accurate maps

All Eyes on the Sky for the August 21 Total Solar Eclipse

Just two months from now, the moon will completely block the sun’s face, treating part of the US to a total solar eclipse.

Everyone in North America will have the chance to see an eclipse of some kind if skies are clear. Anyone within a 70-mile-wide swath of land — called the path of totality — that stretches from Oregon to South Carolina will have the chance to see a total eclipse.

Throughout the rest of the continent, including all 50 United States — and even in parts of South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia — the moon will partially obscure the sun, creating a partial eclipse.

Photo credit: NASA/Cruikshank

An eclipse is one of nature’s most awesome sights, but safety comes first! When any part of the sun’s surface is exposed, use proper eclipse glasses (not sunglasses) or an indirect viewing method, like a pinhole projector. In the path of totality, it’s safe to look directly at the eclipse ONLY during the brief moments of totality.

During a solar eclipse, the moon passes between the sun and Earth, casting a shadow down on Earth’s surface. We’ve been studying the moon with NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and its precise mapping helped NASA build the most accurate eclipse map to date.

During a total solar eclipse, the moon blocks out the sun’s bright face, revealing the otherwise hidden solar atmosphere, called the corona. The corona is one of the sun’s most interesting regions — key to understanding the root of space weather events that shape Earth’s space environment, and mysteries such as why the sun’s atmosphere is so much hotter than its surface far below.

This is the first time in nearly 100 years that a solar eclipse has crossed the United States from coast to coast. We’re taking advantage of this long eclipse path by collecting data that’s not usually accessible — including studying the solar corona, testing new corona-observing instruments, and tracking how our planet’s atmosphere, plants, and animals respond to the sudden loss of light and heat from the sun.

We’ll be studying the eclipse from the ground, from airplanes, with research balloons, and of course, from space.

Three of our sun-watchers — the Solar Dynamics Observatory, IRIS, and Hinode, a joint mission led by JAXA — will see a partial eclipse from space. Several of our Earth-observing satellites will use the eclipse to study Earth under uncommon conditions. For example, both Terra and DSCOVR, a joint mission led by NOAA, will capture images of the moon’s shadow from space. Our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will also turn its instruments to face Earth and attempt to track the moon’s shadow as it moves across the planet.

There’s just two months to go until August 21, so make your plans now for the big day! No matter where you are, you can follow the eclipse as it crosses the country with live footage from NASA TV.

Learn more about the upcoming total solar eclipse — including where, when, and how to safely experience it — at and follow along on Twitter @NASASun.  

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:

When you’re writing your posts about the anomie of modern individualistic atomized existence, and talking about how we need to find some more-communitarian more-interconnected more-tribal-level mode of life…please remember what tribes are actually like.

Tribes are, basically, big families.  You know how families work, probably.  You were probably raised in one.

And – don’t get me wrong – there are many great things about families.  It is cool that, due to the power of collective identity, resources can be distributed in a literally final-stage-communist fashion with very little friction.  It is cool that you can get to know everyone super well, and keep an accurate map of all the relationships.  It is cool that people care about you, no fooling, they really care about you, they are not going to drop you just because you’ve become inconvenient or whatever. 

Nonetheless.  Somehow, I’m betting that most of you fled from the bosom of your families in order to go live out in the big cold atomized impersonal individualistic world, and you’re not exactly champing at the bit to go back. 

Because there are costs, and they are crushing.  Families do not understand, cannot understand, personal boundaries.  The counterbalance to “your family will always care about you” is “your family will feel free to use and remake every part of your existence.”  Families are places where every point of incompatibility or tension will be rubbed raw until it bleeds and festers, because people can’t just agree to leave each other alone.  Families subordinate your dreams to their own collective ambitions and values.  Families run Every. Single. Thing. through a system of manipulative personal politics. 

Different people have different levels of tolerance for such things, and so the individualism / tribalism tradeoff plays out differently in every case.  But if you’re reading this, I am prepared to bet money that you really really really benefit from the advantages of social individualism, no matter how much loneliness and anomie you might be feeling. 

Squaring this circle is super hard.  It is one of my major long-term intellectual projects.  Finding a system that combines “people really care about each other in a reliable fashion” and “resources get shared in a non-stupid way” with “people will respect your individual preferences/ambitions” and “people have the space not to impinge upon each other intolerably” is…well, it may be impossible, and if it’s possible I’m pretty sure no one’s figured it out yet.  But I’m betting that, at such time as we do figure it out, it’s not going to look anything like segmentary communitarianism. 

the yogscast is a small fandom but we have a lot of smaller fandoms within it. there’s a lot of mini-fandoms

what your fave sub-yogfandom says about you:

honeydinc: you’re a pure soul

tekkit: you haven’t watched a yogscast video since 2012

yoglabs: you like Edgy fanfics and theories. you are into torture and keeping people captive for some reason. you may also be in/have been in the creepypasta fandom

flux buddies: you are new to the yogscast fandom

flux baddies: you were previously in the yoglabs fandom. you really enjoy memes, gore, and body horror

sipsco: you like jokes about gay sex. also, you’ve been dying inside ever since feed the world debuted

sjin: you either think that sjin is a sweet innocent flower child or he is some godawful horror from space

lomadia/hannah: you don’t like minecraft but you do like assassinations and big title games

nilesy: minesweeper is your absolute favorite

blackrock chronicles: you miss blackrock

zoey proasheck/fizone: you’re gay

UMY/CMY/MMY/Powered/other AUs: you like actual story but have resorted to creating it yourself

underyogs: you are still waiting for strife to have an appearance on the main channel

kirindave/lyinginbedmon: you REALLY LOVE memes and shitposting or you REALLY LOVE aesthetics. also you like harry potter

hatfilms: you enjoy shipping middle aged men and yelling really loudly

New day, new series of photos. I’m going to try to blog about the planets of the Solar System; First up is Mercury, which is the smallest and innermost planet. With a diameter ~4878km, it is smaller than some of the moons in the Solar System. The small planet in a 3:2 resonance with the sun, giving it a unique position where a single day takes 2 Mercurian years. It has the smallest tilt of any planet in the Solar System at just 1/30 of a degree.


Mercury is well known for having a heavily cratered surface. This image taken by NASA’s messenger probe highlighted the fact that the surface of Mercury is significantly more heterogeneous than Mars or the Moon. This accurately reflects the random nature of comet and asteroid impacts, which are believed to be the primary cause of the planets cratered appearance. An example of an impact basin is Caloris Planitia, which was discovered in 1974. Mercury has multiple compressional features, as when its interior cooled, it contracted and its surface began to deform.


Mercury has been explored by 2 NASA spacecraft (Mariner 10 and MESSENGER) and will be explored by 2 spacecraft made by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Project name: BepiColombo).

Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Mercury in 1974, with the primary aim to map out the geological features. However, due to its trajectory, all of its close approaches were on the same side of the planet, meaning only 45% of the surface was accurately mapped. It did provide many photographs of the surface on the planet that helped reveal some geological features, such as the many craters. It also revealed the fact that Mercury has a magnetic field that deflects the passing solar wind.

MESSENGER was the second and most recent exploration of the planet, with its first fly-by of the planet in early 2008. Its primary aim was to find the answers to key issues, such as whether Mercury has ice at its poles. The spacecraft was capable of taking much higher resolution images than its predecessor, allowing the terrain to be studied in much greater detail.

Finally, the BepiColombo mission conducted by the ESA and the JAXA is expected to reach Mercury in 2025 and carry detailed analysis of the Magnetosphere of the planet whilst studying the planet in different wavelengths, such as UV.

Thanks guys if you made it this far. I know this is a LOT longer than my usual posts but I thought that it would be good to talk about the planets and their observational history in a bit more detail since there are only a handful of them nearby.

Mercury | Venus | Earth

anonymous asked:

One question why is their a large lack of large scale big knight orders like the knights templar knights hospitaler and Teutonic Knights even warhammer has the down with the reiksguard knights of the white wolf and knights of Moore so for example I think their would be say a knights of the golden lion and you should make up orders for all the kingdoms

Ok, well you’ve pushed me into it…

  • The Vale: The Brotherhood of Winged Knights, natch. Seven knights to honor the Seven. Chosen by a tourney of no less than 77 applicants to guard the King of the Mountain and Vale for seven years. To honor the memory of Artys Arryn’s victory, the Brotherhood have a custom of insisting that any Arryn who takes the field of battle must don an eighth set of the armor and livery of the Brotherhood, to ensure that his enemies cannot spy him out. And hey, let’s go nuts and say that the Winged Knights are especially feared for their horse-frightening harnesses. 
  • The Riverlands: The Order of the Trident. One of the more recent chivalric orders in Westeros, the Order of the Trident was founded by House Teague in order to bolster their hold on their newly-won kingdom. By their original charter, the knights of the Trident were charged with maintaining the peace on the “roads and rivers of our kingdom,” which led to the construction of many chapter houses at fords and other intersections where travelers could sleep protected - in more recent centuries following the fall of House Teague, many of these chapter houses were abandoned and later converted into inns. This charter also requires each member to maintain a shallow-drafted warship of no less than 10 oars a side, which may explain their ceremonial weapons. Notably, rather than implicitly stating it, only members of the Faith of the Seven are allowed to join, which is why no Blackwood has ever participated and why every single generation of Brackens have held membership (with no less than a dozen grand-masters among them). According to rumor, the Order may have been instrumental behind-the-scenes in many of the rebellions against those rulers who succeeded the Teagues to the crown of the Riverlands - which is probably false…
  • The Westerlands: The Grand and Most Puissant Order of the Golden Mane. Unlike most orders of chivalry in Westeros, the Order of the Golden Mane was primarily not a martial order - rather, the Order was established during the reign of King Norwin Lannister as a means of raising revenue, with membership dues being originally listed at 100 grains of pure gold annually. In exchange for their dues, members were granted knighthoods if they did not already have them, but also a number of privileges including the right to be tried only by the Order, the right to arbitration by the Order in all disputes between fellow members, and even the right to advise the king on “weighty matters.” During the rule of Tytos Lannister, these privileges were badly abused by dozens of social climbers, leading to the diminishment of the order’s prestige and an increase in public disorder, as many used the order’s immunity from normal criminal procedure as a shield against Casterly Rock itself. Shortly before the Reynes of Castamere, Tywin Lannister raised the membership fee to five times the member’s body-weight in gold, and then took advantage of a number of sudden vacancies to have the order declared extinct due to lack of quorum. 
  • The Reach: since the Order of the Green Hand is taken, let’s talk about the Lady Companions of the Blessed Maris. Given the Reach’s love affair with tourneys, pageants, dances, and other social occasions, someone has to do the organizing of the social calendar, otherwise the whole thing goes haywire and vendettas set up. Guided by an inner circle of noblewomen who can trace their descent to Maris the Maid, Rowan Goldenhair, or Ellyn Ever-Sweet (all women of acceptable moral purity, although of course the Gardener Queen was always given a position out of respect for Highgarden), the Lady Companions make sure that each seat of note is appropriately honored with fetes, that there are always enough tourneys to keep the knights occupied while ensuring decent attendance at each, and that enough mixed-gender events are held to ensure that the right young ladies meet the right young men. While the Green Hand may have perished on the field of battle, the work of the Lady Companions continue to this day, although there was much grumbling when a certain Tyrell claimed the Gardener Seat for her house on the grounds that Aegon had deeded Highgarden to them.
  • The Stormlands: The Ancient and Most Honorable Guild of Castlewrights. While the origins of the Guild are lost to legend and myth (some tales claim that the founders of the guild were the assistants of the mysterious Brandon who built the final castle of Storm’s End), the Stormlands takes the construction of castles more seriously than any other realm. To that end, the Durrandon kings gave (in addition to the honor of knighthood) this order the “responsibility for inspecting and maintaining the castles of my kingdom,” along with some fairly wide-ranging powers to commandeer labor and materials to make repairs when necessary for the defense of the realm. Over the centuries, the Guild turned into an order of knights who were experts both in the construction of castles and siegecraft. Many a seemingly desperate siege was won or lost due to the presence of a single Guildman using their authority to take over direction of assault or defense of the castle, especially in the Marches. Famously, the Guildmen take an oath never to allow themselves to be captured alive, lest they be tortured into revealing their occult wisdom. 
  • Dorne: The Knights of the Wells. If there is anything that unites the often fractious peoples of Dorne, it is their common love of horse-riding. Thus, to keep their people happy and distracted, the Martells have organized both hippodrome races and cross-country races for the better part of a thousand years. Recruited from among the ranks of the winners, the Knights of the Wells were trained in the arts of cartography by maesters from Sunspear, given the best sand steeds that the Martells can buy and, formally, charged with little more than accurately mapping the oft-foreboding terrain of Dorne. Informally, the Knights of the Wells were the Martells’ best spies and scouts, who use their superior knowledge of the land to guide the armies of Dorne and track the armies of her enemies, and many wars have been won (or lost) because of the bravery and cunning of these swordless knights. Membership in the Wells is a dangerous proposition, however - both in Aegon’s War and Daeron’s, the order saw casualties of more than nine in ten of their members, with the Targaryens frequently posting lavish bounties for their deaths. Indeed, it was a significant provision of Daeron II’s treaty that the Martells were forbidden from re-establishing the Knights of the Wells, although some claim the order continues in secret…

anonymous asked:

This question is related to psychology more broadly, I'm not sure if it's ok or not. What is the relationship between cognitive functions and the formation of memories? Stereotypically memories are associated with Si but wouldn't all the functions influence memory in some way because they are all involved in information processing to some extent?

Yes. Memory is actually a very complicated mental process and even though psychologists have been studying it for a long time, there are still many aspects of it that we don’t understand very well. Take a simple example like trying to remember a visual image: The brain is not like a xerox machine that just makes a copy of the image and files it; if the brain did that, you would quickly run out of shelf space because, as long as your eyes are open, you’d be making copies continuously. Since we can’t logistically remember every little single thing we perceive, there must be some method of “filtering” or “choosing” things to remember, though that choice is not always conscious. That’s likely where the cognitive functions enter, they influence what sorts of things we pay attention to, what sorts of things are given priority over others, which would likely include the kinds of information we pick out to store (particularly with the perceiving functions):

  • Si: potent personal impressions of physical details
  • Ni: contextual details with personalized meaning
  • Se: new, unique, unusual, striking physical details
  • Ne: interesting ideas or promising possibilities
  • Ti: mental blueprints that map cause-effect experiences
  • Fi: moral instincts derived from subjective experience
  • Te: rules and standards that lead to efficient results
  • Fe: social knowledge derived from (in)harmonious feelings

To store an item in memory, we tend to use the whole brain in finding the appropriate “sticky notes” to attach to that item for easy retrieval, so we each use our own interpretations to remember things. E.g. The other day, I was doing a geography quiz to remember the names of world countries. My friend, who is studying for a citizenship exam, needed to brush up on geography, so we went through a quiz together just for fun. I did the quiz first by explaining how I remembered each item, I would say things like: Place A is where that earthquake just happened, B is where this celebrity lives, I took an interesting trip to C when I was in high school, my mom loves the beaches in D, my ex was born in E, etc. My friend (Se Sensor) noticed that it was very interesting how I turned everything into a mini-narrative and I couldn’t remember the names of places that I hadn’t attached any story to. By contrast, their learning method was just to stare at the map and memorize the visual outlines and then rehearse the names and remember through repetition, perhaps only adding a “story” for very difficult items - very simple strategy but seemingly impossible for me.

When I have to remember random details, my strategy is to attach as many Ni(Fe) anecdotes as I can to each item. Since Sensing is my inferior function, I don’t prioritize visual details very well, so the details of an image shift around in my mind very easily, like placing a completed jigsaw puzzle in a box and shaking it vigorously. If I look at a geographical map only a day after I’ve studied it very carefully, NOTHING is where I remember it to be (frustrating!); I can’t draw the map accurately at all but I can remember the relative position of items because that’s how I stored them (“this place is next to that place which is just north of the other place”) and then I piece the chunks together into a very ugly blob that barely resembles the real map. This sad result happens even though I studied the details meticulously, even though I draw as a hobby and often pay very close attention to reproducing details, even though I swear an oath to remember certain details later on. In other words, how you store memories is often dependent on what information you unconsciously value, which is often determined by the dominance of the cognitive functions at work. Of course, your skill in remembering things can improve through practice or employing special strategies, but it’s possible that cognitive functions place some limits on you, e.g., if my friend employed my memory strategy more vigorously, it would lead to confusion and getting all the details mixed up because of being overwhelmed by so many seemingly random and overcomplicated interconnections.

Memory is also very intertwined with emotion, so any experience that is associated with very strong emotions (especially negative) is more likely to get stored whether you like it or not, which makes sense in evolutionary terms because you should have an easy and reliable mechanism to remember the things that may be harmful or detrimental for your survival. What provokes strong emotions can oftentimes be related to cognitive functions and the strong expectations that they produce:

  • Si expects familiarity in physical details
  • Se expects physical stimulation/engagement
  • Ni expects one’s extrapolations to be true/real
  • Ne expects mental stimulation/inspiration
  • Ti expects knowledge to be correct for problem solving
  • Te expects actions to be successful or get results
  • Fi expects respect for subjective moral boundaries
  • Fe expects respect for social harmony/cohesion

As you go through life, knowledge of the world grows through experience and emotionally-laden memories accumulate. These emotional memories can drive unconscious behaviors, where you gradually learn to avoid, dismiss, or become hypersensitive to the things that may violate your cognitive expectations, e.g.: SJs may become oversensitive to confronting unfamiliar things/situations, SPs dull or slow-moving people/situations, NJs reality and its constraints, NPs conventional/routine situations, TPs areas where they lack knowledge/expertise, TJs areas where they can’t feel success/competence, FPs whatever impinges on authentic self-expression, FJs disruptive people or socially toxic environments. Memory, knowledge, perception, emotion, reasoning, judgment, decision making processes are all tied together and neuroscientists have had a very tough time trying to separate the areas and map each process because not everything about subjective human experience corresponds neatly to a physical counterpart and every person’s neural map is somewhat unique.


The Strangest Eclipse Fact Of All: The Moon’s Shadow Isn’t A Circle

“These imperfections along the edge of the lunar limb don’t just reflect peaks and valleys on the Moon’s surface, but result in sharp edges and corners appearing on the Moon’s shadow as well. Thanks to incredibly accurate mapping of elevation of the entire lunar surface by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we know exactly what the profile of the Moon looks like. Combine that information with the Earth-Moon-Sun orbit, and we can derive what irregularities will be present during the August 21st, 2017 (or any) solar eclipse, when the Moon’s shadow passes across Earth’s surface.”

The Moon is spherical, and so its shadow should be a circle by simple geometry, right? Only, if we view it when it strikes Earth, it’s not even close to a circle. It’s stretched into an ellipse, and further complicated by irregular, sharp edges and corners. Why would it appear that way? As it turns out, three factors combine to get us there. The first is the fact that Earth is a sphere, not a disk, so any shadow falling on it gets stretched. The second is that the Moon’s sharp peaks, valleys and craters mean that its shadow gets irregularly distorted in a way that changes as its orbit continues. And the third is that Earth isn’t smooth, but exhibits significant changes in elevation and terrain.

Add them all up, and you’ve got the incredibly bizarre and ever-changing shape of the Moon’s shadow. Come see what the eclipse of August 21, 2017 will hold!

anonymous asked:

Hey! I was wondering if you could explain what a libertarian socialist is? My understanding of libertarians was they they were masked conservatives! I'm not trying to disrespect your political view point at all, I'm just curious :o

yeah np! libertarian socialism falls under the libertarian left square of a political compass (ignore for the time being that political compasses kinda suck and cant accurately map out all ideologies). libertarian socialism itself is also a broad thing but most libertarian socialists advocate for a limited or nonexistent state under socialism, workers control of the means of production (rather than state ownership), etc. basically the opposite of “authoritarian communism” ppl think of. libertarian was orignally a leftist term used by anarchists and socialists DECADES before the modern usage, which conservatives and capitalists coopted from us, which is why people associate “libertarian” with conservatives. again theres a lot of more specific ideologies under the umbrella of libertarian leftism (anarchism, council communism, luxemburgism, and what have u) but thats like a basic idea of it. libertarian socialism is really good and u should look more into it if u want

This is a map produced by the Imperial Library in Saarthal by the Imperial Cartographer Association. It describes in great detail all the roads, population centers, provinces, nations and empires of Tamriel in the 4th era, set before the beginning of the ‘Great Endeavor’. It accompanies in the compendium “Histories of Tamriel” and is considered the most accurate maps of that time.

This map is based on the Beyond Skyrim Tamriel heightmap by Morcroft Darkes which is used with permission.

Fic:  An heni a vez e grass ar merc'hed, 1/?

Taking a leap here.  WWII AU, PG-13, wartime trauma and injuries, mentions of Nazis.  French puns.  Names changed to reflect the time and place.  The Syndicate are Nazi-adjacent but working for a different new world order.
Title is from a Breton proverb, but I just used the part that means “he who has the grace of women”.  Hoping getting some of this out of my document lightens the load a bit.

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Kylo Ren x Reader #3

Description: Being an 18 year old, and possibly one of the smartest people on board had it’s advantages. BUt after a meeting with Snoke, a certain Commander makes your work come to a halt to have some fun of his own.

A/N: Happy Easter y’all! Stay safe and fun, and I won’t be thinking about Kylo Ren hiding Easter Eggs around his house for his children… If they celebrate Easter.. Who knows, not me, thats who!

“Oh darling, we’re just so proud of you!” Hux shrieked, mimicking your mother who had just said goodbye to you minutes earlier. Rolling your eyes, you shove him to the side. “Oh shut up Hux, at least my parents still have communications with their offspring” You growled, he chuckled lightly, wrapping his arm around your neck and dragging you along. “Oh c'mon Y/N, working for The First Order is one of the best jobs in the world, ya know? All that killing and being angry at everyone, so much fun” He teased, letting go of you as you both walk down a long hallway. “Course, being 18 and already working for The First Order, sure is a blessing” The door screeched as it opened before you, both of you still walking forward, only pausing when reaching a large window, stars decorating the sky. “Not to mention, being possibly, the smartest person on board” Rolling your eyes, your eyes searched the galaxy ahead of you. “Now now, don’t get to jealous General, wouldn’t want any of your crew hearing that a female is more superior than you” He rolled his eyes, standing up straight, maintain his bossy act.

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