acidic conditions

Is anything tough enough to survive on Mars?

Researchers at the University of Arkansas recently took a step toward answering a question for the ages: Is there life on Mars? Answer: they can’t rule it out.

Two recent publications suggest that life, in the form of ancient, simple organisms called methanogens, could survive the harsh conditions found near the surface of Mars, and deep in its soils. Using methanogens to test for survivability is particularly relevant because scientists have detected their byproduct, methane, in the Martian atmosphere. On Earth, methane is strongly associated with organic matter, though there are non-organic sources of the gas, including volcanic eruptions.

Scientists aren’t yet sure what the presence of Martian methane means. But one possibility is that tenacious life flourishes on Mars despite the rocky soil, thin atmosphere and scarcity of liquid water.

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Disease..

 Human disease is caused by wrong rhythm of life, by ignorance of the law of periodicity. The appearance of man on the planet is not the cause of disease. There was disease in the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms long before man. The basic cause of disease are mistakes about the law of periodicity, the law regulating the processes of nature. The law of periodicity can be studied in sexuality, for example such as it expresses itself in woman, in particular. By following this arrangement of nature, the cyclic manifestation of sexual impulses, important discoveries about the rhythm of life could be made. The application of this understanding would eliminate most causes of disease. The knowledge of the law of periodicity is in itself an entire discipline, which will be given to mankind when it proves itself able to comply with the laws of life.

 Mankind has never sought to apply these laws, even though the wise men of all ages have intimated their existence. The planetary hierarchy casts no pearls. Pearls will be given to mankind, when it proves itself able to estimate their true value. All disease is caused by mistakes made about laws of nature and laws of life in this life or in past lives. Some people in the esoteric field assert that disease can be cured in some cases, but that this is possible only if you know the causes (in past lives) and, having a full knowledge of each particular cause-effect condition. Otherwise, the consequence will be that a certain organ is cured, but not the constitution, so that the disease is transferred to another organ….or the “germ of disease” may be transferred to a higher “envelope” and must work itself out in the next incarnation, if not in this one. So once again, the cause of disease MAY lie in past incarnations.

To look at a few things more specifically:
  -Diseases that result from hatred (criticism and judgment) depend on energies going from the throat center to the navel center. 

   -The organism(body or being), has been whipped up to abnormal performance through stimulants, and the individual will have to pay for this. 

   -Physical disease is the result partly of wrong stimulation, over-stimulation, wrongly applied stimulation, or some sort of inner tension; partly of inhibitions, psychic deprivation, or congestion of energies. 

   -Irritation results from self-interest, self-sufficiency, and self-satisfaction. 

 The cause of disease is not only, as many sects believe, illogical thinking. If that were the case, then everybody would be incurably ill. It’s also important to note that the zodiac signs each have a certain mineral(cell salt) that they associates themselves with..and in tern, they associate themselves with a particular body part. When we’re in compliance and in rhythm with these minerals, disease may also be avoided, or at the very least, we can minimize damaging effects that are created from their deficiency.
The 12 zodiac cell salts are as follows:

Aries - Potassium Phosphate, Rules the head, face, brain, eyes, muscles, pineal gland. Said to be good as a brain food helpful for nerve and brain imbalances. Foods containing this salt include Parsley, Beans, Beets, Carrots, Linseed Meal, Peanuts, Milk, Buttermilk, Cheese and Avocados.
Diseases: Headache, migraine, pimples on the face, sinus problems, nosebleeds, fever, inflammation, haemorrhage, high blood pressure, burns, scalds, toothaches, baldness.

Taurus - Sodium Sulphate, Rules the neck, throat, thyroid gland, vocal chords, larynx, chin, lower jaw, ears, tongue, vocal chords, tonsils. Said to be good in regulating the water supply in the body system, decreasing or increasing it as needed. Foods containing this salt include Cauliflower, Lettuce, Cabbage, Turnips, Radishes, Onions, Egg Yolks, Celery, Brussel Sprouts, Kohlrabi, and Milk.
Diseases: Gout and joint inflammation, sore throat, Tonsillitis, stiff neck, tension, excess weight, under-active thyroid gland.

Gemini - Potassium Chloride, Rules the arms, shoulders, fingers, upper ribs, lungs, bronchial tracts, trachea, thymus gland, nerves and nervous system. Said to be good for forming and distributing fibrin throughout the body, thereby moderating coagulation. When clogging occurs, it is associated with sinus and throat problems as well as fibrous growths. Foods containing this salt include Cheese, Egg Yolks, Radishes, Coconuts, Lentils, Carrots, Spinach, Asparagus, and Sauerkraut.
Diseases: Those associated with the nerves, nervous strain, chest and lung complaints, asthma, insomnia, amnesia, all diseases in the arms, shoulders, hands, corrupted blood.

Cancer - Calcium Flouride, Rules the stomach, breasts, breastbone, alimentary canal, lower ribs, womb, pancreas. Said to be good for muscle and ligament tonicity, (thus helping prevent muscle prolapsis) as well as healthy teeth enamel. Foods containing this salt include Turnips, Asparagus, Beets, Goat Cheese, Kelp, Garlic, and Pineapple.
Diseases: Stomach and digestive complaints, upset stomach, breast disorders, lymphatic system disorders, obesity.

Leo - Magnesium Phosphate, Rules the heart, upper back, spine, spleen, aorta, circulation. Said to be good for healthy nerve tissue, thus assisting nerve transmission. Foods containing this salt include Cauliflower, Cabbage, Asparagus, Beechnuts, Almonds, Whole Wheat, as well as fruits such as Lemons, Limes, Oranges, Grapefruit, Figs, Gooseberries, Peaches, and Cherries.
Diseases: Heart problems, hardening of the arteries, high or low blood pressure, spinal and back problems, blood disorders, all sicknesses in the ribs and sides, the yellow-Jaundices.

Virgo - Potassium Sulphate, Rules the stomach, intestines, nervous system, abdomen, lower dorsal nerves, bowels, nails, spleen. Said to be good for circulation of oils through our body, which supposedly assists digestion and kidney function, as well as excretion of toxins through the skin. Foods containing this salt include Cauliflower, Lettuce, Cabbage, Onions, Celery, Brussel Sprouts, Tomatoes and Cucumbers.
Diseases: Anxiety, nervous tension, bowel and digestive system disorders, intestinal disorders, abdominal disorders.

Libra - Sodium Phosphate, Rules the kidneys, lower back, lumbar region, buttocks, adrenal glands, blood vessels, skin. Said to be good for balancing the acid-alkaline function in our bodies, thus helping all acid conditions which affect the nervous system. Foods containing this salt include Cottage Cheese, Eggs, Buttermilk, Brown Rice, Tomato juice, Cirtus fruits and juices, Whole Wheat products, Lentils, Vegetable Greens, Asparagus, and Parsley.
Diseases: Associated with the kidneys and any problems that arise with them, obesity, cholesterol problems, acne, etc.

Scorpio - Calcium Sulphate, Rules the reproductive organs, sexual organs, bowels, excretory system. Said to be good for building and sustaining epithelial tissue, thus supposedly good for all skin diseases. Foods containing this salt include Cauliflower, Lettuce, Cabbage, Turnips, Radishes, Onions, Egg Yolks, Celery, Brussel Sprouts, Kohlrabi, and Milk.
Diseases: Associated with ailments of the reproductive and excretory systems, stone in the bladder, ruptures, and other diseases related to their genital organs.

Sagittarius - Silica, Rules the thighs, liver, hips, arterial system, pelvis, femur.
Said to be good for building and maintaining skin, hair, nails, and nerve coverings, as well as removing decomposed matter from the skin. Foods containing this salt include Endive, Barley, Oats, raw Cabbage, Cucumber skins, Shredded Wheat, Rye and Whole Wheat products, Spinach, Peas, Carrots, Gooseberries, and Strawberries.
Diseases: Complaints of liver, weight issues and over-indulgence in food, alcohol and drugs.

Capricorn - Calcium Phosphate, Rules the knees, joints, bones, skin, teeth. Said to be good as a bone builder and helpful in any bone disease. Foods containing this salt include Parsley, Beans, Beets, Carrots, Linseed Meal, Peanuts, Milk, Buttermilk, Cheese and Avocados.
Diseases: Dental problems, skin problems, arthritis, all diseases related to knees, joints, either by strains or fractures.

Aquarius - Sodium Chloride, Rules the ankles, circulatory system, Achilles heel, calves, shins, breath, eyesight. Said to be good for regulating the water supply throughout the body, thus affecting elimination and how “cool” or “hot” we are regardless of the temperature. Foods containing this salt include Onions, Celery, Tomatoes, Almonds, Apples, Spinach, Peaches, Pecans, Lentils, Sauerkraut, Eff Yolks, Swiss chard, and Roquefort and Goat Cheese.
Diseases: Circulatory problems, varicose veins, anxiety, muscular spasms, arthritis, palpitations.

Pisces - Ferrous Phosphate, Rules the feet, toes, lymphatic system, adipose tissue. Said to be good for transporting oxygen throughout the body, thus aiding circulation which assists the purifying and stimulating of internal organs. Foods containing this salt include Raisins, Prunes, Plums, Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Spinach, Currants, Mushrooms, Dates, Beets, Wheat Bran, and Lima Beans.
Diseases: Addiction to alcohol or drugs, suspension of normal functioning, general lethargy, all diseases in the feet, colds, immune system problems, fluid retention, hormonal imbalances, chilblains, glandular problems.

In experiments on Earth, testing possible building blocks of alien life

Subjecting artificial amino acids to extreme conditions, researchers hunt for clues on what it takes to survive on other planets

Scientists are attempting to identify the amino acids–building blocks that make proteins and support all life on Earth–that might feasibly form the basis of extraterrestrial life. The researchers have analyzed how an assortment of 15 amino acids, some found here on Earth in living organisms and some not found in living organisms on Earth, hold up in the face of extreme conditions found on other planets and moons.

Claire Mammoser, an undergraduate research assistant in the laboratory of Laura Rowe at Valparaiso University, will present the work at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology annual meeting during the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting, to be held April 22-26 in Chicago.

“In a different extraterrestrial locale, the proteins in an organism would not necessarily be the same as that of an organism on Earth, so they might use amino acids that are known to us but not used to make proteins on Earth,” said Mammoser. “Our main goal with this research is to see if there are structural characteristics of some amino acids that lead to a higher stability in extraterrestrial conditions and then to see what those characteristics might be.”

The team subjects vials of amino acids to extreme temperature, pH, ultraviolet radiation, gamma radiation and other conditions designed to mimic environments on Mars; Enceladus, a moon of Saturn; and Europa, a moon of Jupiter. Tracking the degree to which each amino acid remains intact or breaks down under these conditions, the team looks for patterns in the stability of amino acids with various characteristics, such as large size or the ability to bind with water.

“Finding trends in amino acid stability would give us an idea of what sort of amino acids may have survived in outer space long enough to create life,” Mammoser explained.

Now that the team has refined its methods in a preliminary batch of amino acids, it is beginning a new round of experiments using amino acids that have been extracted from meteorites and ones created in origin-of-life experiments going back to the 1950s. They hope the research will help pin down the key characteristics that could foster extraterrestrial life.

“This work is exciting for us because there is not a lot of previous work in this area,” said Mammoser. “Often, we are privileged to work on extensions of existing areas of research which have been pioneered by great minds in the field, but this project has been different in that we have done a lot of the initial development ourselves. This is both a challenge and extremely exciting, because there is a sense that we are not just gathering data, but we are also making decisions about the best way to measure amino acid stability in our lab every day.”

friends: hey hannah how are yo-

me until finals: epoxides in acidic conditions are attacked by the nucleophile on the most substituted carbon, and under neutral/basic on the less substituted carbon. 1,2 trans diols are anti-edition, however with a strong base the product can be similar to the 1,2 cis reacting with an OsO4. By methylating an amine you can

4
Citrus Nectarine Body Scrub.

Here’s how it goes down in the Diamond household: I get home after a long day of running around LA; I look in my fridge; I consider what I can slather on my body in the form of a DIY spa treatment. I peruse the wilted kale, the dangling carrots, the tired parsley, and my eyes linger on the bag of bruised fruit I got for pie and jam on Monday at the farmers market.

That? Should I slather my body with that?! Why not?! I hear my inner apothecary mixtress reply—the fruit acids will condition your skin and the pectin will act as an antioxidant!

The textures here are everything: Granular sugar, silky coconut oil, piquant orange zest, and tender nectarine pulp. Together, they’re guaranteed to scrub away the detritus of even the roughest of days.

Enjoy the ultimate summer glow! Recipe here.

Organic Chem 2 Professor: Whenever this molecule reacts in an acidic condition, you always protonate first. That’s the first step you do before you proceed with the mechanism, like, you can’t bring home your baby from the hospital unless you name it first.

Me: If the baby is born with two heads would you name it isocephal 2,2-dibaby?

Organic Chem 2 Professor: …

anonymous asked:

hi! do you happen to know if there's a difference between chronic heartburn and gerd? i have pretty bad heartburn most days, but im having trouble finding out if that means i have gerd, or if there are additional criteria? im going to talk about it with my doctor, but im not seeing her for a while.

I’m not entirely sure? I think Gerd is a specific acid reflux condition while chronic heartburn is a symptom of a condition.

Anyone know for sure?

This image, acquired on Nov. 24, 2015 by theHigh Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the western side of an elongated pit depression in the eastern Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. Along the pit’s upper wall is a light-toned layered deposit. Noctis Labyrinthus is a huge region of tectonically controlled valleys located at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system.

Spectra extracted from the light-toned deposit by the spacecraft’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument are consistent with the mineral jarosite, which is a potassium and iron hydrous sulfate. On Earth, jarosite can form in ore deposits or from alteration near volcanic vents, and indicates an oxidizing and acidic environment. The Opportunity rover discovered jarosite at the Meridiani Planum landing site, and jarosite has been found at several other locations on Mars, indicating that it is a common mineral on the Red Planet.

The jarosite-bearing deposit observed here could indicate acidic aqueous conditions within a volcanic system in Noctis Labyrinthus. Above the light-toned jarosite deposit is a mantle of finely layered darker-toned material. CRISM spectra do not indicate this upper darker-toned mantle is hydrated. The deposit appears to drape over the pre-existing topography, suggesting it represents an airfall deposit from either atmospheric dust or volcanic ash.

The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/ Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Caption: Cathy Weitz

Time And Space

Molecule of the Day: Phenolphthalein

Phenolphthalein (C20H14O3) is a pH indicator commonly used in acid-base titrations. Under standard conditions, it exists as a white powder that is insoluble in water but soluble in ethanol, and is therefore commonly used as an alcoholic solution.

In common practice, it is used in strong acid-strong base and weak acid-strong base titrations since its turning point is at a pH of about 8.2, below which it turns colourless, and above which it turns pink. (However, it also has 2 other turning points; under strongly acidic conditions, it becomes orange-red, and under strongly alkaline conditions, it becomes colourless once again.)

Phenolphthalein has also been historically used as a laxative. However, its use both as an indicator and as a medical drug has been decreasing over concerns that it is carcinogenic, and it is gradually being replaced by safer indicators such as thymolphthalein. 

 The changes in colour are due to alterations in the structure of the phenolphthalein molecule, which in turn results in variations in its conjugation. Consequently, the energy gap between the lower-energy and higher-energy orbitals vary, and the corresponding wavelengths of light that are absorbed to promote the electrons across the gap changes.

Phenolphthalein is easily synthesised by the heating of phthalic anhydride and phenol in the presence of a Lewis acid.

Originally posted by rudescience

lyrics to the album “TECHNOMANCER” by Pictureplane

<><><><><>
SICK MACHINE
TAKE ME THROUGH YOUR UNDERWORLD
I WANT TO BE YOUR WHORE
YOU CAN BE SO ANDROGYNOUS
KEEP ME IN A TRANCE
LEAVE ME ONLY WANTING MORE
ITS A TECHNO EUPHORIA
YOUR BACK’S AGAINST A WALL
LIVING IN THE RUINS OF A SHOPPING MALL
NOTHING IS AS IT SEEMS
ORIGINAL KILLER HIDING UNDER SICK MACHINES
BELIEVE IN THE MYSTERY
DRAG ME THROUGH THE DIRT
DISGUISE AND DECIEVE
KEEP ME IN A TRANCE
I LOVE THE WAY YOU MAKE ME HURT
ITS A TECHNO THRILLER
YOUR BACK’S AGAINST A WALL
LIVING IN THE RUINS OF A SHOPPING MALL
NOTHING IS AS IT SEEMS
ORIGINAL KILLER
HIDING UNDER SICK MACHINES
PROFESSIONAL SINNER
I LOVE THE WAY YOU MAKE ME HURT

<><><><><>
ESOTERRORIST (LUNATIC FRINGE)

I SEE LIGHTS IN THE SKY
A FIRE IN YOUR EYES
YOU’RE SHAPESHIFTING AGAIN
A BLISTER ON MY TONGUE
WHEN I LICK SOMETHING DUMB
IM FEELING NUMB
AND YOU’RE PARANOID
DWELL ON THE THRESHOLD WITH ME
IM A LIGHT WRITER
IM A SUICIDE DOOR
AND IM FEELING PARANORMAL AGAIN
LUNATIC FRINGE LIFESTYLIST
YOU’RE A DANGEROUS CONSPIRACIST
AND IM FEELING PARANORMAL AGAIN

<><><><><>
JOY RIDER

IM GONNA DRIFT THROUGH THE WORLD
HIGH ABOVE THE LAW
ON A JOY RIDE LIKE I WANTED TO
I DONT EVER WANT TO COME DOWN
BUT I WOULD COME DOWN FOR YOU
I WOULD COME DOWN FOR YOU
BECAUSE YOUR MIND IS A PARADISE
AND MY BODY IS THE OCEAN FLOOR

<><><><><>
DEATH CONDITION (BLACK ACID)

I DONT WANT WHAT YOU GOT
I DONT WANT TO BE BOUGHT
BECAUSE YOU ARE SELLING ME
DEATH TRIP
BLACK ACID
DEATH CONDITION
CAN YOU TRIP LIKE I DO?

<><><><><>
STREET PRESSURE

SOMETIMES I WANT TO GET THE CITY OUT OF ME
DARE TO BE ALIVE
BREATHE DEEP
BECAUSE YOU’RE ON MY MIND
GONNA SEE WHAT I CAN FIND
WHEN I LOOK INSIDE
STREET PRESSURE
FEEL THE PRESSURE
YOU NEED TO SWALLOW SOME HOT AIR
MAYBE I NEED TO NOT CARE
IM GONNA FOLLOW MY OWN STAR
STREET PRESSURE
FEEL THE PRESSURE

<><><><><>
HARSH REALM

TOUCH ME LIKE YOU MEAN IT
CUZ WERE LIVING IN A HARSH REALM
KEEP TOUCHING ME LIKE YOU MEAN IT
CUZ THIS IS SO HARSH
ANARCHY AND ECSTASY, BOY
CUZ WERE LIVING IN A HARSH REALM
TOUCH ME FROM DUST TO GOD, GIRL
CUZ IM FEELING KIND OF DARK
FUCKING KEEP TOUCHING ME
CUZ WERE LIVING IN A HARSH REALM
ANARCHY AND ECSTASY, BOY
CUZ THIS IS HARSH
TOUCH ME FROM DUST TO GOD, GIRL
CUZ IM FEELING SO DARK
FUCK ME LIKE YOU MEAN IT
CUZ WERE LIVING IN A HARSH REALM
ANARCHY AND ECSTASY, BOY
CUZ THIS IS KIND OF HARSH

<><><><><>
SELF CONTROL

WHO DO YOU THINK YOU ARE?
BECAUSE I’M YOU
I THINK THAT YOU’RE BRINGING ME DOWN
YOU CANT TELL ME WHAT I CAN BE
BECAUSE I HAVE NO SELF CONTROL
STAY VERY AWARE
YOUR OWN REALITY ENGINEER
YOU KNOW WHAT YOU WANT
AND YOU KNOW WHAT YOU NEED
AND THEY JUST TRY TO STAY RELEVANT
AND YOU KNOW WHAT YOU NEED
WHO DO YOU THINK YOU ARE?
BECAUSE I’M YOU
I THINK THAT YOU’RE BRINGING ME DOWN
YOU CANT TELL ME WHO I CAN BE
BECAUSE I HAVE NO SELF CONTROL

<><><><><>
CHAOS RADICAL

ENERGY CONTINUOUS
I LOVE IT WHEN YOU GET TIRED OF ME
NO LINEAR MIND, STAY HIGH
BECAUSE THIS IS SOMETHING THAT YOU HAVE FELT BEFORE
I WANT TO BE YOUR RITUAL
I WANT TO BE YOUR CRIME
13 MOON WITH A NEW TIME DIGITAL MIND
IT’S THAT NEW DIGITAL CRIME
ARE YOU THINKING OF ME WHEN IM THINKING OF HER?
ARE YOU STRESSING ME OUT WHEN IM TALKING ABOUT
BURNING DOWN THE WORLD?
ARE YOU TRYING TO BLEND IN?
BECAUSE YOU ALWAYS JUST SEEM TO
PLEASE KEEP BLOWING MY MIND
CHAOS RADICAL
PLEASE KEEP BLOWING MY MIND
BECAUSE YOU ALWAYS SEEM TO

<><><><><>
TECHNOMANCER

HYPNOTIZE ME
DUMB ME DOWN
BEND REALITY
WITH TECHNOMANCY
THATS JUST THE WAY IM USING TECHNOLOGY
FREE FROM CONTROL
I DONT WANT TO BE SEDATED
YEA I’M ON ONE
MANIPULATE YOUR MACHINE
YOU ARE A TECHNOMANCER
LET IT BE
THIS KIND OF HUMAN
MANIPULATE YOUR MACHINE
YOU ARE A TECHNOMANCER

<><><><><>
RIOT PORN

YOU’RE A RENEGADE
STREET TRASH
ITCHING TO GET OUT OF LINE
THE BRIGHT LIGHTS AND CAMERA FLASH
SMASH ALL THE WINDOWS DOWNTOWN
IM WATCHING ALL OF YOUR RIOT PORN
YOU’RE A RENEGADE
STREET TRASH
ITCHING TO GET OUT OF LINE
THEY WANT TO TRY AND CUT YOU DOWN
CRACK ALL THE WINDOWS DOWNTOWN
IT’S THAT NEW AMERICAN NOISE

<><><><><>
LIVE FOREVER (MEGALITH YOUTH)

THERE IS FREEDOM IN YOUR MOONLIGHT
UNDER AN ALIEN DAWN
TOTAL POWER WHEN YOU LOOK AT ME
RAW POWER IN YOUR ENERGY
THEY WANT TO VANDALIZE YOUR MIND
PAINT THE FACE OF HUMAN KIND
ON THE RUINS OF A DEAD WORLD
DISTORT THE IMAGE OF A DEAD WORLD
I NEED YOU LIKE A HOLE IN MY HEAD
WE’LL LIVE FOREVER
WE’LL LIVE FOREVER
WE’RE GONNA LIVE INFINITE
LIVE FOREVER LIKE A STONE MEGALITH
I NEED YOU LIKE A HOLE IN MY HEAD

The meaning of black

Unless they are volcanic basalts, black rocks tend to mean one thing to a geologist: an absence of rotting, and quite often a hard time for life. It denotes a period where the ground or sea bottom was poor in oxygen, as happens in the current day in peat bogs, some deltas where sediments bury the organic matter quickly or in stratified lakes or basins such as the Black Sea.

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Phenolphthalein Indicator

Phenolphthalein /ˌfiːnɒlfˈθeɪliːn/ is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as “HIn” or “phph” in shorthand notation. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid–base titrations. For this application, it turns colorless inacidic solutions and pink in basic solutions.

Phenolphthalein is slightly soluble in water and usually is dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is a weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule is colorless, and the phenolphthalein ion is pink.

Phenolphthalein is synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol under acidic conditions (hence the name). It was discovered in 1871 by Adolf von Baeyer.

Phenolphthalein’s pH sensitivity is exploited in other applications: Concrete has naturally high pH due to the calcium hydroxide formed when Portland cement reacts with water. As the concrete reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, pH decreases to 8.5-9. When a 1% phenolphthalein solution is applied to normal concrete, it turns bright pink. 

However if it remains colorless, it shows that the concrete has undergone carbonation. In a similar application, spackling used to repair holes in drywall contains phenolphthalein. When applied, the basic spackling material retains a pink coloration; when the spackling has cured by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide, the pink color fades. - wiki

More science and gifs on: rudescience  Giffed from: this video

anonymous asked:

I know you are in denial about Niall's weight gain, but acid reflux is a condition directly related to being overweight. We should be tweeting him and encouraging him to eat more healthily and give up all alcohol.

Niall’s face looks fatter than ever in these latest pics. He has so much extra flesh under his chin. Maybe he is ill with something that’s causing bloat.

Harry is growing facial hair too! They’re both mega fug. Who can I stan now? Niall’s chin looks twice as big as it should be in your new icon.

Ohhh, my lovely resident troll. You need a life, my dear.

As far as who you should stan now goes, here’s an idea:

His name is Caillou. He’s a little young, but he’s had a baby face since 1997 so he’s right up your alley!

5

We <3 boxes! Diane works really hard to give Special Collections items enclosures that will protect them on the shelves.

Diane is making corrugated clamshell boxes here. The corrugated cardboard here is a different color from the cardboard you are used to because it is made specially for conservation purposes. Instead of being acidic, a condition which harms collection materials, the boxes are alkaline, which creates a buffer for the books, protecting against inherent or exterior acidity and environmental conditions.