achievement rate

Physiology of Ageing - Muscles
  • Loss of lean body mass 
  • Infiltration of fat and connective tissue 
  • Altered muscle metabolism 
  • Insulin resistance 
  • Reduced levels of key regulatory hormones 
  • Impaired oxidative defence 
  • Muscle strength peaks at approx. 20-40 years 
  • Strength dictated by muscle cross-sectional area 
  • Age-associated decline in concentric strength (leg > arm
  • Decline in concentric strength occurs earlier than decline in eccentric strength 
  • Power generation ability declines faster than max. strength  


= loss of muscle mass (and strength) due to ageing 

  • Two phases: 
  • ‘slow’ from 25 to 50 years (approx. 10% lost) 
  •  ‘rapid’ from 50 onwards (approx. 40% lost from 50-80) 
  • Deterioration in motor unit remodelling 
  • Reduced cross-sectional area and functionality 
  • Disuse atrophy (ageing is associated with becoming more sedentary(not as active)) may contribute to changes 
  • Reduced regenerative capacity 
  • Stem cell function affected by circulating factors? 
  • ‘Systemic inflammation’ theory of ageing? 
  • Increased apoptosis 
  • Anabolic resistance 
  • Protein degradation (muscle & nerve) 

Motor Unit

  • Entire motor unit affected: 
  • Alpha-motorneuron 
  • Fibres innervated 
  • Shift to predominance of slow-twitch fibres 

Force transfer

  • Network of cytoskeletal proteins align and transmit force produced by actin and myosin along muscle fibres and out to extracellular matrix 
  •  E.g. Costameres = sub-sarcolemmal proteins that connect sarcomere to cell membrane 
  • Found in Z and M lines 
  • Transmit force laterally 
  • Significant decrease in costameres and lateral force in ageing

Muscle protein metabolism in ageing 

  • Basal muscle protein synthesis unchanged 
  • Protein/amino acid feeding leads to increase in muscle protein synthesis in both groups 
  • BUT, response is smaller in the elderly 
  • Resistance exercise leads to increase in muscle protein synthesis AND breakdown 
  • BUT, synthesis rates lower in the elderly 
  • Food + exercise needed for anabolic response 
  • Response delayed in elderly, but can achieve similar rates 

Metabolic Capacity

  • Decrease in Mitochondria 
  • Decrease in capillary density 
  • Reduced ability of muscle to extract O2 from blood 
  • Decrease in enzymes for metabolic pathways 
  • Reduced speed of O2 utilisation 
  • Therefore ↓ (a-v)O2 diff (and ↓VO2max) 


  • Decline in muscle mass and oxidative capacity, plus increased fat mass leads to greater risk of developing: 
  • insulin resistance and/or type II diabetes 
  • hyperlipidaemia 
  • hypertension 
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Reduced bone mass contributes to loss of functional capacity and risk of injury 
Age of Triumph Record Book (Still a Work in Progress)

Bungie announced a new record book that will be available on March 28th on their Twitch stream today. Here’s what I was able to gather: 


  • Traveler’s Eclipse
  • City Watch
  • Comet’s Heart
  • Logical Conclusion
  • All in All
  • T-Shirt code


Special milestone to celebrate Day 1 players, which rewards an emblem.

  • From the Beginning: Completed an activity between Destiny release and Dark Below release. Reward: Ab Principio
  • Lunar Veteran: ? Reward: ?
  • Wolf Breaker: Complete an activity between House of Wolves and The Taken King release. Reward: Lupi Reginae
  • Year of Triumph: ?
  • Doom of Oryx: Completed an activity between The Taken King release and Rise of Iron release. Reward: Clades Orygis
  • Rising Light: ?
  • Second Year of Triumph: Compleded an activity during the Year 2 Moments of Triumph. Rewards: Insignia of Triumphs
  • Reign of Iron: ?


  • The Black Garden: Complete “The Black Garden” mission from “Destiny.”
  • The Wakening: Complete “The Wakening” mission from “The Dark Below.”
  • Queen’s Ransom: Complete the “Queen’s Ransom” from “House of Wolves.”
  • Regicide: Complete the “Regicide” mission from “The Taken King.”
  • The Taken War: Complete the “Summoner’s Circle” mission from “The Taken King.”
  • At the Gates: Complete the quests “At the Gates” and “Return to the Prison” from “The Taken King.”
  • An Iron Lord Rises: Complete “The Iron Tomb” mission from “Rise of Iron.”
  • Stories Past: Complete all Story milestones in the Age of Triumph Record Book to unlock this page’s emblem. (7) Reward: The Tale Told

Titan’s Will

Class Specific pages are mostly comprised of the same milestones

Emblem is awarded for each completed page for the classes

  • Hold the Line: Reach Level 40 as a Titan
  • No Surrender: ?
  • Get Personal: Defeat enemies with Melee abilities as a Titan (250)
  • Portable Destruction: ?
  • Super Star: Defeat enemies with your Super abilities as a Titan. (100)
  • Light Show: ?
  • Victory or Death: Complete the Crucible Titan quests “Striking Fist,” “Armored Void,” and “Flameforged.”
  • Be the Wall: ? Reward: ?

Hunter’s Way

  • Mountain’s Summit: Reach Level 40 as a Hunter
  • Hunter and Hunted: ?
  • Cutting Edge: Defeat enemies with Melee abilities as a Hunter. (250)
  • Whizz Bang: ?
  • Insuperable: Defeat enemies with your Super abilities as a Hunter. (100)
  • Eliminate, Illuminate: ?
  • Self-Sufficient: Complete the Crucible Hunter quests “Just a Handful of Bullets,” “Sheathed Lightning,” and “Draw From the Void.”
  • Who Walks Alone: Reward: ?

Warlock’s Path

  • Secrets Learned: Reach Level 40 as a Warlock.
  • Show Your Might: ?
  • Up Close: Defeat enemies with Melee abilities as a Warlock. (250)
  • Tactical Explosive: ?
  • Shock and Awe: Defeat enemies with your Super abilities as a Warlock. (100)
  • A Burst of Light: ?
  • A Hard Lesson: Complete the Crucible Warlock quests “Voidmaster,” “A Song For the Sun,” and “Fulminator.”
  • Mysterious Path: ? Reward: ?


  • You’re the Hero: Complete Strikes on Heroic difficulty. (20)
  • In the Dark: ?
  • Race to the Finish: Complete a Nightfall Strike in less than 30 minutes.
  • Lead from the Front: ?
  • On Target: Earn Precision kills in Strikes. (500)
  • One-Guardian Army: ?
  • Back in the Fight: Revive allies during Nightfall strikes. (10)
  • Team Effort: ?

The Crucible

Crucible pages have to be completed after the launch of the event.

  • Quality Control: Capture control points in Control Crucible matches. (30)
  • Clash Warfare: ?
  • Rumble Tumble: Earn points in Rumble Crucible matches. (10000)
  • Master at Arms: ?
  • Historian: Recover Dead Ghosts on Crucible maps during Private Matches. (30)
  • Ignite the Light: ?
  • Pride of Shaxx: Win matches in the Crucible. (30)
  • Forged Ingot: ?


4 new challenge modes for the raids

Elemental primaries are back

400 Vex Mythoclast has been officially confirmed

Elemental primary sandbox changes will be announced in the 3rd reveal stream

  • Glass Ceiling: Complete the 390 Light version of Vault of Glass.
  • Crota, Endless: ?
  • King of Kings: Complete the 390 Light version of King’s Fall.
  • Machina Maxima: ?
  • Blind Labyrinth: Eliminate all Gorgons in the 390 Light version of Vault of Glass.
  • Silence Falls: ?
  • Raid Insignia: Collect all Raid Challenge Emblems. (9)
  • Light’s Stronghold: ? Reward: ?


Not all shaders, ships and ghosts are required to complete the nodes

  • Life is Fleeting: Aquire Ships. (75)
  • Slings and Sparrows: ?
  • Made in the Shade: Aquire Shaders. (100)
  • Flying Colors: ?
  • Outlandish Arms: Aquire Exotic Weapons. (55)
  • Outlandish Dress: ?
  • Quaint and Curious: Grimoire Score (5000)
  • The Most Toys: ? Reward: ?


  • Echoes of the Ages: Recover Dead Ghosts. (130)
  • Echoes of Darkness: ?
  • Sleeping Echoes: Collect Dormant SIVA. (25)
  • Sneak Peak: ?
  • Public Defender: Achieve Gold Tier Ratings in Public Events. (20)
  • Concordat’s Shadow: ?
  • Spelunker: Disturb the Remains.
  • The World Explored: ?


Get Rank 25 in all 3 Tower Factions

  • Jalaal’s Favor: Reach Rank 25 with Dead Orbit. Reward: Arach and Ruin
  • Lakshimi’s Favor: ? Reward: ?
  • Hideo’s Favor: Reach Rank 25 with New Monarchy. Reward: Blood of the Monarchy
  • Shaxx’s Esteem: ? Reward: ?
  • Vanguard’s Esteem: Reach Rank 25 with the Vanguard. Reward: Vanguard Signet
  • Cryptarchs’ Esteem: ?
  • Efrideet’s Regard: Reach Rank 5 with the Iron Banner.
  • Beloved of All: Complete all Allegiances milestones in the Age of Triumph Record Book to unlock this page’s emblem. Reward: Trust and Honor

Trials of Osiris

It is retroactive so if you went flawless before, you are fine.

You only need 6/7 to unlock the final node

  • To the Lighthouse: Complete a Flawless Trials Ticket.
  • Trials and Tribulations: ?
  • Deconstruction: Earn a Wrecking Ball medal in Trials. (1)
  • Primary Adept: ?
  • Special Adept: Defeat Guardians in Trials with Special Weapons. (30)
  • Heavy Adept: ?
  • Lifegiver: Revive fallen teammates in Trials. (25)
  • Judge, Jury, Executioner: Complete Trials of Osiris milestones in the Age of Triumph Record Book to unlock this page’s emblem. (6) Reward: By Fire

The nodes marked with “?” indicates that they did not hover over it to reveal it’s requirement. However, you can probably sense a pattern and make an educated prediction on what some of the nodes are judging by that pattern and the names. As well as that, certain nodes will auto-filled if you meet the requirements come March 28th.


This is a tier list that’s been made for the playable characters in Fire Emblem Heroes as of February 5th, 2017 (02.05.17) / (05.02.17 for those in Europe and other countries.)

From my understanding, the criteria for the rating of each class was made around each character’s growth rates and overall usefulness in the game’s main campaign. Only characters that can achieve five stars were rated, having been analyzed at their maximum potential.

I myself don’t have access to every unit (yet) so I’m throwing this out there to you guys…

What do you all think? Is this accurate?

Who wrote the RollerCoaster Tycoon game manual??

The public has a short memory. Even a colossal tragedy in which hundreds of guests are sent to their reward will, eventually, be forgotten.  […] If it makes you feel any better, you can rename the ride. 

You might decide that a giant pit in the ground fits the atmosphere you’re creating in your park.

The excitement factor of each ride is rated on a scale from 0 (the epitome of tedium) to 10 (knocks your socks clean off) 

You can achieve intensity ratings over 10 through misguided design decisions, but don’t be surprised when no one is willing to ride it, even for free!

Within, there are seven tabs — and thus seven displays — filled with data of substance and utility 

(Winning awards is generally recognized as a sign of superior performance.) 

Taylor Swift Will Get Her Own Way Thanks To Spotify's IPO Ambitions And Its $1bn Loan

Ian Morris ,  

There are probably other artists that wanted their music off Spotify because of its policy, but Taylor Swift was the most vocal about it. The streaming firm had, previously, demanded that any artist available to users of its paid platform also had to be available to the free, ad-supported service too. It’s this decision which Spotify appears to have reversed.

This was historically a problem for Swift, who didn’t want her new albums available on the free tier. Her label president told Rolling Stone in November 2014 “If this fan went and purchased the record, CD, iTunes, wherever, and then their friends go, ‘why did you pay for it? It’s free on Spotify,’ we’re being completely disrespectful to that superfan”.

Ultimately, of course, it’s reasonable for any artist to withdraw their work from a platform for any reason, but Swift’s makes sense for her fans, and also for her bottom line. Spotify will never pay as much as pure album sales, so why cannibalize one with the other? Swift could sell her CDs and digital downloads until demand slows, then opt to pop them on Spotify.

So why now? Well the FT suggests (paywall) this is the product of Spotify’s move to an IPO sometime soon. The music firm borrowed $1 billion last year, a loan which will be repaid on IPO giving investors TPG and Dragoneer a 20% discount on its eventual share price. The terms of that loan mean that it will also see a further 2.5% discount added for each six month period. That’s in addition to an interest rate of 5% with a further percentage point added every six months.

Spotify then needs to get as many labels onboard as possible in order to be attractive on flotation. It’s also in the middle of negotiating new deals with the major labels, and this will likely help them achieve as low a rate per stream as possible.

So while Taylor Swift isn’t the only reason to sort out this problem, it’s likely being able to say she’s back on board would be a nice little publicity bump ahead of the IPO.

Spotify now has 50m global paying customers and 100m total active users, making it the largest paid music platform. It’s only the second biggest streaming service in the US though, where Pandora - with its own free service - has far greater penetration (32% compared to Spotify’s 18%) Pandora has 80m users of its free service in the US and is worth around $5bn. Spotify is said to have a value of around $8bn.

Crunchbase suggests Spotify has so far raised $2.56B in 15 funding rounds.

M3A1 “Grease Gun” submachine gun

Designed by George Hyde c.1942 and manufactured by Guide Lamp - General Motors - c.1943~50′s.
.45ACP 30-round magazine, open bolt blowback full automatic, stamped sheet metal construction, hinged bolt dust cover.

Designed to replace the Thompson submachine guns as a cheaper alternative, it failed to enter a big enough production rate to achieve that. It still remained in service until the 1990′s as a vehicle crew weapon.

Speaking Time Stat Update:

A couple of notes:

  • 2x14 somehow managed to do even worse by the ladies than 2x13 as far as speaking time. Why this is weird: there was a 1:1 ratio of female to male regulars in this episode, and there were more female than male guest stars. Contributing to this was the fact that Jeremiah was handed a lot of exposition and J’onn got a little more glory than usual.
    • DESPITE THIS, men actually did not achieve their highest rate of gabbing in 2x14 – 2x13 still retains the honor of being “the episode where dudes wouldn’t shut up,” with guys talking for a solid 18 minutes. For comparison, 2x14 had 15 minutes and 42 seconds of male talk time.
    • UNFORTUNATELY… 2x14 still somehow gave women the fewest minutes of talk time that they’ve had all season: 10 minutes and 48 seconds. Which, when you consider the Danvers Sisters discord they went to great and contrived lengths to set up and then never resolved, is … awkward.
    • Another part of the problem was that this episode was action-heavy despite all its clunky plot manipulations that happened via dialogue – it actually had the shortest amount of talk time out of any episode so far this season.
    • tl;dr this episode tried to do way too much all at once.
  • James has now been MIA for five episodes, meaning he’s only shown up in 10 despite being a series regular.
    • For comparison, Lillian Luthor has appeared in eight.
    • Lena and Snapper Carr have each appeared in seven.
    • M’gann has appeared in six.
    • Eliza & Jeremiah have each appeared in three.

In conclusion: get your damn shit together, show.

The prototype of the AMX 50 100 1949
In this tank the use of “oscillating turret with a drum magazine”
This tower has developed a campaign FAMH (Forges et Acieries de la Marine et Homecourt d, better known as Saint-Chamond) it needed to install semi-automatic loader. In the rear recess placed two stowage, turret type, 6 shots each. Using this system allowed us to achieve a rate of fire of 12 rounds per minute. After a series of 12 shots followed a long pause as needed to recharge the “drums”

tips for playing rollercoaster tycoon

(well, the first one)

- always start out with a 5 dollar entrance fee. when people remark that it’s cheap, add five more dollars. keep doing this every time people say it’s cheap.

- never make the bathrooms free. 10 or 20 cents is fine.

- be economical. put rides close to the path so you won’t have to spend a lot on paths - be creative when it comes to queue lines, make them long even though they’re close to the path

- when playing the Diamond Heights campaign, always set the inspection time for Claustrophobia to 10 minutes. it may help prevent it crashing later, it’s a preprogrammed event that you’d do well to avoid

- if Claustrophobia DOES crash, then you need to uncheck the box on the control panel of Agoraphobia that says “Synchronize with adjacent station” so that Agoraphobia will still be operational.

- the rollercoaster in the Bumbly Beach campaign is also in danger of crashing. set its inspection time to 10 minutes as well. i edited the coaster also, i added a braking section right before the trains pull into the station.

- you can sometimes “fix” a crashed coaster by editing it. a couple sections of track edited will be alright. it won’t completely erase the memory of the crash, but more people will be willing to ride the coaster.

- drown unhappy people. i know it’s unethical, but computer programs don’t sue, and sometimes you need to boost your park rating to achieve your goal

- literally hire as many handymen as possible. your park rating dips dramatically if you have vomit and dead flowers and garbage everywhere.

- if you have a section that’s particularily vomit-prone, go ahead and assign a handyman soley to that spot, using the button that has the blue footprints on it

- hire a security guard to help with vandalism. vandalism usually only happens in parks that have a long campaign stretch, like Dynamite Dunes or Diamond Heights, but guests complain about it if you don’t fix it

- if a ride breaks down due to a “Safety Cut-Out,” occasionally a guest will exit the ride with his head ducked and his hands behind his back. he’s a criminal. drown him for justice

- coasters with a lot of banking and steep drops will have a higher intensity rating and a higher nausea rating, but not always the excitement rating. some coasters will have a “Low” excitement rating, an “Ultra-Extreme” intensity rating, and a “High” nausea rating. these do not qualify as good coasters, people will be too intimidated by them and not intrigued enough. delete any of these that you end up creating. i have a big problem with these :(

- remember to always check the profits of your rides. go to the “attractions” tab on the top, the one with the slide, and it should have a drop-down menu with an option that says “Profit.” check this often. make sure people aren’t complaining about too-high prices, or other problems that can impact profit - like intensity rating, accidental path deletion, etc.

- always get merry-go-round in your park. bitches love the fairground organ.

- if you name one of your guests “Chris Sawyer,” he will sometimes pull out a camera and take pictures. if you name one of the guests “BigBucks,” he will pay double for everything he buys.


amy santiago is an orangina in a world of orange sodas

outro ─ thank you for existing!

[she’s] a bit socially inept and fixated on grades and how other people rate her achievements, but at the same time she reminds me that these things aren’t necessarily flaws that she immediately needs to change and they don’t hold her back from being happy and successful. She’s a role model for nerds everywhere, basically. -  @bisexualinetti

thank you to everyone who submitted to, reblogged, liked, commented, and complemented this project! You’re all great and I’m so proud of the fifteen posts that we’ve done and I was always so happy while making them, to be reminded of how great Amy - and the other characters on the show - really are. Here’s hoping for many more great arcs and developments.

  • (A scene where George and Harold are in their treehouse making comics is interrupted by Professor Poopypants sitting at a desk.)
  • Professor Poopypants: Ladies and gentlemen, in order to achieve an "PG" rating today, a motion picture must contain things such as rude humor, action, mild peril, profanity, and violence. Since this film has none of those things so far, and since research has proven that PG-rated films are by far the most popular with the moviegoing public, the producers of this motion picture have asked me to take this opportunity to have me say-
  • (A fart noise is heard, and Professor Poopypants looks shocked.)
  • Professor Poopypants: That wasn't me! I swear I'm going to get the person who did that!
  • (We hear George and Harold laughing in the background as the PG rating card appears on screen.)

“It would take a denial of all cultural tradition for a woman to produce even a true ‘female’ art. For a woman who participates in (male) culture must achieve and be rated by standards of a tradition she had no part in making - and certainly there is no room in that tradition for a female view, even if she could discover what it was. In those cases where a woman, tired of losing at a male game, has attempted to participate in culture in a female way, she has been put down and misunderstood, named by the (male) cultural establishment 'Lady Artist’, ie: trivial, inferior. And even where it must be (grudgingly) admitted she is 'good’, it is fashionable - a cheap way to indicate one’s own 'seriousness’ and refinement of taste- to insinuate that she is good but irrelevant.” – Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex 

I was surprised that I couldn’t find this quote on Tumblr. Felt a personal duty to add it.

"Mystery Queen" Successfully Maintains Top Spot In Viewership Ratings

“Mystery Queen” Successfully Maintains Top Spot In Viewership Ratings

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KBS2’s Wednesday-Thursday drama “Mystery Queen” has achieved the highest viewership ratings in its time slot once again!

On April 27, Nielsen Korea reported that the April 26 broadcast of “Mystery Queen” garnered 10.7 percent ratings. Although this is 0.2 percent lower than the previous episode, the drama still managed to hold the No. 1 spot in its time slot.

Meanwhile, SBS’s “Saimdang, Light’s…

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Dulled Senses - Call_Me_Tears - Rooster Teeth/Achievement Hunter/Funhaus RPF [Archive of Our Own]
An Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works
By Organization for Transformative Works

Chapters: 1/?
Fandom: Rooster Teeth/Achievement Hunter/Funhaus RPF
Rating: Mature
Warnings: Graphic Depictions Of Violence
Relationships: Ryan Haywood/Ray Narvaez Jr., Gavin Free/Michael Jones, Geoff Ramsey/Griffon Ramsey, Jack Pattillo/Caiti Ward, Lindsay Tuggey Jones/Meg Turney, Trevor Collins/Jeremy Dooley, Matt Bragg/Kdin Jenzen
Characters: Ray Narvaez Jr., Gavin Free, Michael Jones, Geoff Ramsey, Griffon Ramsey, Jack Pattillo, Caiti Ward, Lindsay Tuggey Jones, Meg Turney, Trevor Collins, Jeremy Dooley, Matt Bragg, Kdin Jenzen, Ryan Haywood
Additional Tags: Future AU, scifi, Cyborgs, Unemotional Characters, Ryan is a Jazz singer, because I say so, detailed cutting, because I like to torture you

In the year 2774, the governments of the world banded together after the nuclear fallout of several countries including North Korea, Russia, and the U.S. Now, the governments have become one, and separated everyone by what country they’re from. With so little americans left, the country decided to merge the U.S. and Canada together. After an influx of people, the governments started their experimentations. Ray Narvaez Jr.’s boyfriend just broke up with him, and he was lost beyond words. When a sign catches his eye, he had to take up the offer. The chance to lose his emotions and get paid for it? Sign him up. After almost two years, Ray finally gets out, but not without lying first of course. He still had his emotions, but they were dulled, and Ray was none too happy. His love for his friends was the strongest emotion by far, and all Ray wanted was to get them back. Especially the ones who were called ‘rejects’. Ray hoped, because it was the government, that he would get some military or ex military guy. Of course he didn’t. Who would he be if he didn’t have the worst luck in the world? No. He got some Jazz singer named Ryan.

I wrote something, can you believe it! I’m so proud of it and I hope you all like it! <3
The Way you Bleed - Chapter 1 - PeppermintMoose - Rooster Teeth/Achievement Hunter/Funhaus RPF [Archive of Our Own]
An Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works
By Organization for Transformative Works

Chapters: 1/?
Fandom: Rooster Teeth/Achievement Hunter/Funhaus RPF
Rating: Teen And Up Audiences
Warnings: Creator Chose Not To Use Archive Warnings
Characters: Jeremy Dooley, The Corpirate, Scooter
Additional Tags: FAHC, GTA AU, i’m tagging the cat as a character you can’t stop me, rimmy tim

Jeremy Dooley has made a mistake.

All it took was one lying client and suddenly his time galavanting around Los Santos as Rimmy Tim had come to an abrupt end. Now, he’s got a billionaire out for his blood and every gang member in the city breathing down the back of his neck.

Who would’ve thought that the Fake AH crew would end up being the only thing standing between him and certain death?

My Top 10 K-Dramas of 2016 - What’s Yours?

Originally posted by a-fanz-notes

2016 is about to end and K-Dramaland has been kind in bringing us so many goodies this year. As per our blog’s tradition [For 2015 faves click here] , below are my Top 10 favs on the year (my faves in alphabetical order so it might not be yours so please don’t judge)

My only specific criteria is the show must have had more than 5 episodes at this point to be considered a 2016 series (Hence, Reply 1988 was in last year’s list and Hwarang cannot make the cut of this one) 

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