I was about to drop a Hot Joke in this powerpoint for a nutrition presentation about thiamin deficit and how it affects the coenzyme TPP and in turn the conversion of pryuvate to acetyl CoA, and the trade treaty TPP which was suffering from a deficit of support right now which prevented it from metabolizing through to action, but then I remembered that I’m hip, young, and fun and I don’t need to do this to myself, and also I don’t understand either of those TPPs enough to craft this fine NPR humor
Urtica dioica or commonly called Stinging Nettle is a diverse herb with known medical attributes dating back to as early as around 100 AD. The stinging sensation this plant can give off comes from small glass like hairs on the leaves, that when broken release a stinging liquid made up of formic acid, histamine, acetyl-choline and serotonin. However, fear not because the juice made from grinding the leaves of this plant can be used to treat its sting.
Nettle can used to treat hay fever, asthma, itchy skin, insect bites, and most importantly treat acute allergy symptoms. (After trying this brew I did notice a significant decrease in my seasonal allergy symptoms.) In addition nettle can boost the production of breast milk, cleanse urine, treat enlarged prostates, work as an anti-arthritic, and slow bleeding. If you’re on any sort of medication for depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, or sedatives nettle can cause a moderate reaction.
The tea has a light grassy smell and mild taste of spinach. Honey is a great addition to this tea.
N6-methyladenine: A Newly Discovered Epigenetic Modification
The majority of cellular functions are carried out by proteins encoded by specific genes present in cellular DNA. Genes are first transcribed to RNA which is then translated to proteins. The regulation of this process is important for maintaining correct cellular function. One of the ways that cells regulate gene expression is by epigenetic modifications to chromatin. The term “epigenetics” refers to reversible chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins (DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is wrapped around histones) that affect the transcriptional status of genes. A number of histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation of lysine residues have already been discovered and characterized. Until recently; however, methylation of the 5 position of cytosine was the only known epigenetic DNA modification (A). Methylation of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases is associated with transcriptional silencing, while the removal of these methyl groups by TET enzymes is associated with transcriptional re-activation (B and C). In addition to controlling gene silencing, cytosine methylation also silences retrotransposons, a class of mobile genetic elements. If left unregulated, transposons can insert themselves into important regions of the genome and lead to mutagenesis.
Recently, N6-methyladenine, a new epigenetic modification, was discovered in mammalian cells. N6-mA had previously been discovered in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes and was shown to function as a transcriptional activator. By contrast, a recent report published in Nature, has shown that N6-mA functions as a transcriptional silencer in mammalian cells, specifically in mouse embryonic stem cells. N6-mA primarily acts to silence the LINE-1 family of retrotransposons during early embryogenesis, which prevents genomic instability. The authors identified N6-mA by using a modified single molecule DNA sequencing technique. DNA bound to a specific modified histone protein was immunoprecipitated using an antibody against a specific histone modification (H2A.X), sequenced, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (D). This identified and determined the position of N6-mA. The authors then generated knockouts of the enzyme Alkbh1, which they believed may function as a demethylase for N6-mA. When Alkbh1 was absent from cells, they found an increase in the levels of N6-mA, showing that Alkbh1 functions as an N6-mA demethylase in vivo. This is important because epigenetic modifications are reversible. Genes can be turned off by methylation and then turned back on by removing the methyl group, so determining the enzyme responsible for the removal of N6-mA supports its role as an epigenetic modification.
Old Drug Offers New Hope to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease
Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that
salsalate, a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, effectively
reversed tau-related dysfunction in an animal model of frontotemporal
dementia (FTD). Salsalate prevented the accumulation of tau in the brain
and protected against cognitive impairments resembling impairments seen
in Alzheimer’s disease and FTD.
Salsalate inhibits tau acetylation, a chemical process that can change the function and properties of a protein. Published in Nature Medicine,
the researchers revealed that acetylated tau is a particularly toxic
form of the protein, driving neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits.
Salsalate successfully reversed these effects in a mouse model of FTD,
lowering tau levels in the brain, rescuing memory impairments, and
protecting against atrophy of the hippocampus—a brain region essential
for memory formation that is impacted by dementia.
“We identified for the first time a pharmacological approach that reverses all aspects of tau toxicity,” says co-senior author Li Gan, PhD,
an associate investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. “Remarkably, the
profound protective effects of salsalate were achieved even though it
was administered after disease onset, indicating that it may be an
effective treatment option.”
Although tau has been a target in dementia research for some time,
there are no tau-targeted drugs available for patients. Additionally,
how the protein builds up in the brain, causing toxicity and
contributing to disease, still remains largely a mystery.
By investigating post-mortem brains with Alzheimer’s disease, Dr.
Gan’s team found that tau acetylation is one of the first signs of
pathology, even before tau tangles are detectable. The acetylated form
of tau not only marked disease progression, it also served as a driver
for tau accumulation and toxicity. What’s more, in an animal model of
FTD, when tau was acetylated, neurons had reduced ability to degrade the
protein, causing it to build up in the brain. This in turn led to
atrophy in the region and cognitive impairment in the mice on several
different memory tests.
The Gladstone scientists discovered that salsalate can inhibit the
enzyme p300 in the brain, which is elevated in Alzheimer’s disease and
triggers acetylation. Blocking tau acetylation in this way enhanced tau
turnover and effectively reduced tau levels in the brain. This reversed
the tau-induced memory deficits and prevented loss of brain cells.
“Targeting tau acetylation could be a new therapeutic strategy
against human tauopathies, like Alzheimer’s disease and FTD,” says
co-senior author Eric Verdin, MD,
a senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. “Given that
salsalate is a prescription drug with a long-history of a reasonable
safety profile, we believe it can have immediate clinical implications.”
The scientists say a clinical trial using salsalate to reduce tau
levels in progressive supranuclear palsy, another tau-mediated
neurological condition, has already been initiated.
Synthesizing, acetylating and separating using column chromatography was actually very interesting. Remaking the point in history when the first “sandwich” compound was discovered in 1951, a very cool structure to a molecule that has proven itself to be very useful through the ages.
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Hericium Erinaceus (Lion’s Mane): Improvememory and awareness, improveneurologicalupkeep, detoxes liver, stop alzheimer’s, normalizebloodstreamsugar and cholesteroldiplomas. In just adual sightless, placebo controlledexamine, revealed that Hericium Erinaceus(Lion’s Mane) is effectiveformodest cognitivemilligrams - Much More Information: CompleteFail to function properly (with scientific research) And
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ACETYL L CARNITINE
Carnitine HCL: Effectivecontra--oxidant, also lowerslowenergy. Acetylcarnitine & carnitine performvitalfunctionswithin your body. These vitamins and minerals shuttle acetyl-businesses And essential fatty acids into mitochondria for strength-manufacturing. It may wellwork as astrengthtank of acetyl groupings and similarlynutritionenhancepotentialproducing.
Decomposing unwanted products after a nitration. In a previous post I mentioned that a compound was nitrated with acetyl nitrate (acetic anhydride + nitric acid). During this step, the product is stirred at 70 °C with 55% nitric acid to decompose side products.
As seen from the brown nitrous fumes, something happened in the flask, hope that white foam in the flask is something what I am looking for…
Yesterday I purified a larger amount on slightly decomposed 1,1′-diacetylferrocene by sublimation/distillation at reduced pressure. After the purification, these crystals were left in the still pot.
1,1′-diacetylferrocene is an orange to red crystalline solid, with a melting point
122-128 °C. It is an organoiron compound with the formula Fe(C5H4COMe)2, it consists of ferrocene substituted by two acetyl group on each of the cyclopentadienyl rings. It is an air-stable solid that is soluble in organic solvents and as seen it forms beautiful crystals.