them raw from the cold of late October. Walking home in terrible weather was a usual for me, unless I took the subway which I hated with a passion.

I was one or two blocks from the apartment when, through my loud music I heard screams from up ahead. I stopped suddenly. They were abnormal, loud. It was a shrieking that seemed to rattle my bones. I was almost scared to continue walking—did I really want to know what was up ahead?

I took out a single earbud, listening again but only hearing the wind against my ears. Then, it happened again. A loud shriek, I swear someone must have been getting murdered. This time, it was followed by a noise that sounded like the air getting cut.

It seemed to be coming from behind me, and I turned just in time to see a red blob swinging down the middle of the street in record time. He must’ve gotten two or three blocks down before he swung to a right side street. Spiderman. I should’ve known. But, he was a legend; literally. Stories told in the streets. Rarely seen, but greatly appreciated. I was amazed I had even seen him at all.

I smiled an awestruck smile, and continued to walk to my apartment, taking extra caution, but keeping my eyes open for the man in a red suit.


“You should’ve seen him! It’s amazing! He’s amazing! I cant believe I saw him with my own eyes!” I exclaimed, recounting yesterday’s events to Peter. He sat across from me at the table in the library, and he seemed half-interested in what i was saying, half-focused on our science project.

“Imagine being that athletic, that—that fit. Having, powers—or whatever. He must feel like he could do anything,” I trailed off, my mind wandering to the hero I’d seen yesterday. “Don’t you think?”

“Sorry, who are we talking about again?” Peter asked jokingly, looking up from his computer with a small smile.

“Spiderman! Who else?” I played along, smiling back. My eyes trailed to my left, my thoughts traveling away as I began focusing on a bookshelf across from us. “But, I guess it isn’t always sunshine and flowers,” I said, I looked back at him, leaning slightly farther towards him.

“Huh?“Peter asked, maintaining eye contact with me.

“I mean, with any power, control, abilities—whatever,” I struggled to find the right wording. “There’s always gonna be responsibility…”

“I guess you’re right,” Peter said. He looked around the open room.

“Sure, he might be fighting crime and being a hero, but whenever something goes wrong—whenever a criminal gets away—who’s going to be the first person to get blamed?” Peter was glaring at me intensely now, giving me his full attention.

“And then there’s the guilt, the guilt of not being able to save everyone. I mean, he’s just a guy right? He’s gotta have a life. What happens when one day, he’s not there to save the city?” Peter looked away, his eyes lost with his own thought. “Sorry, we should probably get back to work.”

“You make a good point,” Peter said after sitting in silence for minutes. “There has to be negatives to protecting the city. But he’s obviously willing to accept them, the consequences of the ‘job’, for the better good. He’s willing to accept that responsibility, so long as someone gets saved along the way.”

“I suppose,” I started, “he’s truly one of the good ones then. Willing to risk his life, his sanity, for a bunch of strangers in New York City.”

“What a guy,” Peter said, cracking a smile at me when I looked up at him.

“What a guy,” I repeated, laughing slightly. I looked back down at the computer screen and continued on the group work that had to be done Monday morning. It was a lot of work, but I had no doubt in my mind Peter and I could get it done.


After a long four hours, Peter and I had managed to completely finish the twenty slide PowerPoint, and write Flashcards for each one of us to read from when it was our time to present our findings. It was starting to get dark out, but I wasn’t going to admit I was nervous to walk alone. Fortunately, Peter offered to walk me back to the apartments. I’m pretty sure he lived nearby anyway.

“Thanks, for offering.”

“No problem,” Peter said.

I think that in a matter of a few hours, Peter and I had actually become friends. He wasn’t awkwardly stuttering around me, and he actually made eye contact and conversation. I hope this ‘friendship’ goes beyond this weekend, because honestly he’s pretty kind.

“You’re pretty cool, you know?” Peter said after walking in silence for a bit. “You’re not like the other girls you hang out with.”

“I’ll take that as a complement?” I questioned.

“Oh! Yeah! I didn’t mean anything by that just—,” he put his hands out in defense. “You’re nice, not hanging off every boy just to get laid.” He took a breath, a bit of hesitation. “You made an effort.”

I chuckled. “Thanks, I guess.”

We walked in silence for a couple of more minutes as we approached the block that I lived on. I dreaded having to end the walk, because Peter’s company made me feel happy.

“Well, this is me,” I said, stopping short at the apartment entrance. Peter looked at the building and turned to me.

“We should do group projects together more often, it was fun.”

“We should,” I said, “we work really well together.” I smiled slightly.

Peter smiled back, looking at his shoes quickly, blush taking over his face. “We should definitely do more group projects together.”

“Definitely,” I agreed.

“Even if like, it’s just the two of us, we could still, y'know, work together,” Peter was back to his stuttering self. Now, I was the one blushing.

“I’d like that,” I said, “if you’re up for it, of course.”

“I mean, definitely, I am,” Peter said, looking up again, his arm slightly reaching towards me as he spoke. He realized he was reaching for me and blushed intensely, immediately moving it to his head, rubbing it as he turned.

“I guess I should be getting inside then?” I posed it as a question, wondering if we were done talking around this subject.

“Of course, its freezing!” Peter said. “Sorry, I babble.”

I turned to go inside, my hand pushing the door open. I turned around, leaning into the slightly open door and debated saying the words on the tip of my tongue. I got enough courage to say it. “I’d love to go out with you.”

“Oh good, you see, I was going to ask…” Peter continued to talk mindlessly, seeming to speak a mile per second, I smiled again, rolling my eyes as I pushed the door open some more.

“See you Monday, Parker,” I said, turning around and walking through the door.

“Yeah, Monday,” he waved, smiling widely as I walked away.

anonymous asked:

I was reading a post recently saying that if your cat or dog drinks antifreeze than alcohol(not pure rubbing alcohol I assume) will stop the acidification of organs and save your pet. Is this true?

There is a tiny grain of truth in there, but it’s a whole lot more complicated than that.

The toxic component of antifreeze is ethylene glycol. It’s metabolites have multiple toxic effects and it’s metabolism. It’s metabolism through the liver is complicated.

All metabolites of antifreeze have toxic effects.

  • Ethylene glycol causes central nervous system depression, euphoria and increased serum osmolarity.
  • Glycoaldehyde and Glycoxylate can inhibit the Krebs cycle, that thing mitochondria do to generate cellular energy.
  • Glycolate causes renal failure and acidosis
  • Oxalate aculumation in the kidney can also cause permanent renal failure.

So with all this badness, where does ethanol (drinking alcohol) come in?

Ethanol is preferentially acted upon by alcohol dehydrogenase. This means that if you have both ethanol and ethylene glycol present, alcohol dehydrogenase will spend more time acting on the ethanol. This slows down the rate that ethylene glycol is turned into its other toxic metabolites.

Because a relatively small amount of ethylene glycol is getting metabolised at one time, the other enzymes in the chain can keep up with the pace, so the most toxic metabolites don’t accumulate in super high levels before being excreted as calcium oxalate.

However, this means two things:

  • If you give ethanol 18 hours after ingestion of antifreeze, you actually make everything worse
  • Treatment with ethanol requires you to induce alcohol poisoning for about two days.

A single shot of vodka isn’t going to cut it. We usually have these dogs on intravenous fluids to keep them hydrated whilst giving ethanol in hospital (we use vodka) because these animals are often nearly comatose.

We are inducing one type of poisoning to protect against another.

And for what I hope is obvious reasons, do not try this at home.

Pharmacokinetics Overview

(Absorption and distribution of drugs)

The study of the time course of drugs and their metabolites in the body (what the body does to the drug) consisting of:

  • administration
  • absorption
  • distribution
  • metabolism
  • excretion

Administration

Enteral (passes through intestine)

  • oral (mouth)
  • buccal/sublingual (applied in cheek/under tongue)
  • Gastrosomy (surgical opening through the abdomen into the stomach)

Topical (applied directly)

  • Nasal
  • Rectal
  • Ophthalmic (eyes)

Parentral (injection)

  • Intravenous (into veins)
  • intramuscular (into muscles)
  • intradermal (within layers of skin)
  • subcutaneous (under the skin)

Drug molecules move around the body either through bulk flow (bloodstream, lymphatics or cerebrospinal fluid) or diffusion (molecule by molecule over short distances)

Absorption 

Passage of drug from its site of administration into plasma - important for all routes except intravenous injection.

Injection

  • IV = fastest route of administration
  • bolus injection = very high concentration of drug
  • rate limiting factors = diffusion through tissues and removal by local blood flow

Drugs need to pass through membranes (cell membranes, epithelial barriers, vascular endothelium, blood-brain barrier, placenta barrier etc) via

  • passive diffusion through lipids
  • carrier-mediated
  • passage through membrane pores/ion channels
  • pinocytosis (ingestion into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane)

Diffusion through lipid

  • non-polar molecules can dissolve freely in membrane lipids
  • the rate is determined by the permeability coefficient (P)(solubility in the membrane and diffusibility) and the concentration difference across the membrane

pH and Ionisation

  • Many drugs are weak acids or weak bases
  • exist in unionised or ionised forms
  • pH = balance between the two forms
  • ionised forms have low lipid solubility
  • uncharged however the drug is usually lipid soluble

ionisation affects:

  • rate of drug permeation through membranes
  • steady state distribution of drug molecules between aqueous compartments if pH difference exists between them

Therefore:

  • urinary acidification accelerates the excretion of weak bases and slows that of weak acids
  • alkalisation has opposite effect
  • increasing plasma pH causes weak acids to be extracted from CNS into plasma
  • Reducing plasma pH causes weakly acidic drugs to become concentrated in CNS, increasing neurotoxicity

Bioavailibility

  • Bioavailibility (F) indicates the fraction of an orally administered dose that reaches systemic circulation intact, taking into account both absorption and local metabolic degradation
  • determined by comparison between oral and IV absorption

affected by:

  • drug preparation
  • variation in enzyme activity of gut
  • gastric pH
  • intestinal motility

Volume of Distribution

Vd is defined as the volume of fluid required to contain the total amount, Q, of drug in the body at the same concentration as that present in the plasma, Cp

  • determined by relative strength of binding between drug and tissue compared with drug and plasma proteins
  • tight binding to tissue but not plasma –> drug appears to be dissolved in large volume –> large Vd (eg chloropromazine)
  • tight binding to plasma –> V can be very close to blood volume –> low Vd (eg warfarin)
"Save the reef, eat lionfish!"

OR, save the reef, stop polluting them with your fucking livestock and causing dead zones, fishing to extinction, and bleaching coral and acidifying the oceans with the methane emissions from your fucking livestock.

2

BLEACHING AFFECTS 93% OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

Aerial checks of more than 900 individual reefs showed the spread varies dramatically along its 2,300 kilometres, from 90 per cent north of Port Douglas to less than 10 per cent south of Mackay.  

Coral bleaching is when abnormal environmental conditions cause coral to expel tiny photosynthetic algae, called zooxanthellae. Loss of colourful algae causes coral to turn white and “bleach” -Bleached coral can recover if the temperature drops and zooxanthellae are able to recolonise them, otherwise it may die.

The Great Barrier Reef has been threatened with mass bleaching due to weather conditions El Niño and the rapid climate change. 

The southern third of the Great Barrier Reef fortunately cooled down late in summer due to ex-cyclone Winston. Researchers expect the central and southern corals to regain their colour and recover over the next few months

youtube

A short video about ocean acidification. Quite informative.