absorption of light

nytimes.com
Anything Can Change, It Seems, Even an Immutable Law of Nature
By James Glanz and Dennis Overbye

By James Glanz and Dennis Overbye

An international team of astrophysicists has discovered that the basic laws of nature as understood today may be changing slightly as the universe ages, a surprising finding that could rewrite physics textbooks and challenge fundamental assumptions about the workings of the cosmos.

The researchers used the world’s largest single telescope to study the behavior of metallic atoms in gas clouds as far away from Earth as 12 billion light years. The observations revealed patterns of light absorption that the team could not explain without assuming a change in a basic constant of nature involving the strength of the attraction between electrically charged particles.

If confirmed, the finding could mean that other constants regarded as immutable, like the speed of light, might also have changed over the history of the cosmos.

(excerpt - see link for the full article)

7

blue lake in new zealand’s nelson lakes national park is the clearest fresh water body on the planet. with an underwater visibility of over 80 metres, it is as optically pure as distilled water, which is naturally blue in colour (due to its selective absorption in the red part of the visible spectrum.) 

sourced from another lake higher up in the mountains, the water of blue lake travels down a series of underground springs and passes through landslide debris (first photo), which serves to filter it of almost all particulate matter.

known as rangimairewhenua in maori (meaning the lake of peaceful lands), the lake is sacred to the area’s ngāti apa ki te rā tō iwi, and is accessible to outsiders only after a two day hike through the mountains. only scientists have been given permission to copter in.

(the absorption of light by pure water is not well known in some parts of the spectrum, including the ultraviolet, and the best data for scientists may actually come from studying the water of blue lake.) 

all photos by klaus thymann

‘Absorboing Natures Light Field’

The earth provides physical nutrients for the body to consume, the trees filter pure oxygen for us to inhale and again the forest offers us light synthases from the sun to cleanse our auric layer; like the moon cleanses a crystal in it’s reflection.

Here is this light absorption, auric cleansing and chakra balancing formula in 4 steps:

  1. Find a place in nature where you can clearly see the tree tops of a forest in the distance.
  2. Make sure that the timing is around sunset or sunrise. Keep in mind this is a bit different from sungazing. You are not looking into the sunlight itself but more a subtle aura being illuminated from the treeline.
  3. When the timing is right you will see a white layer of light just above the treeline. Keep your gaze soft and try not to focus on any one part of the aura but the majority of it in a soft meditative onlooking.
  4. Take rhythmic breaths, slow and timed. Make sure to give thanks for the energy exchange. We live in symbiosis with trees it is a beautiful relationship, kind of like how we exhale carbon dioxide; which is their food and they in turn give us oxygen. The auric layer works the same, our seemingly unclean energy is absorbed by them, while their light field is absorbed by us.

 By tapping into this light vibration, you are letting the forest communicate with each of your cells to rebuild themselves. The earth provides physical nutrients for the body to consume, the trees filter pure oxygen for us to inhale and again the forest offers us light synthases from the sun to cleanse our auric layer; like the moon cleanses a crystal in it’s reflection. hat this practice is different for everyone, that everyone who has tried this energy exchange has different results. Some just see the white light, some see it materialize in tiny bead like orbs that float toward you, some see these orbs turn colors and there are others with a extremely different experience altogether. The Native Americans have a folklore that tells that for every ailment on this planet there is a plant being to heal it, all you have to do is go in nature and ask your healing and they will show you the way.



image source:.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_phenomena

10

Looking Back on 2016, Looking Forward to 2017

2016 was the Year of Tomb Raider. Crystal Dynamics and Square Enix celebrated 20 Years of an Icon with a series of announcements, events, and releases, culminating with last October’s award-winning Rise of the Tomb Raider: 20 Year Celebration

Crystal Dynamics now looks to 2017 as a fresh adventure, with a Tomb Raider movie currently in production, the recent reveal of The Avengers project, and our move into a new and improved studio just last week.

“After months of planning, building, and some very late nights for the construction crew, we’ve just moved into our glorious new state-of-the-art studio!” revealed Scot Amos, co-studio head of Crystal Dynamics. “We have some great new amenities, from hydraulic desks for everyone to adjust as they like, to black-out shades and light absorption paint for those darkness-loving developers.”

In addition to fine-tuning the environment to ensure everyone is working at their best, the new studio has added more offices and team conference rooms, as well as a dedicated “dailies” review room outfitted with the latest and greatest gear.

“We’ve expanded to six fully equipped sound proof audio rooms too,” continued Amos. “With the growth of our team, we’ve also increased our studio meeting area and naturally outfitted it with tons of next-gen 4K screens, as well as dedicated console and PC gaming stations next to the huge new kitchen. Lastly, we’ve added two specialty rooms for optimal development efficiency: a photogrammetry capture space and our very own, on-site, fully equipped Motion Capture stage!

“The new studio will help Crystal Dynamics take our work to the next level,” agreed co-studio head Ron Rosenberg. “Crystal Dynamics’ new studio is nearly double the size in order to make room for all the new positions we’re hiring over the next year.”

If you’re interested in joining the Crystal Dynamics family and checking out the studio for yourself, you can browse our job postings here. We’re hiring across all disciplines!

This is NOT Abstract Art!

This is what you get when you pass the visible sun’s light through a prism-like device. ( called as Spectral Absorption Lines ). We all know what would happen right? Newton is accorded for this discovery. It ‘disassembles’ into its constituent colors (VIBGYOR). 

This statement is not entirely true per se because as you can deduce from the picture, some of the colors are missing! 

But why?

The dark patches in the above spectrum arise from gas at or above the Sun’s surface absorbing sunlight emitted below. Since different types of gas absorb different colors of light, it is possible to determine what gasses compose the Sun.

Albeit that is true, It is still not known why the Sun’s light is missing some colors! The majority of the spectral absorption lines have been identified but not all.

i think the thing i love about sirius’s name is the complete comparison and the way it ties in with the ‘we’ve all got light and dark inside of us’ quote?? i mean

sirius = the brightest star in the earth’s night sky. blindingly so. intense. burns so fiercely. enticing.

black = the darkest colour due to the absence or complete absorption of light. deep. all-consuming.

both his first and his last name are extremely intense for different reasons and yet are at two completely different ends of the spectrum?? like the conflicting nature of his personality, two sides of the same coin.

The Twin Flame Union

The Universe has a strong message for you relating to the phenomenon of the Twin Flame. You have been drawn to this topic and these words, which carry energy, in order to begin unlocking codes within your being that opens you up to the Twin Flame connection. 

Much preparation is done around each Twin Flame partner before the re-connection ensues. High-level spiritual guides and guardians oversee the pathway of each Soul, and their inner development, before the union is consummated. 

There is vital energy that is being streamed around you, engaging the Third Eye, Crown, Causal, Soul Star and Stellar Gateway chakras. You must be listening, paying great attention, and using your intuitive and spiritual awareness in order to receive the energy that Spirit is wishing to give you. 

Your Twin Flame partnership is not a ‘concept’ to be understood. It is not something to wrestle with, make judgements about, argue over or waste precious energy over-thinking. It is a gift from God at the very Highest level of Grace and Supreme Unity Consciousness. 

Your Twin Flame is seeking your energy right this moment. You need to be switched on, open at the Heart Centre, clear in your channels, ready to receive higher pulses of Light. Your Twin Flame needs to feel your Light, your strength, your purpose, your confidence, your faith. He or She may be wavering at this time; unsure of what the next step is, confused about life, scared, unsure and very unsettled at a base level. 

This is because it is common for earthly lives and circumstances to radically alter when the Twin Flames need to come together. In order to break open to Spirit, to burst the Heart and the Higher Heart open to extremely high frequencies of Light, the individuals must both undergo significant life changes and the breaking down of all or much of the existing structures. This process sometimes happens at the same time for Twin Flames; often it is seen that one Twin undergoes the 'breakdown and awakening’ pattern first, and the other one follows later. 

It is very common for one Twin to be holding more concentrated and distilled forms of Light in the energy bodies before the other one 'awakens to Spirit’. Therefore, it is necessary for the Twin that is more 'developed’ spiritually (do not be tempted to let your ego make a judgement about this) to provide a directional torchlight for the other one. 

Your Twin may need you to be sending light, faith and strength to them right now. It is a challenging experience for those Twins who do not understand quite what is happening to them as they prepare to have their life turned upside down through this Divine Connection. It most likely will threaten all their ideas about who they are, who they love, what they are doing with their lives, why they are here and who they are supposed to be with. 

Spirit is in the process of sending potent rays of awakening light to many previously unconscious, unawakened Twins who are ready to reunite. Many are being shocked and almost electrified into the process. Nothing will make sense for these individuals for some time to come, because they are receiving awakening codes and being prepared for living their Spiritual Missions. They may respond to the absorption of these rays of light through the Upper Chakras by a desire to run away from existing responsibilities, commitments and duties. There will be an intense urge to break free from existing conditions and even relationships. 

The Soul wants freedom, expansion, lightness, radiance and truth. The Heart of your Twin also craves deep intimacy, sacred understanding, intuitive connection and divine closeness. 

This is a time of great change for many Twin Souls, who are preparing to embark together upon a lifetime of great purpose, great love, great light and great influence upon our world. 

If you resonate with some or all of these words, it is important that you take time to listen to your intuition, your heart and your body for messages about what your Twin needs from you. You are both intrinsically telepathic with each other, so everything and anything that you send to your Twin Flame is felt and received energetically. 

Know that the energy is strong, fast-flowing and purposeful regarding the total reconnection of you and your Twin Flame. Do not doubt what you feel to be true, and trust that your angels are giving you accurate guidance. 

Your Twin Flame may need you to be a Sacred Pillar of Light and Strength at this time. Open your heart and send reassurance, eternal, unconditional love, courage and fortitude to them. They may be about to make a big leap for you, so extend your hand now in faith and the promise of an ecstatic, blissful welcome.

S. Bashford

[AP Bio] TEST FIVE: Photosynthesis

*Autotrophs will be focused on, particularly Photoautotrophs. They use sunlight/light energy, and fix CO2 to organic molecules to produce organic compounds.

Fun tidbit:
-80% of atmospheric O2 comes from UNDERWATER plants!!!

*Although leaves are the major location of photosynthesis, Chloroplasts will be focused on, as they are essential to the process of Photosynthesis & we are looking at the process on a cellular level
-> Chloroplasts’ Thylakoids transform light E to the chemical E of ATP & NADPH

Photosynthesis is, simply, the conversion of light energy into the chemical energy of food.

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O

Understanding Light Energy

-light energy is known as “electromagnetic” energy
-> travels in rhythmic waves (disturbances of electrical and magnetic fields)

Wavelength = distance b/t CRESTS of E.M. waves
-> range from < 1 nm - >1 km

Range of Radiation  = ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

-small portion most important to life -> narrow band from 380 nm - 750 nm -> “VISIBLE LIGHT”

Photons = light behaving as though it consists of these “discrete particles” -> not tangible but have a fixed quantity of energy

-relationship b/t wavelength & amount of energy is INVERSE
Ex: photon of violet light has almost 2x as much energy as photon of red light

-atmosphere acts as “selective window”, letting visible light in, but not a lot of other radiation

-VISIBLE LIGHT drives photosynthesis!!!!!

-when light meets matter, it is either: 1) REFLECTED, 2) TRANSMITTED, or 3) ABSORBED

Pigments = substances that absorb visible light
-> diff. pigments absorb diff. wavelengths

-wavelengths that are absorbed, disappear!!!

-when a pigment is illuminated w/ white light, we see the color that is most reflected or transmitted by it!
Ex: leaf is green b/c chlorophyll absorbs violet-blue & red light, but TRANSMITS & REFLECTS green light
Ex: if absorbs all wavelengths -> appears black

Spectrophotometer = instrument that measures ability of pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light
-> machine directs beams of light at diff. wavelengths through solution of pigment & measures fraction of light transmitted @ each W.L.

Absorption Spectrum = graph plotting three diff. types of chloroplast pigments’ light absorption vs. wavelength
-> helps us determine effectiveness of diff. wavelengths for driving photosynthesis

*light can perform work in chloroplasts ONLY if it is absorbed!

Action Spectrum  = plots the rate of photosynthesis vs. wavelength and profiles the relative effectiveness of diff. W.L.’s of radiation in driving photosynthesis
-> prepared by illuminating chloroplasts w/ light of diff. colors & plotting W.L. against some measure of photosynthetic rate (such as CO2 consumption & O2 release)
-> resembles the action spectrum for chlorophyll a (but not EXACTLY -> this is partly due to the absorption of light by “accessory” pigments such as chlorophyll b & carotenoids)
-> first demonstrated in Englemann’s experiment

Englemann’s Experiment = In 1883, Theodor W. Englemann illuminated a filamentous alga w/ light that had been passed thru a prism, exposing diff. segments of the alga to diff. W.L.’s. He used aerobic bacteria, which concentrate near an O2 source, to determine which segments of the alga were releasing the most O2 & thus photosynthesizing the most. Bacteria congregates in greatest numbers around the parts of the alga illuminated w/ violet-blue or red light. *There is a close match of the bacterial distribution to the Action Spectrum graph.
-> CONCLUSION: violet-blue & red light are the most effective in driving photosynthesis! green light is the least effective color, as it is reflected/transmitted, not absorbed.

Pigments


*absorption spectra & action spectra do not exactly match for chlorophyll a
-> this is b/c “accessory” pigments w/ diff. absorption spectra are ALSO photosynthetically important in chloroplasts & broaden the spectrum of colors that can be used for photosynthesis (Ex: chlorophyll b & carotenoids)

*chlorophyll b & chlorophyll a are almost identical, but have a slight structural difference
-> as a result, they have different colors (chlorophyll a is blue-green, chlorophyll b is yellow-green)

-both molecules consist of:

Porphyrin Ring = light-absorbing “head” of molecule; w/ magnesium atom @ center
&
Hydrocarbon Tail = interacts w/ hydrophobic regions of proteins inside thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

*the ONLY difference between chlorophyll a & chlorophyll b is the functional group bonded to the porphyrin ring

Carotenoids = hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow & oranges (b/c they absorb violet-blue & green light) -> broaden spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis

Photoprotection = important function of some carotenoids
-> compounds absorb & dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact w/ O2, forming dangerous (to the cell), reactive oxidative molecules

Fun tidbit:
-carotenoids similar to photoprotective ones in chloroplasts have photoprotective role in human eye! Highlighted in health food products as “phytochemicals” -> have antioxidant powers! Plants synthesize all the antioxidants they need, where humans & other animals must obtain from their diets

—-

-when light is absorbed, W.L.’s disappear from spectrum, but energy CANNOT disappear!
-> when molecule absorbs photon of light, 1 of the molecule’s e’s is elevated to an orbital of higher potential energy/“excited state” (when e in normal orbital -> pigment molecule said to be in ground state)

-only photons absorbed are those whose energy is exactly equal to energy diff. b/t ground & excited states (energy diff. varies from one kind of molecule/atom to another)
-> particular compound absorbs only photons corresponding to specific W.L.’s, which is why each pigment has a unique absorption spectrum!

-once raised to excited state, electron cannot remain there long
-> high energy state, therefore unstable

-when isolated pigment molecules absorb light, e’s drop back down to ground state in billionth of a sec. -> RELEASE excess energy as heat!
Ex: why top of car is so hot on sunny day!

Fun tidbit:
-white cars are coolest b/c paint reflects all W.L. of visible light!

-in isolation some pigments emit light, also
-> “afterglow” = FLUORESCENCE
Ex: if solution of chlorophyll is isolated from chloroplasts & illuminated, will fluoresce in red-orange & give off heat

Photosynthetic Structures

-leaves get their green color from chlorophyll, the green pigment w/i chloroplasts, as it reflects green light

Stomata = The space where CO2 enters and O2 exits

Chloroplasts = found mainly in cells of the Mesophyll

Mesophyll = The interior tissue of the leaf

Guard Cells = Special cells (containing structural proteins) that will close (flaccid-> hypo inside cells & hyper outside cells) to conserve water if needed. When open (turgid-> hyper inside cells & hyper outside cells), they leave the space known as the Stomata.
-> potassium plays a role in the opening & closing of the stomata. when proton pumps transport H+ ions, changing the membrane charge, the K+ “gates” open and K+ diffusion occurs. H2O will follow K+!!!

Stroma = a dense fluid w/i chloroplasts, similar to the cytosol of an animal cell

Photosystems

-chlorophyll molecules excited & in intact chloroplast produce diff. results
-> *in native environment of thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll molecules organized w/ other small organic molecules & proteins into PHOTOSYSTEMS

Photosystem = reaction center surrounded by # of light-harvesting complexes

Light-Harvesting Complexes = pigment molecules bound to particular proteins
-# & variety of pigment molecules enable a photosystem to harvest light over a larger surface & a larger portion of the spectrum than 1 single pigment alone

-together, light-harvesting complexes act as “antenna” for reaction center

-when pigment molecule absorbs photon, energy transferred from pigment molecule to pigment molecule w/i L-H C until funneled into Rx center

Reaction Center = protein complex -> includes molecules & molecule called “primary electron acceptor”
-> includes “special” chlorophyll a molecules; these are special b/c their molecular environment (location to other associated molecules) allows them to use energy from light to boost one of their e’s to a higher E level to be captured by the primary electron acceptor

-(solar-powered) transfer of e from special chlorophyll a -> primary electron acceptor

-chlorophyll e is excited & PEA catches it -> REDOX RX
(isolated chlorophyll would fluoresce b/c no e acceptor)
-> drop right back down to ground state

*in chloroplast, immediate plunge back to ground state is prevented

-each photosystem (Rx center surrounded by L-H C’s) -> functions as a “unit” w/i chloroplast
-> converts light E to chemical E (used for the synthesis of sugar)

-thylakoid membrane has 2 types of photosystems

Photosystem II (PS II) = Rx center chlorophyll a = “p680” (pigment best @ absorb light w/ W.L. of 680 nm/red)

Photosystem I (PS I) = Rx center chlorophyll a = “p700” (pigment best @ absorbing light w/ W.L. of 700 nm/“far” red)

*IMPORTANT: NAMED IN ORDER OF THEIR DISCOVERIES. PS II ACTUALLY OCCURS FIRST!!!!

-they both actually have identical chlorophyll a molecules, BUT they are associated w/ diff. proteins in the thylakoid membrane -> this affects the e distribution in chlorophyll molecules & accounts for their slight difference in light-absorbing properties

*WORK TOGETHER to use light E to create ATP & NADPH!!!!

*IMPORTANT CONCEPT SUMMARY: light drives the synthesis of NADPH & ATP by energizing 2 photosystems (embedded in the thylakoid membranes)

-> the key to E transformation is the FLOW OF E’S thru the PS’s (& other molecular components built into the thylakoid membrane)

*during light Rx’s, there are 2 possible routes for e flow: “cyclic” & “noncyclic” (the dominant route)

Noncyclic Electron Flow

1) Photon of light strikes a pigment molecule in L-H C & is bounced to other pigment molecules until it reaches 1 of 2 p680 chlorophyll a molecules in the PS II Rx center.
2) The electron is boosted up and captured by the Primary Electron Acceptor!
3) An enzyme splits H2O up into: 2 e’s, 2 H+’s, & 1 O. The e’s are supplied one by one to the p680 molecules -> replace the e lost to the PEA. (*As p680 is missing an e, it is the strongest biological oxidizing agent & the e hole must be filled.) The O atom combines w/ another O atom & forms O2.
4) Each photoexcited e passes from the PEA of PS II to PS I via an Electron Transport Chain. The ETC b/t PS II & PS I is made up of “electron carrier plastoquinone” (Pq), a cytochrome complex, & a protein called “plastocyanin” (Pc).
5) The exergonic “fall” of e’s to a lower E level provides the E to synthesize ATP.
6) Meanwhile, light E is transferred via L-H C to PS I’s Rx center. An e of 1 of 2 p700 chlorophyll a molecules is excited. The photoexcited e is captured by PS I’s PEA, creating an “e hole” in p700. This hole is “filled” by the e that reaches the bottom of the ETC from PS II.
7) Photoexcited e’s are passed from PS I’s PEA down a 2nd ETC thru a protein called “ferredoxin” (Fd).
8) The enzyme NADP+ Reductase transfers e’s from Fd to NADP+. 2 e’s are required for NADP+ to be reduced to NADPH.

Cyclic Electron Flow

-under certain conditions, photoexcited e’s take an “alternative path”, called Cyclic Electron Flow
-> USES PS I but NOT PS II!!!!!

-SHORT circuit: e’s cycle back from ferredoxin (Fd) to cytochrome complex, then continue on to the p700 chlorophyll in PS I’s Rx Center
-> NO production of NADPH & no release of O -> BUT DOES generate ATP

*IMPORTANT CONCEPT: The function of CEF is to produce more ATP to make up for the difference b/c the Calvin Cycle consumes more ATP than NADPH

*The concentration of NADPH in chloroplast helps regulate which pathway e’s take thru light Rx’s!!!!

—-

-photosynthesis generates ATP by the same basic mechanism as cellular respiration: chemiosmosis!

-the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast pumps protons from the stroma into the thylakoid space (which functions as an H+/proton reservoir)

-the thylakoid membrane makes ATP as H+’s/protons diffuse down the concentration gradient from [HIGH] in the thylakoid space back to [LOW] in the stroma thru ATP Synthase (like in cell resp!) complexes (the knobs of ATP Synthase are on the Stroma side)

-thus -> ATP forms in the Stroma, which is used to help drive sugar synthesis during the Calvin Cycle

*when chloroplasts are illuminated: pH in the thylakoid space drop to about 5 ([H+] INC.), & pH in the Stroma inc. to about 8 ([H+] DEC.)!

—-

Summary

Noncyclic Electron Flow pushes e’s from H2O (low state of PE) to NADPH (stored @ high state of PE). The light-driven electron current also produces ATP. The thylakoid membrane converts light E to chemical E (which is stored in NADPH & ATP). Also, O2 is a by-product.

Calvin Cycle

-similar to the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, a starting molecule is regenerated after molecules enter & leave
-> HOWEVER: calvin cycle is ANABOLIC (builds + consumes)

-carbon enters as CO2 & leaves as sugar

-spends ATP as energy source & consumes NADPH as “reducing power” for adding high energy e’s to make sugar

-carbohydrate produced-G3P (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)

-net synthesis of 1 molecule of sugar -> CC must take place 3 TIMES!!!!!! (fixes 3 molecules of CO2, 1 time for each one that goes)

PHASES

1) “Carbon Fixation” = incorporates each CO2 molecule (1 at a time) by attaching to 5-C sugar RuBP (ribulose biphosphate)
a. -> enzyme that catalyzes 1st step = RuBP Carboxylase (“RUBISCO”)
b. -> most abundant protein on earth
c. PRODUCT = 6-C intermediate -> SO UNSTABLE it immediately splits in half -> becomes 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (for EACH CO2!!)

2) “Reduction” = each molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate receives an additional phosphate from ATP -> becomes 1, 3-biphosphoglycerate
a. -> pair of e’s donated from NADPH
b. -> reduces 1 , 3-biphosphoglycerate to G3P
c. -> e’s from NADPH reduce carboxyl group 3-phosphoflycerate to aldehyde group of G3P (stores more ATP)
d. ->*for every 3 CO2, there are 6 C3P
e. ->*only 1 molecule of G3P can be counted as net gain! -> 1 molecule exits the calvin cycle to be used by plant cell -> other 5 recycled to regenerate the 3 molecules of RuBP!

3) “Regeneration of the CO2 Acceptor (RuBP)” = in a complex series of Rx’s, the carbon skeletons of 5 G3P’s are rearranged by the last steps of the calvin cycle into 3 RuBP
-> to work, the calvin cycle needs to spend 3 molecules of ATP
-> RuBP is now prepared to receive CO2 again!!!!
-> for the net synthesis of 1 G3P, the calvin cycle consumes a total of 9 molecules of ATP & 6 molecules of NADPH!!!!!

Conservation of Water

-plants have anatomical & metabolic adaptations to help them conserve water (water is super duper important to plants, as it is like “feeding them electrons”!!!!)

-photorespiration (photo = light, respiration = the consumption of O2 & production of CO2) is a wasteful metabolic process & may kill plans if it continues for too long.

-“closed stomata” conditions for photorespiration

C3 Plants = 1st organic product of carbon fixation is 3-C “3-phosphoglycerate”
-> *most plants: initial fixation of C occurs via Rubisco, a calvin cycle enzyme that adds CO2 to RuBP

Ex: rice, wheat, & soy beans

-> stomata partially closed on hot, dry days & produce less sugar b/c less CO2 can get in -> also, Rubisco can bind O2 in place of CO2!! -> product splits, 2-C compound leaves chloroplast -> peroxisomes & mitochondria rearrange & split compound -> RELEASES CO2

-> called “photorespiration” (occurs in light, & consumes O2 while producing CO2!!)

-> does not generate ATP, CONSUMES IT

-> does not produce sugar

-> decreases photosynthetic output (siphons organic material from the calvin cycle)

-> modern Rubisco retains some chance affinity for O2 -> certain amount of photorespiration is inevitable now

C4 Plants = an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms 4-C as 1st product
Ex: sugar cane & corn

-> unique leaf anatomy: 1) Bundle-Sheath Cells; tightly-packed sheaths around veins of leaf, Calvin Cycle takes place here in these plants & 2) Mesophyll Cells; more loosely arranged

-> cycle preceded by incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds in the Mesophyll

-> 1st step: the enzyme PEP Carboxylase adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)

-> forms 4-C oxaloacetate

-> *PEP Carboxylase can fix carbon when Rubisco can’t b/c of a high affinity for CO2

-> Mesophyll then “exports”/pumps 4-C product to bundle-sheath cells thru Plasmodesmata (*SPATIAL ADAPTATION)

-> w/i cells -> 4-C’s RELEASE CO2

CAM Plants = “crassulacean acid metabolism” = open stomata @ night & close during day (TEMPORAL/time relationship)
Ex: succulents, pineapples, etc.

-> allows desert plants to conserve H2O

-> *Mesophyll cells store organic acids made @ night in vacuoles until morning (stomata close)

001. A Masterlist Of Superpowers

Under the cut you will find 125 powers and abilities that I deem appropriate for any superpower roleplay group, 1x1 roleplay or indie roleplayer. Some of them are originally thought of by myself. Most originate from the Marvel/DC Comics universes. Many of these can be expanded upon depending the nature of the player and power. Please message me if you have suggestions for the list. A like or reblog is always appreciated!

Keep reading

10 Times More Galaxies!

The universe suddenly looks a lot more crowded…

We already estimated that there were about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe, but new research shows that this estimate is at least 10 times too low!

First, what is the observable universe? Well, it is the most distant part of the universe we can see from Earth because, in theory, the light from these objects have had time to reach Earth.

In a new study using surveys taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other observatories, astronomers came to the surprising conclusion that there are at least 10 times more galaxies in the observable universe than previously thought. This places the universe’s estimated population at, minimally, 2 trillion galaxies!

The results have clear implications for galaxy formation, and also helps shed light on an ancient astronomical paradox – why is the sky dark at night?

Most of these newly discovered galaxies were relatively small and faint, with masses similar to those of the satellite galaxies surrounding the Milky Way.

Using deep-space images from the Hubble Space Telescope and other observatories, astronomers converted the images into 3-D, in order to make accurate measurements of the number of galaxies at different epochs in the universe’s history.

In addition, they used new mathematical models, which allowed them to infer the existence of galaxies that the current generation of telescopes cannot observe. This led to the surprising conclusion that in order for the numbers of galaxies we now see and their masses to add up, there must be a further 90% of galaxies in the observable universe that are too faint and too far away to be seen with present-day telescopes.

The myriad small faint galaxies from the early universe merged over time into the larger galaxies we can now observe.

That means that over 90% of the galaxies in the universe have yet to be studied! In the near future, the James Webb Space Telescope will be able to study these ultra-faint galaxies and give us more information about their existence.

So back to the question…Why is the sky dark at night if the universe contains an infinity of stars? Researchers came to the conclusion that indeed there actually is such an abundance of galaxies that, in principle, every patch in the sky contains part of a galaxy.

However, starlight from the galaxies is invisible to the human eye and most modern telescopes due to other known factors that reduce visible and ultraviolet light in the universe. Those factors are the reddening of light due to the expansion of space, the universe’s dynamic nature, and the absorption of light by intergalactic dust and gas. All combined, this keeps the night sky dark to our vision.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

naturej0sette  asked:

my hair gets super oily when I try to moisturize my hair. so how do you moisturize low porosity hair??

Hi, try the following methods,
1)use a clarifying shampoo like Giovanni tea tree shampoo to get rid of build up & prepare hair for moisture absorption.
2)use light oils like jojoba ,grapeseed or argon oil for better absorption as well as Moisturize better without leaving hair oily.
3)for deep conditioning, which is a must for low porosity hair, please try Tigi moisture Maniac conditioner.
4)use products with humectants like aloe vera, honey which draw moisture from the air but be careful in dry seasons as they may do the opposite.
( Experiment with humectants products to see which one works better depending on where u leave)
5)You can also use just a steamer for 15-30mins to add moisture or if you have no steamer, heat a small towel & wrap it on your head, then cover with a plastic cap to create natural steam. ( u can also invest in a microwavable satin wrap)
6) lastly, you could try a curl activator “ Jheri curl” they are great to add moisture as well as treat heat damaged hair.
7) trying the baggy method will add moisture as well.
8) always apply your moisture on damp not wet hair for better absorption.
9) mix a little baking soda with a light shampoo.

Hopefully one of these will help you & remember if a product doesn’t work for u, toss it but stick with those that work.

Hubble Catches a Dusty Spiral in Virgo : This magnificent new image taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4206, located about 70 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo.

Captured here are vast streaks of dust, some of which are obscuring the central bulge, which can just be made out in the center of the galaxy. Towards the edges of the galaxy, the scattered clumps, which appear blue in this image, mark areas where stars are being born. The bulge, on the other hand, is composed mostly of much older, redder stars, and very little star formation takes place.

NGC 4206 was imaged as part of a Hubble snapshot survey of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to measure the effect that the material between the stars known as the interstellar medium has on light as it travels through it. Using its Advanced Camera for Surveys, Hubble can reveal information about the dusty material and hydrogen gas in the cold parts of the interstellar medium. Astronomers are then able to map the absorption and scattering of light by the material an effect known as extinction which causes objects to appear redder to us, the observers.

NGC 4206 is visible with most moderate amateur telescopes at 13th magnitude. It was discovered by Hanoverian-born British astronomer, William Herschel on April 17, 1784.

European Space Agency

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Nick Rose

js
One Punch Man Databook Q&A Translation

panthernado on Reddit translated and posted this!

I found this while looking through the One Punch Man subreddit. It’s pretty interesting if you want to know more than what’s shown in the manga and it has some cool character info, so I’m gonna post it. It’s pretty long so I put it under the read more. Pretty much copy/pasted.

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Fishing-Line Muscles Could Make Superstrong Robots

by Charles Q. Choi

Artificial muscles that drive the powerful limbs or subtle facial expressions of robots can be made using nothing more than fishing line and sewing thread, researchers say. Such components work essentially the same way as toy airplanes powered by rubber bands.

“We can take a very inexpensive material that you can find at your local store and convert it to a powerful muscle that outperforms very complicated technologies,” says Ray Baughman, a materials scientist and director of the University of Texas at Dallas NanoTech Institute.

The scientists imagine their new technology will find use in applications where superhuman strength is desired, such as in robots, exoskeletons and prosthetic limbs. For example, by twisting a bundle of polyethylene fishing lines, each about 10 times the width of a human hair, a coiled polymer muscle results that can lift 16 pounds, and 100 of these muscles operating in parallel much like natural muscles could lift about 1,600 pounds, Baughman says.

Click through to read more and see additional gifs.

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15 Ways the International Space Station is Benefiting Earth

With astronauts living and working aboard the International Space Station, we’re learning a great deal about creating and testing critical systems, maintaining efficient communications and protecting the human body during a deep space mission. While these are critical to our journey to Mars, it is important to also note all the ways in which research conducted and technology tested aboard the orbiting laboratory help us here on Earth.

Here are 15 ways the space station is benefiting life on Earth:

1. Commercializing Low-Earth Orbit

An exciting new commercial pathway is revolutionizing and opening access to space, fostering America’s new space economy in low-Earth orbit. For the first time, the market is expressing what research can and should be done aboard the microgravity laboratory without direct government funding. Our move to purchase commercial cargo resupply and crew transportation to the space station enables U.S. businesses to develop a competitive capability they also can sell as a service to others while freeing our resources for deep space exploration. Private sector participation provides a new model for moving forward in partnership with the government.

2. Supporting Water Purification Efforts Worldwide

Whether in the confines of the International Space Station or a tiny hut village in sub-Saharan Africa, drinkable water is vital for human survival. Unfortunately, many people around the world lack access to clean water. Using technology developed for the space station, at-risk areas can gain access to advanced water filtration and purification systems, making a life-saving difference in these communities. The Water Security Corporation, in collaboration with other organizations, has deployed systems using NASA water-processing technology around the world.

3. Growing High-Quality Protein Crystals

There are more than 100,000 proteins in the human body and as many as 10 billion in nature. Every structure is different, and each protein holds important information related to our health and to the global environment. The perfect environment in which to study these structures is space. Microgravity allows for optimal growth of the unique and complicated crystal structures of proteins leading to the development of medical treatments. An example of a protein that was successfully crystallized in space is hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS), which may hold the key to developing useful drugs for treating muscular dystrophy. This particular experiment is an example of how understanding a protein’s structure can lead to better drug designs. Further research is ongoing.

4. Bringing Space Station Ultrasound to the Ends of the Earth

Fast, efficient and readily available medical attention is key to survival in a health emergency. For those without medical facilities within easy reach, it can mean the difference between life and death. For astronauts in orbit about 250 miles above Earth aboard the International Space Station, that problem was addressed through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) investigation. Medical care has become more accessible in remote regions by use of small ultrasound units, tele-medicine, and remote guidance techniques, just like those used for people living aboard the space station.

5. Improving Eye Surgery with Space Hardware

Laser surgery to correct eyesight is a common practice, and technology developed for use in space is now commonly used on Earth to track a patient’s eye and precisely direct the laser scalpel. The Eye Tracking Device experiment gave researchers insight into how humans’ frames of reference, balance and the overall control of eye movement are affected by weightlessness. In parallel with its use on the space station, the engineers realized the device had potential for applications on Earth. Tracking the eye’s position without interfering with the surgeon’s work is essential in laser surgery. The space technology proved ideal, and the Eye Tracking Device equipment is now being used in a large proportion of corrective laser surgeries throughout the world.

6. Making Inoperable Tumors Operable with a Robotic Arm

The delicate touch that successfully removed an egg-shaped tumor from Paige Nickason’s brain got a helping hand from a world-renowned arm—a robotic arm, that is. The technology that went into developing neuroArm, the world’s first robot capable of performing surgery inside magnetic resonance machines, was born of the Canadarm (developed in collaboration with engineers at MacDonald, Dettwiler, and Associates, Ltd. [MDA] for the U.S. Space Shuttle Program) as well as Canadarm2 and Dextre, the Canadian Space Agency’s family of space robots performing the heavy lifting and maintenance aboard the International Space Station. Since Nickason’s surgery in 2008, neuroArm has been used in initial clinical experience with 35 patients who were otherwise inoperable.

7. Preventing Bone Loss Through Diet and Exercise

In the early days of the space station, astronauts were losing about one-and-a-half percent of their total bone mass density per month. Researchers discovered an opportunity to identify the mechanisms that control bones at a cellular level. These scientists discovered that high-intensity resistive exercise, dietary supplementation for vitamin D and specific caloric intake can remedy loss of bone mass in space. The research also is applicable to vulnerable populations on Earth, like older adults, and is important for continuous crew member residency aboard the space station and for deep space exploration to an asteroid placed in lunar orbit and on the journey to Mars.

8. Understanding the Mechanisms of Osteoporosis

While most people will never experience life in space, the benefits of studying bone and muscle loss aboard the station has the potential to touch lives here on the ground. Model organisms are non-human species with characteristics that allow them easily to be reproduced and studied in a laboratory. Scientists conducted a study of mice in orbit to understand mechanisms of osteoporosis. This research led to availability of a pharmaceutical on Earth called Prolia® to treat people with osteoporosis, a direct benefit of pharmaceutical companies using the spaceflight opportunity available via the national lab to improve health on Earth.

9. Developing Improved Vaccines

Ground research indicated that certain bacteria, in particular Salmonella, might become more pathogenic (more able to cause disease) during spaceflight. Salmonella infections result in thousands of hospitalizations and hundreds of deaths annually in the United States. While studying them in space, scientists found a pathway for bacterial pathogens to become virulent. Researchers identified the genetic pathway activating in Salmonella bacteria, allowing the increased likelihood to spread in microgravity. This research on the space station led to new studies of microbial vaccine development.

10. Providing Students Opportunities to Conduct Their Own Science in Space

From the YouTube Space Lab competition, the Student Spaceflight Experiments Program, and SPHERES Zero Robotics, space station educational activities inspire more than 43 million students across the globe. These tyFrom the YouTube Space Lab competition, the Student Spaceflight Experiments Program, and SPHERES Zero Robotics, space station educational activities inspire more than 43 million students across the globe. These types of inquiry-based projects allow students to be involved in human space exploration with the goal of stimulating their studies of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. It is understood that when students test a hypothesis on their own or compare work in a lab to what’s going on aboard the space station, they are more motivated towards math and science.

11. Breast Cancer Detection and Treatment Technology

A surgical instrument inspired by the Canadian Space Agency’s heavy-lifting and maneuvering robotic arms on the space station is in clinical trials for use in patients with breast cancer. The Image-Guided Autonomous Robot (IGAR) works inside an MRI machine to help accurately identify the size and location of a tumor. Using IGAR, surgeons also will be able to perform highly dexterous, precise movements during biopsies.

12. Monitoring Water Quality from Space

Though it completed its mission in 2015, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) was an imaging sensor that helped detect water quality parameters such as water clarity, phytoplankton concentrations, light absorption and the distribution of cyanobacteria. HICO was first designed and built by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory for the Office of Naval Research to assess water quality in the coastal ocean. Researchers at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took the data from HICO and developed a smartphone application to help determine hazardous concentrations of contaminants in water. With the space station’s regular addition of new instruments to provide a continuous platform for Earth observation, researchers will continue to build proactive environmental protection applications that benefit all life on Earth.

13. Monitoring Natural Disasters from Space

An imaging system aboard the station, ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV), captured photographs of Earth from space for use in developing countries affected by natural disasters. A broader joint endeavor by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, known as SERVIR, works with developing nations around the world to use satellites for environmental decision-making. Images from orbit can help with rapid response efforts to floods, fires, volcanic eruptions, deforestation, harmful algal blooms and other types of natural events. Since the station passes over more than 90 percent of the Earth’s populated areas every 24 hours, the ISERV system was available to provide imagery to developing nations quickly, collecting up to 1,000 images per day. Though ISERV successfully completed its mission, the space station continues to prove to be a valuable platform for Earth observation during times of disaster.

14. Describing the Behavior of Fluids to Improve Medical Devices

Capillary Flow Experiments (CFE) aboard the space station study the movement of a liquid along surfaces, similar to the way fluid wicks along a paper towel. These investigations produce space-based models that describe fluid behavior in microgravity, which has led to a new medical testing device on Earth. This new device could improve diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in remote areas, thanks in part to knowledge gained from the experiments.

15. Improving Indoor Air Quality

Solutions for growing crops in space now translates to solutions for mold prevention in wine cellars, homes and medical facilities, as well as other industries around the world. NASA is studying crop growth aboard the space station to develop the capability for astronauts to grow their own food as part of the agency’s journey to Mars. Scientists working on this investigation noticed that a buildup of a naturally-occurring plant hormone called ethylene was destroying plants within the confined plant growth chambers. Researchers developed and successfully tested an ethylene removal system in space, called Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC). It helped to keep the plants alive by removing viruses, bacteria and mold from the plant growth chamber. Scientists adapted the ADVASC system for use in air purification. Now this technology is used to prolong the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables in the grocery store, and winemakers are using it in their storage cellars.

For more information on the International Space Station, and regular updates, follow @Space_Station on Twitter. 

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:http://nasa.tumblr.com 

5

… ☾ … ☾ … BELLUARUM COLLEGE … ☽ … ☽ ☽ 

a duodecim (12-member) roleplay:
a story of mystery, murder, and conspiracy
(3rd of my murder plots; after little philosophers & o dionysus)

Forgive me father for I have

                                      s i n n e d

I have left bodies bruised and broken

                                      bleeding out

But my biggest sin, the cherry on top is…

                                     that I don’t care

                       whether you or god or anyone else

                                     forgives me at all (-theburningsouls)

A civil war is brewing in the supernatural population...

“Have you ever seen the students at the school up on the hill?”

Tucked away in a small town in upstate New York is Belluarum College, founded in 1819. Known to be selective, isolated, and eerily suspicious, the famed liberal arts school is the home to the most unusual students—so unusual and extraordinary that they couldn’t really be considered human at all. Each student is with a uniquely monstrous pedigree and an eternal pledge to keep the supernatural a secret from the rest of the human world. With mystical powers comes governance, and with governance comes harsh rules—all in the name of keeping the supernatural as just another fairy tale for the humans.

“There’s something about them… unearthly beautiful, every one of them…”

And with that pledge, the Belluarum Guard was assembled by the elders council in guise of the student senate. Six of the two thousand students are recruited each year to protect their surreptitious existences, not without using discrete assassinations, executions, and unsavory espionage. As the new school year begins, an elite team comprised of a faerie, reaper, wizard, kitsune, vampire, and angel find themselves thrust into a series of mysterious murders of supernatural students and increase of suspicion from the townspeople.

“But they seem to hold a sort of sinister ambience.”

However, the story turns for the worst when they find the mutilated corpse of a siren outside the campus gates with “MONSTER” carved on her forehead. A band of six anti-pledge supernaturals who call themselves the Belluarum Liberators, consisting of a sphinx, werewolf, ghost, phoenix, banshee, and valkyrie, boil with bitter hatred towards the elders council and Guard. It is their wish to bring down the ruling hands and unleash the supernatural world’s secrets out in the open. Millennia-old conspiracies among the supernatural community are beginning to unfold.

“Are you curious or scared?”

FURTHER INFORMATION:

Application Information: If interested, please reblog this post, submit a sample para (3rd person in character), an explanation of why you selected the character, ideas for the character and plot (feel free to ask for prompts and such), and selected face. Please also indicate your out of character name, age, activity level, and why you are interested in this group.

Disclaimer: This roleplay will feature mature themes. The plot and character developments will be very detail oriented. It will require quite a lot OOC communication so please have a Skype account when a role is given to you and create a character account (not side blog). This will be a group with a mix of paras and one-liners. Feel free to reserve a character for the next 72 hours if you are interested (just reblog this post and shoot me a message; if you need 72+ hours due to circumstances, let me know). Any questions or discussions about character sexualities and such are always welcome in my inbox! Don’t be afraid to talk or ask me. This group will be open as soon as each role is filled (hopefully at the end of August/beginning of September).

Tips: Follow #belluarum college for info posts! Check out the tag on my page here, to get more inspiration! Sample apps can be found here (from the O Dionysus days). Make sure to read all the character information, as a lot of information pertaining to the story as a whole is scattered throughout. Asking for para prompts may be useful, so don’t be shy! My ask box is always open for questions and comments! If you could help spread the word regardless of whether you will apply or not, I would really appreciate it. Thank you very much :)

CHARACTERS:

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6

Spectroscopic Saturnian Rings - 150x3cm Acrylic on Canvas - Steve Lodge

This is a map of Saturn’s rings D to F. I picked the colours to emulate a visible light absorption spectrum.

I wanted to make the point that colours assigned to spectroscopic astronomical photographs are sometimes arbitrary, intentionally high contrast or enhanced so astronomers can pick out features but are immensely scientifically valuable.

Get some science art here

Dusty Spiral In Virgo

This magnificent new image taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4206, located about 70 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo.

Captured here …are vast streaks of dust, some of which are obscuring the central bulge, which can just be made out in the centre of the galaxy. Towards the edges of the galaxy, the scattered clumps, which appear blue in this image, mark areas where stars are being born. The bulge, on the other hand, is composed mostly of much older, redder stars, and very little star formation takes place.

NGC 4206 was imaged as part of a Hubble snapshot survey of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to measure the effect that the material between the stars — known as the interstellar medium — has on light as it travels through it. Using its Advanced Camera for Surveys, Hubble can reveal information about the dusty material and hydrogen gas in the cold parts of the interstellar medium. Astronomers are then able to map the absorption and scattering of light by the material — an effect known as extinction — which causes objects to appear redder to us, the observers.

NGC 4206 is visible with most moderate amateur telescopes at 13th magnitude. It was discovered by Hanoverian-born British astronomer, William Herschel on 17 April 1784. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Nick Rose.

Caption: ESA
ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Nick Rose