acetylation

3

Acylation of an alcohol using acetyl chloride. 

Acetyl chloride, CH3COCl is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. It is a colorless, corrosive, volatile liquid that reacts readily with a lot compound. 

Acetyl chloride is a reagent for the preparation of esters and amides of acetic acid, used in the derivatization of alcohols and amines. In this case it was reacted with an alcohol to form an acetate ester. As seen a vigorous reaction happened as the acetyl chloride (dropping to the reaction mixture from the addition funnel) mixed with the alcohol (in the flask). Often bases should be added to accelerate the acylation, but in the case the reaction happened immediately and HCl gas evolved from the reaction mixture. 

What happens? This:

anonymous asked:

So what should I use to get rid of acne scarring fairly quickly?

honestly there’s no way to get rid of acne scarring quickly. the time and extent to which ur skin will heal really depends on your genes, how deeply into your skin the scar tissue goes, and the type of scar left behind– there is a big difference between acne marks and bone fide acne scars
acne marks can be divided into two categories: post-inflammatory erythema and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
-post-inflammatory erythema, or PIE, usually appears on the skin as pink, red, or even purple marks following acne lesions and can take up to several months to disappear naturally. PIE stems from the body’s natural increase in hemoglobin to the inflamed area, and as such will be more prominent on lighter skin tones. Since it is a vascular response to skin trauma or injury, PIE is best treated by focusing on reducing skin stressors and adding ingredients that are anti-inflammatory. This means preventing further damage from free radicals by using sunscreen, avoiding physical scrubs that will exacerbate the wounds already caused by your acne (this includes trying to pick at your blemishes), and protecting your skin barrier by using low pH cleanser. Look for products with niacinamide (you’ll probably need a concentration of at least 4%), vitamin C (for success in fading PIE, look for at least 20% concentration of L-ascorbic acid, or azelaic acid which has been shown to reduce redness), retinoids (these work by stimulating collagen to mask the damaged capillaries that cause PIE, but since retinoids can cause redness it might not be the best option), and green tea and camellia extracts. realistically tho, the best cure for mild PIE is time. these marks arent permanent and usually go away within a few weeks 
-post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (not the same as sun spots, freckles, or melasma) manifests as brown spots and fade even more slowly than PIE. PIH is caused by an overproduction of melanin, which is the body’s natural way of protecting damaged skin from further damage. as such, PIH is best treated by avoiding further UV exposure (i.e. broad spectrum sunscreen with at least spf 30) that could lead to an imbalance of melanocytes in the skin and ingredients that act as melanin inhibitors (just a psa im NOT talking about skin bleaching or lightening!!!! when i say melanin inhibitors, im referring to products that lessen the severity of our body’s natural reaction to injury, which is to send excess melanin to the affected area). just like for PIE, vit c, AHA, and vit a (like rosehip seed oil) work well for PIH (particularly at a higher concentration, like 20% for vit c and 30% for AHA). niacinamide (disrupts the transfer of melanin between cells) works particularly well with n-acetyl glusosamine or tranexamic acid to fade melanin-related discoloration. other ingredients that are effective for treating PIH inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme, which is responsible for melanin production. alpha arbutin (gentler form of hydroquinone; can be used to spot treat) and licorice root (due to its naturally occurring glabridin) work extremely well. kojic acid (can be found in fermented rice products) complements hydroquinone; however, hydroquinone is somewhat of a harsh treatment and may not be an option for darker skin tones as it has a tendency to create a lightened “halo” around the area that it’s applied to.
-acne scars occur because of tissue damage in the skin that caused an imbalance in collagen production during wound healing. these can appear as hypertrophic scars (most common on the chest and back and caused by overproduction of collagen) or atrophic scars (common aftermath of clinical cystic acne on the face and the result of an underproduction of collagen in the damaged skin). i honestly don’t know if there are any home remedies or over-the-counter products to improve these types of scars where textural damage is involved. the most effective treatments include lasers (work by restructuring collagen in the skin; but psa erbium laser resurfacing doesn’t work well for deeper skin tones), dermal fillers (these can range from hyaluronic acid to botox), and steroid injections (such as cortisone; these are especially effective for the tough, leathery scars known as keloids), all of which should be handled by a licensed dermatologist. there is some evidence that dermarolling (which is an at-home version of micro-needling) can help atrophic scars by creating microtears that stimulate the body’s healing mechanism of collagen production; however, the likelihood of damaging your skin and getting bacterial infections due to poor aftercare and sterilization are really high and i personally wouldnt recommend the practice.
regardless of what type of post-acne troubles ur having, pls be gentle and patient with your skin!💕💕💕

anonymous asked:

Do you know of any food that would help ease joint pain? I usually have hip or knee pain and I don't wanna be taking pills every time it happens.

Well this is annoying. I wrote out an entire essay and posted it and the bloody thing didn’t take.

I recommend tendon. You can buy it to cook yourself or simply eat ethnic foods that contain it. I think the easiest to find is Vietnamese Pho with extra sides of tendon. You need the collagen in it. The food itself is gelatinous but tastes like meat.

You can also buy gelatin and eat it in large quantities.

You can and should order N Acetyl L Carnitine in powder form and take high doses of it daily by mixing it into your morning juice. It is an amino acid that is critical in connective tissue repair. It has the added benefit of increasing hand eye coordination and memory, cognitive speeds etcetera. And because it’s therapeutic limit is so high it is nearly impossible to OD. However if you’re concerned you can consult your physician.

Another thing you can do is go attack a deer an lick its antlers. No really, but no don’t. There are a few compounds in antler fuzz that have been incredible for human joints. You can also find supplements that contain it, so that you don’t have to run through the forest like a cryptid.

Unless you want to. I would. But I’m me.

Anyway, I also recommend natural anti-I inflammatories like mushrooms.

There’s always steroids. But those also interfere with the immune system.

That’s what I have for you. And you actually do have to do it. It does work. If you find it isn’t working, you’re not eating enough tendon. Which is silly because it is one of the most delicious things on planet earth.

An important story about heroin and meth and the brain:

Lots of people want to demonize heroin/meth or its users, and say they are the scourge of the earth etc. Well some of them can be very evil but some of them can be the nicest people ever. It all depends on what they make of themselves through the struggle.

I personally do not recommend to any of the followers to try those drugs for many reasons, but even if you do not do meth/heroin there are many important lessons that can be learned from them. 

Dependency/addiction can play a role in almost all the classes of substances, its just more prominent with those 2 drugs because they are significantly potent and significantly cheap, able to be easily mass produced.

Drugs will soon be legalized after the government realizes how much endless suffering the war has caused and no gains have been made. Therefore, our people must master their understanding of substances to be able to live safely. 

We were NEVER educated on drugs, so we must educate ourselves. That is rule #1. 

Funniest part of the story, is heroin ( Diamorphine.. morphine with two points of acetylation) is used in injections legally. There’s been plenty research on it and in its 100% pure form its not inherently toxic to any of your organs. The only possible damage it could do is through neurological DA over-activation. 

If its not toxic then how does it do so much damage to people? The damage is done by its impurities of improper synthesis; or from over-usage creating a dependency. 

Over usage makes the user depleted of their natural endorphins as the body stops bio-synthesizing its own endorphins; via the perception that the drug will take care of it.

That is the biological prism in which addiction illuminates. 

Without the body naturally synthesizing those chemicals, a person can begin to manifest many crippling symptoms of withdrawal, such as weakened immune system, nausea, or anxiety. 

What goes up must come down, and what goes up very often must come down very often. 

Many users are uncertain of why they feel a certain way so they may take more of a drug to counter act them feeling bad, and it creates a disposition to where the brain will easily stop making its own chemicals. 

Quick fact. Ready?
Consuming enough dietary protein is important for maintaining the proper connections between neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetyl choline.

Allergy Relief: Nettle Tea

Urtica dioica or commonly called Stinging Nettle is a diverse herb with known medical attributes dating back to as early as around 100 AD. The stinging sensation this plant can give off comes from small glass like hairs on the leaves, that when broken release a stinging liquid made up of formic acid, histamine, acetyl-choline and serotonin. However, fear not because the juice made from grinding the leaves of this plant can be used to treat its sting. 

Nettle can used to treat hay fever, asthma, itchy skin, insect bites, and most importantly treat acute allergy symptoms. (After trying this brew I did notice a significant decrease in my seasonal allergy symptoms.) In addition nettle can boost the production of breast milk, cleanse urine, treat enlarged prostates, work as an anti-arthritic, and slow bleeding. If you’re on any sort of medication for depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, or sedatives nettle can cause a moderate reaction.

The tea has a light grassy smell and mild taste of spinach. Honey is a great addition to this tea.

Happy Allergy Season,
-The Tea Drinkers Guide

Kiss and Make Up

hi again! this was a request by @imknc22 for a ReidxReader fic with the two getting into a fight with a fluffy ending.

warnings: sorta nsfw, nothing super explicit, aggressive tones kinda i guess?? that’s all i can think of.

let me know what you think!  

Keep reading

[AP Bio] TEST FOUR: Cellular Respiration

REGULAR HIGHLIGHTED VERSION CAN BE FOUND HERE

(*IMPORTANT: a lot of the format and diagrams got really messed up on here, I apologize)

cellular respiration = breakdown of fuel to generate ATP for work

3 Key Pathways: 1) glycolysis, 2) citric acid cycle, & 3) oxidative phosphorylation/electron transport chain (ETC)

characteristics: waste products = CO2 & H2O, catabolic pathway

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

AKA “redox” reactions

-the transfer of electrons
-> can be complete or partial (in cases of covalent bond sharing)

oxidation = the loss of electrons

reduction = the gaining of electrons

“oxidizing” agent = substance that accepts electrons from another

“reducing” agent = substance that gives up/“donates” electrons to another

*the transfer of electrons, as they are pulled down the energy gradient from a molecule of low EN -> molecule of high EN, is exergonic as this transfer causes the electrons to release potential energy

-> can be harvested for work! (INDIRECTLY)

-> cell resp. is all about understanding how the flow of electrons & protons controls the whole process!

Brief Overview of Cell Respiration

Fuel Reactant
Glucose Oxygen
Oxidized Reduced
Reducing Agent Oxidizing Agent
Goodbye electrons! :-c Hello electrons! c-:

oxidized (loses e’s)

C H 0 + 6O  -> 6CO  + 6H 0 + energy (ATP + heat)

reduced (gains e’s)

*typically carbs are used but lipids (fats) can also be used due to the large amount of H’s in the hydrocarbon tails, & actually generate a lot of energy

fun tidbit:
*the metabolic waste, C0 , is breathed out by the body and then taken in by plants, which use it to produce glucose -> thus the circle spins on & on

How Glucose is Broken Down

*energy cannot be efficiently harvested for work all at once, so rather it is broken down in a series of steps, called “stepwise energy harvesting”

1) Electrons taken from glucose (also, 1 proton) are given to Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucelotide (NAD+), a coenzyme
-> NAD+ is an oxidizing agent, and so therefore is able to accept electrons

2) NAD+ is an “empty taxi cab”. The enzyme dehydrogenase oxidizes food (such as glucose) to get the 2 e’s & 2 p’s (H+’s) so they can be given to NAD+.

3) NAD+ is reduced by accepting electrons, and becomes NADH. NADH is a “full taxi cab”, containing 2 e’s & 1 p (H+). The other H+ is released into the cytosol.
-> Each NADH represents potential energy that can be indirectly used to power the synthesis of ATP

4) NADH passes the e’s onto the electron transport chain (ETC). The ETC then passes the e’s on in a series of controlled steps to the oxygen molecules that pull them down the chain (b/c of its high EN). This process yields energy that can be used to re-generate ATP.

Stages of Cellular Respiration

1) Glycolysis- breakdown of glucose (“glyco” = glucose, “lysis” = breakdown)

2) Citric Acid Cycle- completes the breakdown into 2 molecules of pyruvate of glucose (AKA Krebs Cycle)

3) Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- accounts for most of ATP synthesis

 ————————————————————————————————-

(*the following diagram got really messed up on here, I apologize)

electrons carried via
NADH                                                                          electrons carried
                                                                                  via NADH & FADH2

Glycolysis                                                
1 glucose -> 2 pyruvate ——————-> citric acid                                                 (SPLIT)                                                    cycle                    electron transport
                                                                                               and chemiosmosis
                                            
                                                       (mitochondrion)
(cytosol)

                                                                                                         ATPs                                                                              ATP
   ATP

substrate-level                                  substrate-level                                             phosphorylation                                phosphorylation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              *oxidative
                                                                                                phosphorylation*

2 ATPs were invested,                                                       results in a LOT more
and 4 in total produced, so            results in 2 ATPs                       ATPs
NET = 2 ATPs                                    now: total 6
                                                             NET = 4                   produces NET = 32-                                                                                                        34 ATPs                                                                                                                

Glycolysis


-occurs in the cytosol

                        [high] G     outside/ECM

facilitated
diffusion             *Integral protein & cell membrane
(no energy)    
                         [low]  G      inside/cytosol

G-p <— phosphate is added (neg. charge “locks” glucose inside cell!)



-requires the energy investment of 2 ATPs



Energy Investment Phase

1- 2 ATPs invested

2- Enzymes take phosphates off ADPs

3- Series of steps where phosphates are taken off ATPs & then phosphorylated to molecules (TWICE) that are slightly changed each step

4- Eventually split into 2 3-carbon sugars (“G3Ps”)

Energy Yielding Phase


1- As the 2 G3Ps are oxidized, NAD+ is reduced to NADH -> this contributes to the ETC by carrying electrons (& protons)!

2- After, there is an “intermediate molecule” (ex: 1,3-biphosphoglycerate -> don’t need to know exact molecule) that has a phosphate. This phosphate is taken off and given to 2 ADPs to become 2 ATPs. This happens twice within the series of steps in this phase. Also, at one point, 2 H2Os are taken out.

3- Eventually transformed into 2 pyruvates

4- A total of 4 ATPs are made in this “payoff” phase. However, since 2 were invested originally, there is only a net of  2 ATPs.

                                      C3H3O3
C6H1206                    -pyruvates-
                                      C3H3O3

(*this diagram got really messed up on here too)

Energy Investment Phase



Glucose



2 ADP + 2 p <—————— 2 ATP used



Energy Payoff


Phase      4 ADP +


                    4 p          ———————->   4 ATP    formed



2 NAD+ + 4 e


+ 4 H+                   —————————>   2 NADH + 2 H+



                 


                                                    ————–> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O




Net                     Glucose ————> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O



4 ATP formed - 2 ATP used ——-> 2 ATP



2 NAD+ + 4 e + H + ———-> 2 NADH + 2 H+




Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

-not as efficient in producing ATP as oxidative phosphorylation

-used in both glycolysis & krebs/citric acid cycle

Citric Acid Cycle

-AKA “Krebs” Cycle

-COMPLETES energy-yielding oxidation of the organic molecules (ex: glucose)

-BEFORE the cycle can begin, the 2 Pyruvates must be converted to Acetyl CoA -> this links the cycle to glycolysis!

1) The 2 Pyruvates are oxidized and enter the Mitochondrion via a Transport Protein

2) CO2 is released (lungs -> exhale)

3) NAD+ is reduced to NADH & the e’s & p’s (H+’s) are stripped

4) A Coenzyme helps with the conversion to Acetyl CoA

-CAC uses BOTH molecules of pyruvate
*cycle goes around TWICE!

*CITRIC ACID CYCLE SUMMARY*

2 CO2 X 2 = 4 (released)

3 NADH X 2 = 6 (reduced)

1 FADH X 2 = 2 (reduced)

1 ATP X 2 = 2 (produced)

*appreciate the many redox Rx’s going on to keep the cycle going, changing Acetyl CoA all the way to Oxaloacetate!

Ex: R = NAD+ -> NADH
     O = any previous molecule!

ETC - Chemiosmosis - Oxidative Phosphorylation

-located at the inner mitochondrial membrane (like the plasma membrane, but different proteins!)                                                                              

*proteins are special ones made from the mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA)

*2 membranes! (DOUBLE)

PROTON MOTIVE FORCE

-facilitated diffusion

-a lot of energy & collisions b/c of flow of e’s

-*H’s come from glucose/pyruvate!

1) H+’s pumped out
2) O’s take H+’s to create H2O
3) Take protons in -> [low] guaranteed

-energy to power movement of H+ out!
(POTENTIAL ENERGY -> from redox Rx’s!)

-if O2 NOT present, H+’s cannot be moved/slid out -> b/c O2 is the final e acceptor w/ a high EN & the e’s release potential energy when moving down the gradient to O which powers the proton motive force

-keeps getting more EN as e’s pulled down/along chain

-H+’s move into ATP Synthase (important and moves protons BACK into matrix) protein -> active transport -> change of shape -> ATPs

fun tidbit:
-cyanide affects the enzyme that works w/ cytochrome oxidase, as it is an irreversible inhibitor that is tetravalent and desperate for a fourth bond, and therefore highly reactive (can shut down body systems and kill you within a matter of hours, and this is all due to bonding!)

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

-oxidative phosphorylation & chemiosmosis couples the ETC to ATP synthesis

-located in cristae of mitochondrion

Pathway:

1) The components are proteins that exist in multiprotein complexes and are unique to the mitochondrion. These protein complexes alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons

2) Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain & are finally passed to O2 -> form H2O

3) NO ATP generated!!!!!

*THE FUNCTION OF THE ETC is to break the large free-energy drops from food to O2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts.

*the more redox Rx’s, the more energy is available.



CHEMIOSMOSIS

*the energy-coupling mechanism

1) Redox Rx’s in the ETC -> provide energy for the transport proteins to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.

NEXT STEP IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS

2) Proton Motive Force  develops as [H+] INC., w/i intermembrane space. Then, moves back across membrane & passes through channels in ATP Synthase.

3) ATP Synthase transports H+ BACK into matrix.

4) ATP Synthase uses exergonic flow of H+ to drive the phosphorylation of ADP -> ATP    (endergonic).

*chemiosmosis = use of energy in H+ chemical gradient to drive ADP phosphorylation

Fermentation

*enables some cells to produce ATP w/o the use of oxygen!

How can food be oxidized w/o oxygen?

-NAD+ is actually the oxidizing agent of glucose. A net of 2 ATPs are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. Then, if there IS oxygen, more (a lot of) ATP can be produced when NADH passes the removed e’s from glucose to the ETC & oxidative phosphorylation occurs.

*glycolysis STILL produces 2 ATP whether O is present of not, though!

(either aerobic or anaerobic)


-fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of nutrients

-fermentation = the extension of glycolysis that can generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation
-> *as long as there is a sufficient supply of NAD+ to accept e’s during the oxidation step of glycolysis

-NAD+ needs to be recycled from NADH

Aerobic Anaerobic
Recycled by the transfer Recycled by the transfer of electrons from NADH to Pyruvate (end product of glycolysis!)
of electrons to the ETC

TYPES OF FERMENTATION

fermentation = glycolysis + Rx’s that regenerate NAD+ (transfer of electrons from NADH -> Pyruvate)

Alcohol Fermentation = Pyruvate converted to Ethanol

1) RELEASES CO2 from Pyruvate
-> converted to 2-carbon compound “acetaldehyde”

2) Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to Ethanol

-regenerate supply of NAD+ needed

*many bacteria carry out alcohol fermentation under anaerobic conditions, also fungi (ex: yeast)

fun tidbit:

yeast -> used for 1,000’s of years by humans for brewing, wine-making, baking (bread, gases released create bubbles that allow it to rise), etc.

Lactic Acid Fermentation = Pyruvate reduced DIRECTLY by NADH - > forms Lactate (ionized form of lactic acid) as end product -> NO release of CO2

*certain fungi & bacteria used to make cheese & yogurt

*other microbial fermentation used to make acetone & methanol (methyl alcohol)

1) When O is scarce, human muscle cells can still make ATP by using lactic acid fermentation.

2) Strenuous exercise -> sugar catabolism for ATP production outpaces muscle’s supply of O from blood

3) Cells switch from aerobic respiration to fermentation -> creates lactate -> buildup of lactate can cause muscle fatigue and pain!

4) Lactate is gradually carried away by the blood to the liver -> converted back to pyruvate by liver cells

*facultative anaerobes = make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration (ex: our muscle cells!)
-> consume sugar at faster rate when fermenting to make the same amount

*Pyruvate is a “FORK IN THE ROAD”

Quick fact. Ready?
Acetyl choline is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate connections within the brain. With an increase in acetyl choline in the body, there is also an increased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain; and thus, improved cognitive functioning and focus.

Skincare Ingredients List: Alcohols to Look For/Avoid

1. Avoid at all costs: isopropyl alcohol, SD alcohol, denatured alcohol, alcohol denat, ethanol, methanol, ethyl and methyl alcohol, polivinyl alcohol

2. Avoid if close to the top of the ingredients list: benzyl alcohol

3. Fine for normal to dry skin (emollients): stearyl alcohol, cetearyl alcohol, arachidyl alcohol, lanolin alcohol, acetylated lanolin alcohol, cetyl alcohol

4. All fine: behenyl alcohol, batyl alcohol, decyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol (or derivatives)

source

N6-methyladenine: A Newly Discovered Epigenetic Modification 

The majority of cellular functions are carried out by proteins encoded by specific genes present in cellular DNA. Genes are first transcribed to RNA which is then translated to proteins. The regulation of this process is important for maintaining correct cellular function. One of the ways that cells regulate gene expression is by epigenetic modifications to chromatin. The term “epigenetics” refers to reversible chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins (DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes is wrapped around histones) that affect the transcriptional status of genes. A number of histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation of lysine residues have already been discovered and characterized. Until recently; however, methylation of the 5 position of cytosine was the only known epigenetic DNA modification (A). Methylation of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases is associated with transcriptional silencing, while the removal of these methyl groups by TET enzymes is associated with transcriptional re-activation (B and C). In addition to controlling gene silencing, cytosine methylation also silences retrotransposons, a class of mobile genetic elements. If left unregulated, transposons can insert themselves into important regions of the genome and lead to mutagenesis.

Recently, N6-methyladenine, a new epigenetic modification, was discovered in mammalian cells. N6-mA had previously been discovered in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes and was shown to function as a transcriptional activator. By contrast, a recent report published in Nature, has shown that N6-mA functions as a transcriptional silencer in mammalian cells, specifically in mouse embryonic stem cells. N6-mA primarily acts to silence the LINE-1 family of retrotransposons during early embryogenesis, which prevents genomic instability. The authors identified N6-mA by using a modified single molecule DNA sequencing technique. DNA bound to a specific modified histone protein was immunoprecipitated using an antibody against a specific histone modification (H2A.X), sequenced, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (D). This identified and determined the position of N6-mA. The authors then generated knockouts of the enzyme Alkbh1, which they believed may function as a demethylase for N6-mA. When Alkbh1 was absent from cells, they found an increase in the levels of N6-mA, showing that Alkbh1 functions as an N6-mA demethylase in vivo. This is important because epigenetic modifications are reversible. Genes can be turned off by methylation and then turned back on by removing the methyl group, so determining the enzyme responsible for the removal of N6-mA supports its role as an epigenetic modification.

For more information see:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature17640.html

As always, I’m happy to answer any questions or go into more detail.

Acetyl Choline has been in my head for several years but her story is one I’m less interested in, so the most action she’s ever seen is in a human AU that I sadly don’t really get any time for these days.

It’s partially because I used to be embarrassed about her species, the Lemurines, since they’re a bunch of sparkly anime cat people who each control a single periodic table element. These days I have decided I do not give a fuck, and I will have sparkly anime cat people because it’s fun.

Her element is, predictably, carbon.

Molecule of the Day: Paracetamol/Acetaminophen

Paracetamol (C8H9NO2), also known as acetaminophen, Tylenol, or Panadol, is a white solid that is slightly soluble in water. It is used as an anti-pyretic (fever-reducing) and analgesic (pain-relieving) agent, and is one of the most common over-the-counter medications worldwide.

Its mechanism is unknown, but it has been proposed that it selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme in the body, This decreases the amount of prostaglandins, which are inflammation-inducing and act as pain messengers molecules, to achieve the desired analgesic effects.

While paracetamol has much less severe side effects amongst the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which includes aspirin, overdoses can still occur, with an average lethal dose being 10-15 grams. This is because the body metabolises paracetamol into a toxic compound - NAPQI - which causes liver damage and results in death if it cannot be broken down rapidly enough.

Before paracetamol was discovered and marketed as an analgesic in the late 19th century, acetanilide and phenacetin were the most common pain relievers. However, they tended to have toxic side effects, such as the deprivation of cells of oxygen. Additionally, it was discovered that paracetamol was the active metabolite of those two drugs, and quickly replaced them as analgesics.

Paracetamol is produced industrially by the nitration of phenol, followed by the reduction of the resultant 4-nitrophenol, and then acetylation of the 4-aminophenol with acetic anhydride.

Links: