Do you know of any food that would help ease joint pain? I usually have hip or knee pain and I don't wanna be taking pills every time it happens.
Well this is annoying. I wrote out an entire essay and posted it and the bloody thing didn’t take.
I recommend tendon. You can buy it to cook yourself or simply eat ethnic foods that contain it. I think the easiest to find is Vietnamese Pho with extra sides of tendon. You need the collagen in it. The food itself is gelatinous but tastes like meat.
You can also buy gelatin and eat it in large quantities.
You can and should order N Acetyl L Carnitine in powder form and take high doses of it daily by mixing it into your morning juice. It is an amino acid that is critical in connective tissue repair. It has the added benefit of increasing hand eye coordination and memory, cognitive speeds etcetera. And because it’s therapeutic limit is so high it is nearly impossible to OD. However if you’re concerned you can consult your physician.
Another thing you can do is go attack a deer an lick its antlers. No really, but no don’t. There are a few compounds in antler fuzz that have been incredible for human joints. You can also find supplements that contain it, so that you don’t have to run through the forest like a cryptid.
Unless you want to. I would. But I’m me.
Anyway, I also recommend natural anti-I inflammatories like mushrooms.
There’s always steroids. But those also interfere with the immune system.
That’s what I have for you. And you actually do have to do it. It does work. If you find it isn’t working, you’re not eating enough tendon. Which is silly because it is one of the most delicious things on planet earth.
An important story about heroin and meth and the brain:
Lots of people want to demonize heroin/meth or its users, and say they are the scourge of the earth etc. Well some of them can be very evil but some of them can be the nicest people ever. It all depends on what they make of themselves through the struggle.
I personally do not recommend to any of the followers to try those drugs for many reasons, but even if you do not do meth/heroin there are many important lessons that can be learned from them.
Dependency/addiction can play a role in almost all the classes of substances, its just more prominent with those 2 drugs because they are significantly potent and significantly cheap, able to be easily mass produced.
Drugs will soon be legalized after the government realizes how much endless suffering the war has caused and no gains have been made. Therefore, our people must master their understanding of substances to be able to live safely.
We were NEVER educated on drugs, so we must educate ourselves. That is rule #1.
Funniest part of the story, is heroin ( Diamorphine.. morphine with two points of acetylation) is used in injections legally. There’s been plenty research on it and in its 100% pure form its not inherently toxic to any of your organs. The only possible damage it could do is through neurological DA over-activation.
If its not toxic then how does it do so much damage to people? The damage is done by its impurities of improper synthesis; or from over-usage creating a dependency.
Over usage makes the user depleted of their natural endorphins as the body stops bio-synthesizing its own endorphins; via the perception that the drug will take care of it.
That is the biological prism in which addiction illuminates.
Without the body naturally synthesizing those chemicals, a person can begin to manifest many crippling symptoms of withdrawal, such as weakened immune system, nausea, or anxiety.
What goes up must come down, and what goes up very often must come down very often.
Many users are uncertain of why they feel a certain way so they may take more of a drug to counter act them feeling bad, and it creates a disposition to where the brain will easily stop making its own chemicals.
Urtica dioica or commonly called Stinging Nettle is a diverse herb with known medical attributes dating back to as early as around 100 AD. The stinging sensation this plant can give off comes from small glass like hairs on the leaves, that when broken release a stinging liquid made up of formic acid, histamine, acetyl-choline and serotonin. However, fear not because the juice made from grinding the leaves of this plant can be used to treat its sting.
Nettle can used to treat hay fever, asthma, itchy skin, insect bites, and most importantly treat acute allergy symptoms. (After trying this brew I did notice a significant decrease in my seasonal allergy symptoms.) In addition nettle can boost the production of breast milk, cleanse urine, treat enlarged prostates, work as an anti-arthritic, and slow bleeding. If you’re on any sort of medication for depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, or sedatives nettle can cause a moderate reaction.
The tea has a light grassy smell and mild taste of spinach. Honey is a great addition to this tea.
do you have any advice on how to score 5s and 6s in IB biology? im anxious about the exam :/
To be completely honest, I also feel really anxious about the exam (legit feel like IB Biology will wreck our shit). I mean right now you still have time to study and revise last minute, so take a deep breath and go over all the information. It’s really memorization heavy, so I’d start revising most difficult things like physiology and molecular bio (but it depends what you struggle with the most tbh.)
Paper One: Another hella important thing to remember is that in P1 you technically have a 25% chance of picking the right answer on multiple choice. My teacher also went over this haha. You should definitely take your time to choose the right answer and you should go over your exam once you’ve completed it. Sometimes you think you got the right answer but it turns out you didn’t. Also sometimes it may seem like there are two right answers, you have to choose the MOST correct one. The problem with P1 is that the grade boundaries are super high, thats why it’s really easy to mess up on.
Paper Two: this one is also pretty hard and is worth more than your Paper one and paper three (around 34% of your final mark, where paper one and three are 20% each). When answering the questions, you can write multiple answers. For instance, give an example of a greenhouse gas. You can answer: methane, water vapour and CO2. As long as your answers don’t contradict themselves. For example if you write: In the krebs cycle of cell respiration Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate. Oxaloacetate does not use Acetyl CoA from the link reaction to make citrate (wrong). These statements contradict each other and you get no points if you do this.
Additionally, when you’re unsure about how to answer the long ass essay questions fully, write down everything you know about the topic. EVERYTHING. DNA replication? First start with enzymes, forgot some? Dont worry - mention complimentary base pairing, characteristics of replication etc (you should be mentioning these to begin with, but just write everything you think is relevant, even the small things.) But make sure its relevant but dont be afraid to word vomit when you don’t know the answer. BUT be mindful of the time!!! You have to answer A LOT in the paper (i usually run out of time fast so it’s something i gotta work on too).
Paper three: Just be careful to read the instructions!!! Seriously, many people last year thought they didn’t need to answer a whole section, and guess what! They did, and if they read the instructions more carefully they would know this!!! You have to answer a bunch of questions before you start your option. Section A is the questions EVERYONE must do, section B of the exam is the options you choose from ONCE you’ve completed section A. This apparently was a huge deal because people thought they didn’t need to answer section A. Example: if you’re doing option C, you will first answer all of SECTION A, and then proceed to Section B, where you choose OPTION C.
Quick fact. Ready?
Acetyl choline is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate connections within the brain. With an increase in acetyl choline in the body, there is also an increased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain; and thus, improved cognitive functioning and focus.
*typically carbs are used but lipids (fats) can also be used due to the large amount of H’s in the hydrocarbon tails, & actually generate a lot of energy
fun tidbit: *the metabolic waste, C0 , is breathed out by the body and then taken in by plants, which use it to produce glucose -> thus the circle spins on & on
How Glucose is Broken Down
*energy cannot be efficiently harvested for work all at once, so rather it is broken down in a series of steps, called “stepwise energy harvesting”
1) Electrons taken from glucose (also, 1 proton) are given to Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucelotide (NAD+), a coenzyme -> NAD+ is an oxidizing agent, and so therefore is able to accept electrons
2) NAD+ is an “empty taxi cab”. The enzyme dehydrogenase oxidizes food (such as glucose) to get the 2 e’s & 2 p’s (H+’s) so they can be given to NAD+.
3) NAD+ is reduced by accepting electrons, and becomes NADH. NADH is a “full taxi cab”, containing 2 e’s & 1 p (H+). The other H+ is released into the cytosol. -> Each NADH represents potential energy that can be indirectly used to power the synthesis of ATP
4) NADH passes the e’s onto the electron transport chain (ETC). The ETC then passes the e’s on in a series of controlled steps to the oxygen molecules that pull them down the chain (b/c of its high EN). This process yields energy that can be used to re-generate ATP.
3- Series of steps where phosphates are taken off ATPs & then phosphorylated to molecules (TWICE) that are slightly changed each step
4- Eventually split into 2 3-carbon sugars (“G3Ps”)
Energy Yielding Phase
1- As the 2 G3Ps are oxidized, NAD+ is reduced to NADH -> this contributes to the ETC by carrying electrons (& protons)!
2- After, there is an “intermediate molecule” (ex: 1,3-biphosphoglycerate -> don’t need to know exact molecule) that has a phosphate. This phosphate is taken off and given to 2 ADPs to become 2 ATPs. This happens twice within the series of steps in this phase. Also, at one point, 2 H2Os are taken out.
3- Eventually transformed into 2 pyruvates
4- A total of 4 ATPs are made in this “payoff” phase. However, since 2 were invested originally, there is only a net of 2 ATPs.
C3H3O3 C6H1206 -pyruvates- C3H3O3
(*this diagram got really messed up on here too)
Energy Investment Phase
2 ADP + 2 p <—————— 2 ATP used
Phase 4 ADP +
4 p ———————-> 4 ATP formed
2 NAD+ + 4 e
+ 4 H+ —————————> 2 NADH + 2 H+
————–> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O
Net Glucose ————> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O
4 ATP formed - 2 ATP used ——-> 2 ATP
2 NAD+ + 4 e + H + ———-> 2 NADH + 2 H+
-not as efficient in producing ATP as oxidative phosphorylation
-used in both glycolysis & krebs/citric acid cycle
Citric Acid Cycle
-AKA “Krebs” Cycle
-COMPLETES energy-yielding oxidation of the organic molecules (ex: glucose)
-BEFORE the cycle can begin, the 2 Pyruvates must be converted to Acetyl CoA -> this links the cycle to glycolysis!
1) The 2 Pyruvates are oxidized and enter the Mitochondrion via a Transport Protein
2) CO2 is released (lungs -> exhale)
3) NAD+ is reduced to NADH & the e’s & p’s (H+’s) are stripped
4) A Coenzyme helps with the conversion to Acetyl CoA
-CAC uses BOTH molecules of pyruvate *cycle goes around TWICE!
*CITRIC ACID CYCLE SUMMARY*
2 CO2 X 2 = 4 (released)
3 NADH X 2 = 6 (reduced)
1 FADH X 2 = 2 (reduced)
1 ATP X 2 = 2 (produced)
*appreciate the many redox Rx’s going on to keep the cycle going, changing Acetyl CoA all the way to Oxaloacetate!
Ex: R = NAD+ -> NADH O = any previous molecule!
ETC - Chemiosmosis - Oxidative Phosphorylation
-located at the inner mitochondrial membrane (like the plasma membrane, but different proteins!)
*proteins are special ones made from the mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA)
*2 membranes! (DOUBLE)
PROTON MOTIVE FORCE
-a lot of energy & collisions b/c of flow of e’s
-*H’s come from glucose/pyruvate!
1) H+’s pumped out 2) O’s take H+’s to create H2O 3) Take protons in -> [low] guaranteed
-energy to power movement of H+ out! (POTENTIAL ENERGY -> from redox Rx’s!)
-if O2 NOT present, H+’s cannot be moved/slid out -> b/c O2 is the final e acceptor w/ a high EN & the e’s release potential energy when moving down the gradient to O which powers the proton motive force
-keeps getting more EN as e’s pulled down/along chain
-H+’s move into ATP Synthase (important and moves protons BACK into matrix) protein -> active transport -> change of shape -> ATPs
fun tidbit: -cyanide affects the enzyme that works w/ cytochrome oxidase, as it is an irreversible inhibitor that is tetravalent and desperate for a fourth bond, and therefore highly reactive (can shut down body systems and kill you within a matter of hours, and this is all due to bonding!)
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
-oxidative phosphorylation & chemiosmosis couples the ETC to ATP synthesis
-located in cristae of mitochondrion
1) The components are proteins that exist in multiprotein complexes and are unique to the mitochondrion. These protein complexes alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons
2) Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain & are finally passed to O2 -> form H2O
3) NO ATP generated!!!!!
*THE FUNCTION OF THE ETC is to break the large free-energy drops from food to O2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts.
*the more redox Rx’s, the more energy is available.
*the energy-coupling mechanism
1) Redox Rx’s in the ETC -> provide energy for the transport proteins to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
NEXT STEP IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS
2) Proton Motive Force develops as [H+] INC., w/i intermembrane space. Then, moves back across membrane & passes through channels in ATP Synthase.
3) ATP Synthase transports H+ BACK into matrix.
4) ATP Synthase uses exergonic flow of H+ to drive the phosphorylation of ADP -> ATP (endergonic).
*chemiosmosis = use of energy in H+ chemical gradient to drive ADP phosphorylation
*enables some cells to produce ATP w/o the use of oxygen!
How can food be oxidized w/o oxygen?
-NAD+ is actually the oxidizing agent of glucose. A net of 2 ATPs are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. Then, if there IS oxygen, more (a lot of) ATP can be produced when NADH passes the removed e’s from glucose to the ETC & oxidative phosphorylation occurs.
*glycolysis STILL produces 2 ATP whether O is present of not, though!
(either aerobic or anaerobic)
-fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of nutrients
-fermentation = the extension of glycolysis that can generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation -> *as long as there is a sufficient supply of NAD+ to accept e’s during the oxidation step of glycolysis
-NAD+ needs to be recycled from NADH
Aerobic Anaerobic Recycled by the transfer Recycled by the transfer of electrons from NADH to Pyruvate (end product of glycolysis!) of electrons to the ETC
TYPES OF FERMENTATION
fermentation = glycolysis + Rx’s that regenerate NAD+ (transfer of electrons from NADH -> Pyruvate)
Alcohol Fermentation = Pyruvate converted to Ethanol
1) RELEASES CO2 from Pyruvate -> converted to 2-carbon compound “acetaldehyde”
2) Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to Ethanol
-regenerate supply of NAD+ needed
*many bacteria carry out alcohol fermentation under anaerobic conditions, also fungi (ex: yeast)
yeast -> used for 1,000’s of years by humans for brewing, wine-making, baking (bread, gases released create bubbles that allow it to rise), etc.
Lactic Acid Fermentation = Pyruvate reduced DIRECTLY by NADH - > forms Lactate (ionized form of lactic acid) as end product -> NO release of CO2
*certain fungi & bacteria used to make cheese & yogurt
*other microbial fermentation used to make acetone & methanol (methyl alcohol)
1) When O is scarce, human muscle cells can still make ATP by using lactic acid fermentation.
2) Strenuous exercise -> sugar catabolism for ATP production outpaces muscle’s supply of O from blood
3) Cells switch from aerobic respiration to fermentation -> creates lactate -> buildup of lactate can cause muscle fatigue and pain!
4) Lactate is gradually carried away by the blood to the liver -> converted back to pyruvate by liver cells
*facultative anaerobes = make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration (ex: our muscle cells!) -> consume sugar at faster rate when fermenting to make the same amount
Have you had any experience with 1P-LSD ? What do you think of its legality/ease of acquisition? Would you encourage someone to try it in lieu of LSD 25? How does it compare to LSD-25 in effects/potency ? Seriously thinking of ordering some since I have no interest in DNMs or street acquisition of regular L.
I have tried 1P-LSD. Only once compared to an infinite amount of regular LSD trips. But it seems that perceptually and chemically they are quite similar. It is homologous to ALD-52 but it is slightly weaker due to the acetylized molecule possibly entering the blood-brain barrier more effectively. Also the 5-HT2A receptor would have a lower affinity for the 1-propionyl group.
Still it is theorized to be a prodrug and possibly converts into it in the end anyway.
It’s unlikely that it produces any toxic effects as LSD does not produce any toxic effects, nor does modifying most chemical structures in that form.
I would say it is definitely worth trying if its impossible to find good quality LSD.
The citric acid cycle (sometimes called the Krebs cycle) occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and is the third stage in the aerobic breakdown of glucose. The first, of course, is glycolysis, which creates pyruvate, NADH, and ATP. The second—which isn’t long enough to get its own post—is the linking reaction in which pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA. This is a coenzyme that the citric acid cycle breaks down to use later in energy production. Basically, the purpose of the linking reaction is to make pyruvate into something the cycle can use.
The main goal of the citric acid cycle is to convert bond energy (in the form of Acetyl CoA) into its reducing equivalents: i.e., to make some more NADH and FADH2, which are electron carriers. These then go through the electron transport chain and use their electron energy to create ATP. Remember, to reduce a compound is to add electrons to it—think of the mnemonic OILRIG.
So, how does the citric acid cycle do this?
Some diagrams get pretty complicated, especially when you include the enzymes responsible and the carbon compounds formed at every stage, but I’m going to break it into relatively simple steps.
An enzyme joins acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate in order to form citric acid, which is where the cycle gets its name. Then, a water molecule “attacks” the acetyl, and CoA is ejected from the cycle.
Next, water is ejected and then put back in to help facilitate the reduction of NAD+ into NADH. For every turn of the cycle, 3 NADH molecules are created, and 2 molecules of CO2 are released.
ADP plus a free phosphate group (denoted as “Pi”) is put into the cycle, and these are smushed together to form an ATP.
Finally, FAD+ is reduced to FADH2. (FAD and NAD are both very similar coenzymes, performing the same oxidative and reductive roles in a reaction, but they’re different because they work on different classes of molecules: FAD oxidises carbon-carbon bonds, and NAD oxidises carbon-oxygen bonds)
A diagram might make it a little clearer:
So, let’s do a quick round-up of what’s happened:
Acetyl-CoA has been released as two CO2 molecules
3 NAD+ were reduced to 3 NADH
1 FAD+ was reduced to 1 FADH2
1 ADP+Pi formed 1 ATP molecule
This isn’t the end—the main goal of citric acid cycle is to prepare the electron carriers NADH and FADH2 for the electron transport chain, where much more ATP will be made.
petroleum/petrolatum- is natural because it is refined, not made, and won’t clog your pores! there’s no actual cause for the hysteria surrounding it so idk why it has a bad rep
mineral oil- is derived from petroleum and along with petroleum is one of safest and most effective skin care ingredients out there because it rarely causes allergic reactions, keeps the skin from oxidizing, and is an effective emollient
parabens- aren’t something we should avoid as there is literally no scientific data suggesting that it is harmful and the whole paraben craze was started after someone misread a science report (which they then went back to clear it up!) it’s one of the best preservatives in skin care with is antibacterial and antimicrobial properties and is found naturally in plants as phytoestrogens (which is in a lot of stuff we consume everyday)
witch hazel- has somehow gained a place as a holy grail beauty product when it’s actually a terrible skin irritant! yes it has tannins which are natural antioxidants but actually in the process of getting the witch hazel water all of those antioxidants are lost! also an alcohol/fragrance finds it’s way into the mix called eugenol
fragrance- why is there ever fragrance in skin care anyway all it does is irritate (look to avoid Parfum/Parfume Linalool Citronellol Cinnamal Limonene Geraniol Eugenol Lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) Rose flower extract (Rosa damascene) Bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia) Ylang-ylang oil (Canaga odorata) Lemon (Citrus limon) Lime (Citrus aurantifolia or Citrus medica) Orange (Citrus sinensis) Tangerine (Citrus tangerine) Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Spearmint (Mentha spicata) [but really avoid any citrus acid or oil for that matter lmao] Menthol Cinnamon (Cinnamomum)
AVC- doesn’t belong on your face wether it be a mix in with clay for a mask and definitely not as a leave on treatment (like a toner) it’s way too acidic and can mess up your skin’s natural pH which could compromise your lipid layer and weaken your skin’s ability to retain moisture (if you want something to mix with your clay you can use water or aloe vera or you other safer toner)
Essential oils- literally don’t ever put them on your face most of them are irritants especially not lavender cuz is it cytotoxic (literally breaking down the cells in your skin all on it’s own!) and lavender leaves themselves contain Camphor which is a known skin irritant
Coconut oil/Olive oil- are actually both comedogenic (not just coconut oil) although some ppl can get away with it some ppl are prone to comedogenic breakouts
Water- wont really help your skin as much as you think because drinking more water won’t increase your body’s natural ability to expel toxins nor will it decrease how much oil your skin produces…but you should still drink water just acne isn’t the reason why
Greasy foods- again changing your diet won’t stop you from producing more oil YES the skin does take the fatty acids from the foods you eat to produce it’s own oils but it only takes how ever much it needs
Organic- isn’t automatically better than synthetic because tbh both of them are called “chemicals” (because there are chemicals found in nature) it’s just that chemicals is for some reason synonymous with synthetic and seen as bad when in reality and organic irritant is still an irritant (see lavender oil)
Tea tree oil- i know some ppl see this as their holy grail product but for it to really be the spot treatment everyone hails it to be it has to be at least 5% concentration (and it’s shown to have the same effects of 5% concentration of benzyl peroxide) it’s just that there aren’t any skin care products with that in them despite the “100%” tea tree label…
Hypoallergenic/dermatologist recommended- this is a marketing ploy since they literally mean nothing cuz there’s no organization to approve for “hypoallergenic” products and a dermatologist can use a product once and say “oh it’s fine” and that can count as a recommendation there’s not exactly a standard to be met…
Alcohols- some are totally fine!!! alcohols such as Cety Cetearyl Stearyl Arachidyl lanolin and Acetylated (alcohol) are mostly used as product thickeners (but yes they are better tolerated by normal to dry skin)
The oil cleansing method- there’s not much benefit to this if you have oily skin because you’re not rly pulling out the extra oil in your skin but the actual water in your skin which is making your pores look tighter
Pores- your pores can’t open or close and there’s no mechanism in the skin that can do that but there’s no harm in using it as a term that means to loosen up the dirt and debris in em!
Breathing- your skin doesn’t need to breathe your skin needs to perspire but makeup doesn’t truly effect that the sweat just mixes with your makeup with after time can get into your pores but your skin doesn’t need to “breathe” plus makeup make claim to last 24+ hours but it never will cuz your skin will naturally start “shedding” (what an extreme word lmao!!!) the top layer of skin anyways
What drug was Sherlock on? (Obvious warning for frank talk of drug use)
Many people have long assumed Sherlock was addicted to cocaine due to Doyle canon. However, I think we got clues in His Last Vow that his drug of choice is something else: Heroin.
First, when John is about to go into the drug den, he refers to the people inside as “smackheads,” which is slang for heroin users. It could be a wild guess, but consider that John is a doctor and he does know the person he’s looking for. It’s established that both Mary and John know Isaac and his history with drugs (Isaac recognizes them both and it was implied that his mother had spoken to the Watsons about the issue before). John could have said cokeheads, he could have said the much more general “junkies,” but he specifically referred to smack. I think he did so because he knew Isaac was on heroin specifically, and - as drug users typically segregate themselves based on their preferences - I think John knew perfectly well what was going on in that house.
Second, when Magnussen scans Sherlock, one of his “pressure points” is Opium:
Now that’s a reference to The Man with the Twisted Lip, where Sherlock is caught by Watson in the opium den. However, this is 2014 and a modern updating - we don’t really have “opium dens” anymore.
Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate (INN)), also known as diamorphine (BAN), and colloquially as H, smack, horse, brown, black, tar, and other names, is an opioid analgesic synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, found in the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine. Heroin itself is an active drug, but it is also converted into morphine in the body.
When used in medicine, it is typically used to treat severe pain, such as that resulting from a heart attack or a severe injury. The name “heroin” is usually only used when being discussed in its illegal form. When it is used in a medical environment, it is referred to as diamorphine.
If Sherlock had been addicted to cocaine, his weakness would’ve been listed as cocaine. But instead opium is listed, which is the alkaloid used to produce heroin. Cocaine is not an opioid at all.
Third, much is made in the episode of Sherlock’s (medicinal) use of morphine (an opiate) after the shooting, including Janine’s dig that the hospital must be nice for Sherlock since they hook him up to the drugs themselves. And what do we say about coincidences?
Fourth, there are the effects. Pushing any personal experiences aside for the moment, the behavior of the people in that house was much more in line with smack than coke. Those people were sprawled out, dazed, and no doubt feeling no pain. Sherlock was curled up on a mattress, either zoned out or sleeping. Heroin can make you feel relaxed, like you’re floating on a cloud free from pain, calm, warm and comfortable. That’s often why it’s so popular among the homeless and prostitutes. OTOH, cocaine is a stimulant. It makes you hyper-alert, energetic, talkative, more sensitive to sensations. You don’t pass out on a dirty mattress on coke, because you can’t sleep.
We also saw that the people in the house were using needles and had track marks on their arms. Intravenous use of heroin is much more common than IV use of cocaine, both because it’s harder to calibrate the correct dosage of coke intravenously, and because even drug addicts know that using needles comes at a greater health risk. They’re not going to use an inconvenient method unless they have to. Coming down from opiates can also induce feelings of irritability and aggression, which would explain Sherlock’s physical attack on Mycroft.
N6-methyladenine: A Newly Discovered Epigenetic Modification
The majority of cellular functions are carried out by proteins encoded by specific genes present in cellular DNA. Genes are first transcribed to RNA which is then translated to proteins. The regulation of this process is important for maintaining correct cellular function. One of the ways that cells regulate gene expression is by epigenetic modifications to chromatin. The term “epigenetics” refers to reversible chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins (DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is wrapped around histones) that affect the transcriptional status of genes. A number of histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation of lysine residues have already been discovered and characterized. Until recently; however, methylation of the 5 position of cytosine was the only known epigenetic DNA modification (A). Methylation of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases is associated with transcriptional silencing, while the removal of these methyl groups by TET enzymes is associated with transcriptional re-activation (B and C). In addition to controlling gene silencing, cytosine methylation also silences retrotransposons, a class of mobile genetic elements. If left unregulated, transposons can insert themselves into important regions of the genome and lead to mutagenesis.
Recently, N6-methyladenine, a new epigenetic modification, was discovered in mammalian cells. N6-mA had previously been discovered in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes and was shown to function as a transcriptional activator. By contrast, a recent report published in Nature, has shown that N6-mA functions as a transcriptional silencer in mammalian cells, specifically in mouse embryonic stem cells. N6-mA primarily acts to silence the LINE-1 family of retrotransposons during early embryogenesis, which prevents genomic instability. The authors identified N6-mA by using a modified single molecule DNA sequencing technique. DNA bound to a specific modified histone protein was immunoprecipitated using an antibody against a specific histone modification (H2A.X), sequenced, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (D). This identified and determined the position of N6-mA. The authors then generated knockouts of the enzyme Alkbh1, which they believed may function as a demethylase for N6-mA. When Alkbh1 was absent from cells, they found an increase in the levels of N6-mA, showing that Alkbh1 functions as an N6-mA demethylase in vivo. This is important because epigenetic modifications are reversible. Genes can be turned off by methylation and then turned back on by removing the methyl group, so determining the enzyme responsible for the removal of N6-mA supports its role as an epigenetic modification.
Dietician’s advice: Many traditional hangover remedies are ineffective and some can actually
make you feel worse,“ Alexandra Miller, corporate dietitian at Medifast
Inc. said in an email.
"Recovery from a hangover is usually just a matter of time… If you’re
suffering from a hangover, opt for a light breakfast that incorporates
nutrient-rich and easy-to-digest foods, such as fresh fruits (e.g.
bananas, dates, or kiwi) and vegetables (e.g. dark leafy greens),
oatmeal, whole grain toast, egg whites, low-fat yogurt and/or a clear
soup or broth (e.g. chicken noodle soup or chicken broth),” In addition, drink plenty of water to help rehydrate your body.
Doctor’s advice: “Curing a hangover is all about fluid,” Dr. Eric Braverman, director
of PATH Medical in New York, said in an email. “A big pitcher of water
will help. What you really want though, in addition to water, are
antioxidants, like an N-Acetyl Cysteine or magnesium supplement.”
“Anything that helps with cognition will also help with a hangover,
like choline powder, B-vitamins and Vitamin C,” Braverman said. “While
it might not seem like breakfast, foods like asparagus and spinach can
help, because they contain sulfur.” If vegetables aren’t your ideal
post-drunk morning meal, try hiding them in an omelet to make them more appetizing.
ASA / Aspirin : inhibits the synthesis of thromboxane A2 ( thromboxane A2 is an arachidonate product that causes platelets to change shape, release their granules, and aggregate) by irreversible acetylation of the enzyme cyclooxygenase
Clopidogrel & Ticlopidine : reduce platelet aggregation by inhibiting the ADP pathway of platelets. These drugs are thienopyridine derivatives that achieve their antiplatelet effects by irreversibly blocking the ADP receptor on platelets.
Abciximab, Eptifibatide & Tirofiban : target the platelet IIb/IIIa receptor complex. The IIb/IIIa complex functions as a receptor mainly for fibrinogen and vitronectin but also for fibronectin and von Willebrand factor. Activation of this receptor complex is the “final common pathway” for platelet aggregation.
Dipyridamole : vasodilator that inhibits platelet function by inhibiting adenosine uptake and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activity.