acetylation

I was about to drop a Hot Joke in this powerpoint for a nutrition presentation about thiamin deficit and how it affects the coenzyme TPP and in turn the conversion of pryuvate to acetyl CoA, and the trade treaty TPP which was suffering from a deficit of support right now which prevented it from metabolizing through to action, but then I remembered that I’m hip, young, and fun and I don’t need to do this to myself, and also I don’t understand either of those TPPs enough to craft this fine NPR humor

Allergy Relief: Nettle Tea

Urtica dioica or commonly called Stinging Nettle is a diverse herb with known medical attributes dating back to as early as around 100 AD. The stinging sensation this plant can give off comes from small glass like hairs on the leaves, that when broken release a stinging liquid made up of formic acid, histamine, acetyl-choline and serotonin. However, fear not because the juice made from grinding the leaves of this plant can be used to treat its sting. 

Nettle can used to treat hay fever, asthma, itchy skin, insect bites, and most importantly treat acute allergy symptoms. (After trying this brew I did notice a significant decrease in my seasonal allergy symptoms.) In addition nettle can boost the production of breast milk, cleanse urine, treat enlarged prostates, work as an anti-arthritic, and slow bleeding. If you’re on any sort of medication for depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, or sedatives nettle can cause a moderate reaction.

The tea has a light grassy smell and mild taste of spinach. Honey is a great addition to this tea.

Happy Allergy Season,
-The Tea Drinkers Guide

N6-methyladenine: A Newly Discovered Epigenetic Modification 

The majority of cellular functions are carried out by proteins encoded by specific genes present in cellular DNA. Genes are first transcribed to RNA which is then translated to proteins. The regulation of this process is important for maintaining correct cellular function. One of the ways that cells regulate gene expression is by epigenetic modifications to chromatin. The term “epigenetics” refers to reversible chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins (DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is wrapped around histones) that affect the transcriptional status of genes. A number of histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation of lysine residues have already been discovered and characterized. Until recently; however, methylation of the 5 position of cytosine was the only known epigenetic DNA modification (A). Methylation of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases is associated with transcriptional silencing, while the removal of these methyl groups by TET enzymes is associated with transcriptional re-activation (B and C). In addition to controlling gene silencing, cytosine methylation also silences retrotransposons, a class of mobile genetic elements. If left unregulated, transposons can insert themselves into important regions of the genome and lead to mutagenesis.

Recently, N6-methyladenine, a new epigenetic modification, was discovered in mammalian cells. N6-mA had previously been discovered in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes and was shown to function as a transcriptional activator. By contrast, a recent report published in Nature, has shown that N6-mA functions as a transcriptional silencer in mammalian cells, specifically in mouse embryonic stem cells. N6-mA primarily acts to silence the LINE-1 family of retrotransposons during early embryogenesis, which prevents genomic instability. The authors identified N6-mA by using a modified single molecule DNA sequencing technique. DNA bound to a specific modified histone protein was immunoprecipitated using an antibody against a specific histone modification (H2A.X), sequenced, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (D). This identified and determined the position of N6-mA. The authors then generated knockouts of the enzyme Alkbh1, which they believed may function as a demethylase for N6-mA. When Alkbh1 was absent from cells, they found an increase in the levels of N6-mA, showing that Alkbh1 functions as an N6-mA demethylase in vivo. This is important because epigenetic modifications are reversible. Genes can be turned off by methylation and then turned back on by removing the methyl group, so determining the enzyme responsible for the removal of N6-mA supports its role as an epigenetic modification.

For more information see:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature17640.html

As always, I’m happy to answer any questions or go into more detail.

Old Drug Offers New Hope to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that salsalate, a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, effectively reversed tau-related dysfunction in an animal model of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Salsalate prevented the accumulation of tau in the brain and protected against cognitive impairments resembling impairments seen in Alzheimer’s disease and FTD.

Salsalate inhibits tau acetylation, a chemical process that can change the function and properties of a protein. Published in Nature Medicine, the researchers revealed that acetylated tau is a particularly toxic form of the protein, driving neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Salsalate successfully reversed these effects in a mouse model of FTD, lowering tau levels in the brain, rescuing memory impairments, and protecting against atrophy of the hippocampus—a brain region essential for memory formation that is impacted by dementia.

“We identified for the first time a pharmacological approach that reverses all aspects of tau toxicity,” says co-senior author Li Gan, PhD, an associate investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. “Remarkably, the profound protective effects of salsalate were achieved even though it was administered after disease onset, indicating that it may be an effective treatment option.”

Although tau has been a target in dementia research for some time, there are no tau-targeted drugs available for patients. Additionally, how the protein builds up in the brain, causing toxicity and contributing to disease, still remains largely a mystery.

By investigating post-mortem brains with Alzheimer’s disease, Dr. Gan’s team found that tau acetylation is one of the first signs of pathology, even before tau tangles are detectable. The acetylated form of tau not only marked disease progression, it also served as a driver for tau accumulation and toxicity. What’s more, in an animal model of FTD, when tau was acetylated, neurons had reduced ability to degrade the protein, causing it to build up in the brain. This in turn led to atrophy in the region and cognitive impairment in the mice on several different memory tests.

The Gladstone scientists discovered that salsalate can inhibit the enzyme p300 in the brain, which is elevated in Alzheimer’s disease and triggers acetylation. Blocking tau acetylation in this way enhanced tau turnover and effectively reduced tau levels in the brain. This reversed the tau-induced memory deficits and prevented loss of brain cells.

“Targeting tau acetylation could be a new therapeutic strategy against human tauopathies, like Alzheimer’s disease and FTD,” says co-senior author Eric Verdin, MD, a senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. “Given that salsalate is a prescription drug with a long-history of a reasonable safety profile, we believe it can have immediate clinical implications.”

The scientists say a clinical trial using salsalate to reduce tau levels in progressive supranuclear palsy, another tau-mediated neurological condition, has already been initiated.

Brain Stack Supplement

ALPHA GPC

Alpha GPC: This nootropic
boosts awareness & cognitive capacity * The significance of choline for your creation of attention and memory raising acetyl choline is efficiently documented. It can be guaranteed by a range of clinical studiesmilligrams - More Information: Thorough Wearing down (with study) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-GPC

HUPERZINE A

Huperzine A:
Raises intellectual functionality, and possesses neuroprotective outcomes. A study obtained results that proven 58Per cent of patients addressed with Huperzine-A had alterations in cognition, and conduct functionsMore Info: Detailed Break down (with reports) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Huperzine_A

HERICIUM ERINACEUS

Hericium Erinaceus (Lion’s Mane): Improvememory and
awareness, improve neurological upkeep, detoxes liver, stop alzheimer’s, normalize bloodstream sugar and cholesterol diplomas. In just a dual sightless, placebo controlled examine, revealed that Hericium Erinaceus(Lion’s Mane) is effective for modest cognitivemilligrams - Much More Information: Complete Fail to function properly (with scientific research) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Hericium_erinaceus

L-THEANINE

L-Theanine:
Boosts emphasis, rest during the night, safeguard components And blood pressure levels management. L-Theanine is becoming studied for the ability to reduce stress, improve cognition and boost your mindset. In a 1999 components of paper published by Food items Technology and Science, L-Theanine was provided to folks in dose numbers of 50 - 200 mgs. It was basically observed that L-Theanine straight impacted the production of Alpha Surf inside a excellent strategy. Alpha waves would be the quiet however tell brain issue needed to concentrationmg - Much More Information: In depth Fail to function properly (with studies) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Theanine

CAFFEINE

Caffeinated drinks intake: Boost emphasis, boost storage, raise energy, detoxes liver organ, wards far from alzheimer’s, increase energy, alleviate despression signs or symptoms, and so forth. According to a new study in Japan, scientists found out that just as muscle cells are stimulated by caffeine, brain cells in the hippocampus are stimulated to increase calcium concentration. This raises the cellular material indicate activity consequently improving storage. Caffeine intake intakemg - More Details: Thorough Wearing down (with research studies) & Wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine intake

BACOPA

Bacopa:
Enhances brain memory and function. Bacopa monnieri is extensively tested and proven as being a memory and concentration increaser. Outcomes of study just recently shown that Bacopa decreased some time thought it was necessary to research a fresh method by virtually one half! Members taking Bacopa increased the work out in as little as 6 times in comparison to ten days for your manage teammilligrams - More Information: Thorough Breaking down (with scientific tests) & Wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacopa

PTEROSTILBENE

Pterostilbene:
Combats away from and reverses mental tumble, it reduces blood circulation lipids and cholestrerol degrees. According to dog reports it can be shown to demonstrate anti–cancers, contra–hypercholesterolemia, anti–hypertriglyceridemia qualities. It can be believed the substance also offers anti-diabetic characteristics as wellmg - Additional Information: Detailed Break down (with reports) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterostilbene

MUCUNA PRURIENS

Mucuna Pruriens:
Raise energy, concentration and focus. Mucuna capabilities regular dopamine, among the most vital neurotranmitters, that has a aspect in people capability to completely focus amongst all sorts of other activities. Furthermore, it is actually mostly liable for regulating sexuality and frame of mind as wellmilligrams - More Details: Thorough Malfunction (with analysis) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucuna_pruriens

GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC_
Acidity

GABA:
Stimulates robust calmness, relaxation and sleep lucid dreaming, And decreases nervousness. Gaba is a vital & popular inhibitory neurotransmitter inside the mind, GABA really helps to improve making alpha brain search, proven to increase clarity and focus. That are connected to anxiety and anxietymg - More Details, as well it lessens beta brain waves: Detailed Malfunction (with reports) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma-Aminobutyric_acid answer

VITAMIN SUPPLEMENT B6

Nutritional supplement B6: Higher energy, regulate sensing And appropriate human brain development, Scientists found out that Nutritional health supplement B6 functions an important role in the creation of serotonin and dopamine, which can be necessary for neurological dialogue Vitamin supplement supplementmg - Additional Information: Detailed Deteriorating (with records) & Wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B6

Nutritious B12

B
Nutritional-12: Decreases fatigue, better electrical energy, decrease in stress. B Vitamin-12 is a crucial method to obtain nourishment required for every person. Latest research indicates adequate measure of B-12 can quit intellectual decline. Industry experts discovered that folks suffering from storage challenges, when resolved with B12, lots of signs or symptoms faded in half a year linked to modifications in intellectual top quality & completely focus. B VitaminMore Information and facts: In depth Break down (with scientific tests) And Wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutritious_B12

ACETYL L CARNITINE

Acetyl L Carnitine HCL:
Effective contra--oxidant, also lowers low energy. Acetylcarnitine & carnitine perform vital functions within your body. These vitamins and minerals shuttle acetyl-businesses And essential fatty acids into mitochondria for strength-manufacturing. It may well work as a strength tank of acetyl groupings and similarly nutrition enhance potential producing.

Decomposing unwanted products after a nitration. In a previous post I mentioned that a compound was nitrated with acetyl nitrate (acetic anhydride + nitric acid). During this step, the product is stirred at 70 °C with 55% nitric acid to decompose side products. 

As seen from the brown nitrous fumes, something happened in the flask, hope that white foam in the flask is something what I am looking for…

3

Yesterday I purified a larger amount on slightly decomposed 1,1′-diacetylferrocene by sublimation/distillation at reduced pressure. After the purification, these crystals were left in the still pot.

1,1′-diacetylferrocene is an orange to red crystalline solid, with a melting point  122-128 °C. It is an organoiron compound with the formula Fe(C5H4COMe)2, it consists of ferrocene substituted by two acetyl group on each of the cyclopentadienyl rings. It is an air-stable solid that is soluble in organic solvents and as seen it forms beautiful crystals.