absolute monarch

I would just like to point something out

To all the people on tumblr making jokes about “killing a dictator” in the Ides of March tag in a very obvious attempt to tactlessly mock/passive aggressively threaten Trump…

…You do realize that when they did that the very thing the conspirators didn’t want happened (Rome became an Empire with basically a hereditary line of absolute monarch) and they were all killed for their trouble?

You–you know that right?

Often times in the most (in)famous cases of political assassinations rater than lead to the “freeing” of the people or society it in fact often lead to the EXACT OPPOSITE since violence gives an excuse for a violent retaliation and suppression?

Can you just maturely accept that you lost a perfectly fair election and can *gaspchoke* try again next time around? Because just in case you didn’t notice we live in a beautiful place called AMERICA where we have this thing called ELECTIONS where you can, without threat of government or party reprisal, vote for whoever you want? And that the President isn’t an absolute monarch but a man hemmed in by MANY rules and laws purposely designed to limit his power so as to avoid anything even close to dictatorship?

So maybe you want to think twice before making your very tasteless (and might I add very undemocratic sentiment) public? Or just, you know, educate yourself a little bit? Please?

2

The Greatest Kings

I’ve received some disgruntled messages about comparing Jinheung and Wang So in one of my previous posts and coming to a conclusion that Jinheung was in some ways similar to Wang So. All I can say is: WELL, HE ISN’T NOW! I miss the Jinheung from the first 6 episodes where he was so much stronger, self-confident and aware of his position and right to the throne. I miss the man who was ready to fight the whole world to claim what was rightfully his. This must be the first time EVER that I have seen a character REGRESSING instead of developing.

Moon Lovers had its own flaws but there is no doubt that compared to Hwarang it’s highly superior drama, especially the portrayal and development of Wang So. Mostly because the writer there understood that the greatest monarchs of Goryeo and the Three Kingdoms were no modern pacifists - they were ABSOLUTE MONARCHS, CONQUERORS, WARRIORS WHO FOUGHT WARS AND KILLED AND PUNISHED THEIR ENEMIES TO CONSOLIDATE POWER because that’s how they managed to make all the reforms and memorable deeds they are remembered for today. Taking that away from them is the greatest injustice a writer can do to historical figures like them. Unlike Jinheung,Wang So wasn’t reduced to a mere love interest; his main objective in the first 15 episodes of ML might have been gaining Hae Soo’s love and protecting his loved ones but that’s because he was in different position than Jinheung - he WAS NOT THE KING NOR A CROWN PRINCE, in fact as the 4th Prince he was so low in the line of succesion that he had no reasons to believe or hope that he would one day become a king. He never lived with those responsibilities, so naturally his actions and character were never ruled or shaped by them like Jinheung’s were (but mostly only at the beginning, unfortunately).

Some might argue that Jinheug isn’t the main character of the story in Hwarang, but he still is the second most important character AND HE STILL IS ONE OF THE GREATEST KINGS KOREA EVER HAD. This is the man who founded Hwarang, the man who made the unification of the Three Kingdoms possible and the shrewd politician who in 551 allied with Baekje to attack Goguryeo, only to turn on his former ally 2 years later, allying with Goguryeo instead, and attacked Baekje. It was the biggest conquest on the Korean Peninsula until the unification of the Three Kingdoms. JINHEUNG DESERVES BETTER THAN THE TREATMENT THE DRAMA HAS GIVEN HIM.

Zora Race

Subraces split between the classical river zora from anything pre-ocarina of time and link between worlds and the sea zora more prominent in games post-ocarina, could probably make for good rangers and warlocks. I was originally thinking of just reflavoring triton for the theoretical campaign but a lot of their traits weren’t very fitting for river zora or zora in general.

Keep reading

VOCAB WORDS

OH YA AP EURO MASSIVE SUMMARY

Ok so first this may seem scary but here are key terms and comprehensive definitions taken tom R.E.A’s AP Euro Crash Course edition book… so ya look at these and make sure you know at LEAST vaguely what each one means. Just for more credit they are literally verbatim from the R.E.A. book. No credit to me.

Key Terms—you have to know these

a.       Europe in Transition, 1450-1650

  1. Humanism: The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
  2. Christian Humanism: A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian Humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
  3. Vernacular: The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
  4. New Monarchs: European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
  5. Taille: A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
  6. Reconquista: The centuries-long Christian “reconquest” of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslin stronghold, Granada.
  7. Indulgence: A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.
  8. Anabaptist: Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of Church and State.
  9. Predestination: Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that Gad has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that “by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction.”
  10. Huguenots: French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
  11. Politiques: Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
  12. Columbian Exchange: The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.
  13. Mercantilism: Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. The favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
  14. Putting-Out System: A pre-industrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
  15. Joint-Stock Company: A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.

    b.       The Age of Kings, 1600-1789

  16. Absolutism: A system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power. Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
  17. Divine Rights of Kings: The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that “the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on Earth, for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon Earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself are called Gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers.”
  18. Intendants: French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. Intendants played a key role in establishing French absolutism.
  19. Fronde: A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. The Fronde played a key role in Louis XIV’s decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
  20. Robot: A system of forced labor used in eastern Europe. Peasants usually owed three to four days a week of forced labor. The system was abolished in 1848.
  21. Junkers: Prussia’s landowning nobility. The Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
  22. Scientific Method: The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
  23. Philosophes: Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
  24. Deism: The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
  25. General Will: A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
  26. Enlightened Despotism: A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known Enlightened monarchs.
  27. Enclosure Movement: The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.
  28. Agricultural Revolution: The innovations in farm production that began in eighteenth century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
  29. Physiocrats: Group of eighteenth-century French economists led by Francois Quesnay. The physiocrats criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade.
  30. Invisible Hand: Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to the self-regulating nature of a free marketplace. 

    c.        Revolution and Reaction, 1789-1850

  31. Parlements: French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
  32. Girondins: A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France’s borders.
  33. Jacobins: A radical republican party during the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobins unleased the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a Jacobin.
  34. San-Culottes: The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
  35. Levee en Masse: The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
  36. Thermidorian Reaction: Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of the bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
  37. Legitimacy: The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.
  38. Balance of Power: A strategy to maintain and equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
  39. Liberalism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century advocated representative government dominated by the propertied classes, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
  40. Conservatism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century supported legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches. Conservatives favored gradual change in the established social order.
  41. Nationalism: Belief that a nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language. Nationalists argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. A person’s greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.
  42. Romanticism: Philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth—and early nineteenth—century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. Romantic artists, writers, and composers stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.
  43. Chartism: A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s. Chartist demands included universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons.
  44. Zollverein: A free-trade union established among major German states in 1834.
  45. Carbonari: A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in the 1820s.
  46. Luddites: A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. The Luddites believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. The Luddites responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
  47. Utilitarianism: A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Bentham argued that his principle should be applied to each nation’s government, economy, and judicial system.
  48. Utopian Socialists: Early nineteenth-century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Leading French utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that the property should be communally owned.
  49. Marxism: Political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They believed that history in the result of class conflict that will end with triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie. The new classless society would abolish private property. 

    d.       Toward the Modern World, 1850-1914

  50. Second Industrial Revolution:  A wave of late-nineteenth-century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States. Both the U.S. and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.
  51. Social Darwinism: The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
  52. RealPolitik: “The politics of reality”; used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part. Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of realpolitik.
  53. Syndicalism: A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions. Syndicalists endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage.
  54. Autocracy: A government in which the ruler has ultimate power and uses it in an arbitrary manner. The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of an autocracy.
  55. Duma: The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905.
  56. Imperialism: The policy of extending one country’s rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination.
  57. Sphere of Influence: A region dominated by, but not directed by, a foreign nation. 

    e.       The “Second Thirty Years’ War”: WWI and WWII, 1914-1945

  58. Fourteen Points: President Woodrow Wilson’s idealist peace aims. Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade.
  59. Bolsheviks: A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
  60. New Economic Policy (N.E.P.): A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Economic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
  61. Existentialism: Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths. Humans must accept responsibility for their actions. This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish. Existentialism reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the twentieth century.
  62. Relativity: A scientific theory associated with Albert Einstein. Relativity holds that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.
  63. Totalitarianism: A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
  64. Fascism: A political system that combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy. Fascist governments glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties.
  65. Kulaks: Prosperous landowning peasants in czarist Russia. Joseph Stalin accused the kulaks of being class enemies of the poorer peasants. Stalin “liquidated the kulaks as a class” by executing them and expropriating their lands to form collective farms.
  66. Keynesian Economics: An economic theory based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. According to Keynesian economics, governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth.
  67. Appeasement: A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler. 

    f.        The Cold War Era, 1945-1991

  68. Containment: The name of a U.S. foreign policy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy. Inspired by George F. Kennan, containment was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance.
  69. Decolonization: The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after WWII.
  70. De-Stalinization: The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union. As carried out by Nikita Khrushchev, de-Stalinization meant denouncing Joseph Stalin’s cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West.
  71. Brezhnev Doctrine: Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they say needed. The Brezhnev Doctrine justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  72. Détente: The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Détente was introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon. Examples of détente include the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and President Nixon’s trips to China and Russia.
  73. Solidarity: A Polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz. Solidarity contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish government.
  74. Glasnost: Policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Glasnot resulted in a new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies.
  75. Perestroika: An economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Meaning “restructuring,” perestroika called for less government regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture.
  76. Welfare State: A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.

anonymous asked:

(1) I’m not quite sure how long this gets but I’m trying to make it short: in my fictional world there are four countries. All are supposed to be monarchies. The first is absolute with an emperor/empress ruling, supported by his/her vassals as advisers. /This may sound dull, but it is actually really fleshed out as it is where my MC comes from. The second one is a nomad country: families send people to councils who send people to tribes who send people to the Racha (king) so everyone will be

(2) less) satisfied. The other two… well I ran out of ideas. I would like one country more religion centred and be based off Celtics – but I don’t know anything about their politics. And another one focused on economy. But how do I do this? Any help? If you’ve got any other suggestions how to build an interesting monarchy (constitutional/absolute) I’ll be glad to hear about them. 

To begin with, there are six Celtic nations: Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany and the Isle of Man. One is an independent nation, one is part of France, and the other four are part of the UK -that means they have quite a variation in their political systems.

However, allow me to take a few liberties with this. When you say ‘religion-centred and based off the Celts’, I’m going to assume that you mean something based off the popular cultural idea of Druids (though do come back and correct me if I’m wrong). If I combine this with the fact that you want all of your countries to be monarchies, I’m going to suggest a theocracy.

A theocracy is a nation where all authority is divined from God or another religious figure, and are often ruled by a sole monarch-style figure. This can be seen in Iran, which is technically a theocratic republic, but is headed by the Ayatollah, a scholar of Islamic law who had wide-ranging powers across the state and is more powerful than Iran’s elected President. Simplifying and modifying this concept, you could have a nation wherein all power is divined from a god/dess figure or perhaps nature itself, with courts that run along laws/holy rules that have been ‘handed down’ by the divine figure. Your monarch figure could come in the form of a supreme religious ruler, who makes all the important decisions as an absolute monarch would and is both backed up by and chosen by the priesthood of the dominant religion.

Since all your countries are monarchies, I’m going to take another liberty is assuming we’re in the usual pseudo-Middle Ages fantasy time period here. As such, for you economy-based system, I’m going to suggest a Merchant Council. In a country where commerce and wealth are venerated, the wealthiest men and women (landowners, owners of big businesses, merchants etc.) could be the ones directly in charge of the country. Strict ledgers are kept on everyone’s wealth, and, say, the wealthiest three hundred people get to take seats in the House/Parliament, with the richest twelve or so forming the Merchant Council (the executive, or supreme ruling body). The Merchant Council could rule absolutely and merely consult with the larger body, or laws could be created by the larger body and passed/modified by the Merchant Council: really, it’s all up to you! If you need a monarch-style figure you could have the Merchant Council elect a supreme leader among themselves, or elect a Speaker of sorts to negotiate/deal with the other nations on their behalf. (Hint: as an economics student as well as a politics student, I really really love the idea of Merchant Councils and the like).

With regards to constitutional/absolute monarchies, this post may help. But on how to make an interesting monarchy? Here are some tips:

  • Think logically: how did this system arise? The US has a strong system of checks and balances because they wanted to prevent the autocratic rule found in Europe at the time. Likewise, a nation full of atheists isn’t going to want to live in a theocracy: it would take a religious populace or a hell of a lot of oppression for that to fly.
  • Think out of the box: I think you’ve largely got this covered with your four different systems, but they are all inherently still monarchies. So differentiate! Instead of four monarchs, you’ve got a more generic absolute Emperor/Empress system, a Racha perhaps beholden to the views of their people via the tribal election system, a religious figurehead and the Speaker of a Merchant Council. On this point I think you’re doing pretty dang well so far, but it’s always something to consider!
  • Think rivals: does the Emperor have a backstabbing, power-snatching little sibling? Is their another religious faction inside the theocracy that disagree with or hate the current ruler? A young upstart making their millions and trying to worm their way into the longstanding Merchant Council membership? There is always dissent within a state, and not everyone will agree with the system. And even when they do agree with the system, they might want to snatch power for themselves
  • Think people: finally, it’s often the people that make the system shine. A charismatic, popular leader can get a lot more done than someone widely loathed and/or with the personality of a damp dishrag. Maybe your Empress has a particularly clever adviser whose intellect sparkles like a rare jewel, or your Racha has a troublesome faction that they spend half their time trying to control. Whatever your political system, it really it the people in it that will bring it alive.

Hope that answers your questions! If you need any more help, feel free to come back for more!

8

–> anonymous asked: top eight favorite overlooked or forgotten historical figures?

Hephaestion Amyntoros: lifelong friend of Alexander the Great and distinguished general of the Macedonian army, diplomat in Asia during the campaign, Chiliarch of the Empire, he also corresponded with the philosophers Aristotle and Xenocrates and actively supported Alexander’s attempts to integrate the Greeks and Persians.

Anne of Brittany: last Sovereign Duchess of Brittany and twice anointed Queen consort of France (1491-1498 and 1499-1514), she was a central figure in the struggle for influence that led to the union of Brittany and France. She is highly regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the Duchy - the safeguarding of Breton autonomy and the preservation of the Duchy outside the French crown being her life’s work.

Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk: lifelong friend of Henry VIII, courtier and general, he married for love Mary Tudor in 1515, risking his head in the process and losing the royal favor temporary. Much appreciated at court, he spent his life as a trusted and beloved courtier to the king, who payed for his burial in 1545.

Mary Tudor, Queen of France: sister to Henry VIII, she became the third wife of Louis XII of France in 1514. At his death in 1515, she married Charles Brandon for love, against the wishes of her brother and his council. The couple were eventually pardoned, after having paid a heavy fine. She was the maternal grandmother of Lady Jane Grey.

Anne of Cleves: fourth wife of Henry VIII whose marriage was annulled, she was afterwards refereed to as the King’s Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry’s wives.

Mary I of England: first queen regnant of England, she wielded the full powers of a king and paved the way for her female successors. She is mostly remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism and her unpopularity at the time of her death.

Gustav II Adolf, or Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden: credited as the founder of Sweden as a Great Power, he led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years War and is often regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time.

Louis XIII of France: one of the first examples of an absolute monarch, he relied heavily on his chief ministers (Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu) to govern the kingdom, ended the revolt of the French nobility, as well as successfully intervened in the Thirty Years’ War against the Habsburgs.

anonymous asked:

What is this tsarist autocracy Russia had? How is it different from a normal monarchies?

Typically, Russian tsars were absolute monarchs, that is, power was invested in the person and office of the Tsar. This was in contrast constitutional monarchies like Great Britain (or constitutional federal republic like the U.S., really any constitutional *blank*) , where powers were explicitly enumerated within a foundational legal document, clarified under supporting legislation, and had a legislative body to counterbalance the head of state. The Tsar had the state power, which was delegated to ministers and offices to act in the name of the Tsar, and was typically the primary landholder as well. Western monarchies typically had weaker kings, with a lot of power resting in the hands of powerful nobles. Now, Tsarist autocracy was not static, at various points different groups held some amount of political power, but typically, Russia was ruled by an absolute monarch.

Thanks for the question, Anon.

SomethingLikeALawyer, Hand of the King

Someone please remind me to go back and fill in the placeholder brackets

Derse’s Royal Family, Nobility, and Caste System (with approximate translations), in descending order.

1. THE SOVEREIGNTY:

a. Family Midnight, the absolute monarchs of Derse, supreme governors and lawmakers of all Dersite Territory. Called the Deradō’a (emperors) and the Dotdolora (grand princes).

b. Family Daylight, the governors of the moon itself, interpreting civil law in every district. Equal in power to the Family Twilight. Called the [] (Daylight kings) and the [] (Daylight archdukes).

c. Family Twilight, the governors of all planetary territory of Derse, interpreting civil law on all homeworld fiefs. Equal in power to the Family Daylight. Called the [] (Twilight kings) and the [] (Twilight archdukes).

d. Family Pious, the ecclesiastical leaders whose bloodline is bound to the supreme god of the Derse pantheon. Called the [] (popes) and the [] (cardinals).

e. Family Militant, the military generals and strategists who direct the Dersite military and enforce civil law in all jurisdictions. Called the [] (Royal marshals) and the [] (Royal generals).

2. THE ROYAL GUARD, the entirety of the Dersite military, navy, space marines, and air force.

3. THE HIGH PRIESTHOOD

4. THE LUNAR NOBILITY:

a. Family [], the governors of intellect, who direct scientific study and public education. Called the [] (Royal professors) and the [] (Royal doctors).

b. Family [], the governors of construction, deconstruction, and architecture. Called the [] (Royal architects) and the [] (their children).

c. Family [], governors of media, music, comedy, and entertainment. Called the [] (Royal composers) and the [] (their children).

d. Family [], the governors of food and the hunt, who determine what, where, when, and how meat makes it to the moon.

e. The Lunar Priesthood, people selected via religious ceremony to preach, educate, and perform religious services on the moon.

f. The Authority Regulators of Derse, cloned public servants who perform arrests and personally enforce civil law upon Lunar civilians.

g. The Lords of the Lunar Districts, Royal families that control the 16 Districts of Derse

5. THE PLANETARY NOBILITY:

a. The Skaian Priesthood, people selected via religious ceremony to preach, educate, and perform religious services on the homeworld.

b. The Authority Regulators of Skaia, cloned public servants

c. The Lords of the Skaian Fiefs, Royal families in control of the 400-413 (it’s contested) planetary territories of Derse.

d. The Public Services, people chosen randomly by the Lords of their territory to enforce Dersite law until Authority Regulators can be installed.

6. LUNAR CIVILIANS, who tend to be much wealthier than planetary civilians

7. PLANETARY CIVILIANS

8. SLAVES

a. SLAVE HIERARCHY, of which ranks a slave can climb up through diligence, productivity, and fidelity.  

                         i.   The Archagent, slaves to the Family Midnight

                       ii.   The Penultimagent, slaves to the other Sovereign Families

                     iii.   The Agent, slaves to the Lunar Nobility

                       iv.   The Skaian Agent, slaves to the Planetary Nobility

                         v.   The Common Agent, slaves to the wealthy civilian

                       vi.   The Military Agent, foot solders of the military

                     vii.   The Public Agent, slaves with no master but are still forced to work as enforced by the Authority Regulators

b. TYPES OF SLAVE

                         i.   Career Slaves, became slaves after being sold into it by their family members

                       ii.   Blood Slaves, became slaves because their parents were slaves

                     iii.   Criminal Slaves, became slaves after being arrested for serious crime

                       iv.   War Slaves, became slaves after being kidnapped in an act of war

Star, Queen of Mewni: Part I

So a couple weeks ago, I was browsing this ol’ website and I happened to come across this this image by @noekriz of an older Star in a more queenly regalia. And it got me thinking-how would the Star Butterfly we know deal with the wear and tear of the years ahead, and the constant grind against the overwhelming responsibilities of an absolute monarch?

Well, I eventually thought about it enough, I decided to have some fun with the concept and write this, the first part of a short story based around the concept of Star as Queen. No idea when I’ll write the next part, but suffice it to say I’ve already got the whole thing planned out, so hopefully if I do end up continuing this it won’t take too long. 

With that said, if you’re reading this, I hope you enjoy!

Star, Queen of Mewni: Part I

It was approximately four hours into her 42nd Birthday Gala  when Her Majesty Star Butterfly, Queen of Mewni, realized she’d become her mother.

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8

–> Favorite historical figures:

Alexander III of Macedon: king of Macedonia, he created one of the largest empires of the Ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt into northwest India and modern-day Pakistan. Undefeated in battle, he is widely considered one of history’s most successful military commanders. Military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.

Cleopatra VII Philopator: last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, she was a politically astute ruler who fought for the independence of her country, while understanding the need for an implication in Roman affairs, leading to her relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Despite the efforts of a lifetime, Egypt became a province to the newly-established Roman Empire after her death.

Anne of Brittany: last Sovereign Duchess of Brittany and twice anointed Queen consort of France (1491-1498 and 1499-1514), she was a central figure in the struggle for influence that led to the union of Brittany and France. She is highly regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the Duchy - the safeguarding of Breton autonomy and the preservation of the Duchy outside the French crown being her life’s work. 

Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk: lifelong friend of Henry VIII, courtier and general, he married for love Mary Tudor in 1515, risking his head in the process and losing the royal favor temporary. Much appreciated at court, he spent his life as a trusted and beloved courtier to the king, who payed for his burial in 1545.

François I: first king of the House of Valois, he was a prodigal patron of the arts, who initiated the French Renaissance. His reign saw important cultural changes, the rise of absolute monarchy in France, as well as the spread of humanism and Protestantism. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as “le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres” (the “Father and Restorer of Letters”).

Mary Tudor, Queen of France: sister to Henry VIII, she became the third wife of Louis XII of France in 1514. At his death in 1515, she married Charles Brandon for love, against the wishes of her brother and his council. The couple were eventually pardoned, after having paid a heavy fine. She was the maternal grandmother of Lady Jane Grey.

Mary I of England: first queen regnant of England, she wielded the full powers of a king and paved the way for her female successors. She is mostly remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism and her unpopularity at the time of her death. Although her reign (1553-1558) was quite short, she started the policies of fiscal reform, naval expansion, and colonial exploration that were later lauded as Elizabethan accomplishments.

Louis XIV, the “Sun King”: one of the most powerful French monarchs, he consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule, turned France into the leading European power of his time, encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military, and cultural figures. His reign, by its length and achievements, has been dubbed “Le Grand Siècle” (“the Great Century”).

teen top: anarchy (who’s in charge? we don’t know)
seventeen: representative democracy (elect representatives)
btob: constitutional monarchy (power of monarch is limited)
bap: absolute monarchy (monarch has absolute authority)
pentagon: communist state (all work together)
highlight: democracy (vote to take actions)

spartanlady16  asked:

T'Challa dating/marrying/having kids with fellow monarch/Queen from a neighboring country

I think T’Challa  would marry out of love so it wouldn’t be a political thing, but it would still be a big deal for both of your countries. I guess it depends on whether or not there’s an absolute monarch or a constitutional monarchy but either way your countries would largely be bonded, and be seen as unconditional allies to one another.

It’s nice because you’re both used to the pressures of being royalty and you both hold such a deep love for your respective peoples. 

Art for those AP euro hipsters

Art is an important part of this test– be sure to get a question or two on it and a possible frq

Renaissance Art (14th-16th century)

  • displayed humanist views (scholars of the past: Greek and ROman ); glory to the human body (symmetry); less religious; philosophy rather than chivalry; creativity over commission; an artists used many different mediums instead of just one 
  • who liked it? City states; Lorenzo de Medici and Pope Julius II (warrior pope) 
  • Frescos by Giotto (Father of Renaissance Art) 
  • David by Michelangelo in 1504– It is a sign of strength for Florence, and a perfect example of symmetry and glory of human body 
  • School of Athens by Raphael in 1509– depicts very important part of humanism (Aristotle and Plato and other philosophers)
  • Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci in 1490— shows human’s symmetry and proportion; human perfection

Baroque Art (17th century)

  • grandeur and drama; appealed to absolute monarchs; religious comissions (Roman Catholicism) 
  • St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini 
  • Versailles for Louis XIV– dramatic; The Hall of Mirrors reflected the power of the monarch 
  • in Amsterdam, baroque depicted the grandeur of a bustling center of trade/learning– Rembrandt painted The Night Watch (1642) which captured Dutch civic pride 

Rocco Art (18th century)

  • light, subtle, charm; aimed at aristocracy “at play”; leisure; 
  • Music Party by Antoine Watteau in (1719) 
  • Louis XV liked rocco art
  • Sanssouci for Fredrick the Great of Prussia and hôtels in France (architecture) 

Neoclassicism (18th century, after French Revol.) 

  • artists who sympathized with democratic/nationalistic views of the French Revolution; rejected Rocco art; inspiration from Republics of Greece and Rome 
  • Oath of the Horatti by Jacques Louis David (1784)– classic spin off of ancient world: was character dying for Roman Republic (ahem die for republic of france ahem), separate spheres for men and women 
  • Architecture: Napoleon reshaped Europe /Paris to look like Roman Empire– Temple of Glory (1829) and Arc de Triomphe  (1806) for those who fought in Napoleonic wars 

Realism (Early 19th century) 

  • accurately/honestly renders the life around them in detail 
  • Burial at Ornons (1849-1850) by Gustav Courbet 

Impressionism (Late 19th century)

  • render the reality of the visual experience; light, color and human perception
  • A Bar at the Folies-Bergère by Edward Manet in 1882– depicts a woman that is just another object of commerce 
  • others: Monet and Renoir 

Post Impressionism (Late 19th -20th century)

  • combined impressionism with geometric form and unnatural color= more emotional effect
  • Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh in (1889) 
  • A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat: pointillism– depicts the mechanical like people produced by their times; dark and light symbolism for working class 
  • Violin and Palette (1909) by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso started cubism (most important departure from traditional art) 

Romanticism (19th century)

  • roots: Emil by Jean-Jacques Rousseau; sentient and emotion; avoided politics; nature 

Expressionism (late 19th-20th century)

  • emotion and psychological states; no more realism and naturalism; exaggerated color and form
  • The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch 
  • The Violinist (1912) by Marc Chagall 

Abstractionism (20th century)

  • analyzed perception/ experience; the world is composed of geometric shapes
  • Woman with a Guitar (1913) by Georges Braque
  • Compositions (1911) by Wassily Kandinsky 

Hope this helps! 

anonymous asked:

do you have any favorite nightwings or nightwing ocs? :00

I can’t say im really a big fan of the Canon NightWings as a tribe, nor can i really speak for DSL-era NightWings, cause i havent read DSL lmao, but i guess i can really only like Fierceteeth as a person. I mean, i can appreciate Morrowseer, Starflight, and Mastermind for their characters (a desperate  narrow-minded politician, an anxious and intelligent coward, and a twisted godless doctor, respectively), but i really cant say they’re … my favorites, because i personally just..dont really value their redeeming traits..if that makes sense…ig lol

but i do really like fierceteeth. Shes got some serious gumption and is willing to fight for what she thinks is right (and i agree with her as well. im not a fan of one dragon being an absolute monarch over two separate tribes). Of course she’s controversial and … likely to start a harrowing revolution, but i really respect that she is ready to fight tooth and nail for the justice she feels is right for her tribe. But i think the difference between her and other nightwing politicians (i.e. morrowseer and battlewinner, etc), is that shes…not willing to commit genocide on an entire race of dragons just to get the necessary justice for her tribe (unlike the rest of her entire tribe lmao). She IS willing to topple the queen, but not .. decimate a population. so i guess i just respect her, even though she is clearly flawed. 


And as for OCs… if you mean personal ones, i dont have very many nightwings written out! i have a few hybrids, but not many developed nightwings……. or none that i can release information on…. yet >:3c

anonymous asked:

can you quickly explain reginas redemption arc for me pls? im a cser who doesnt really see it but i want to understand the complexity of it a bit more so i was just wondering. (this is a genuine ask btw so sorry if it comes off a bit false)

Quickly?  No.

This is going to be a bit long.  You have to start by thinking about young Regina before the death of Daniel because that is what Adam and Eddy have explicitly told us we should think about.  In the 1.18 Stable Boy commentary Eddy says that the young woman who saves Snow White on that horse is selfless, heroic, and good and that her entire character journey is to get back to that place.  From season one this was the story that they were telling and so it wasn’t something rushed it’s fundamental to the backbone of the show as they intended it.

Regina was also very explicitly the victim of child abuse.  We see Cora repeatedly use magic and violence against her daughter to force her to behave in the ways Cora wanted.

I bring this up not to excuse who Regina became as the Evil Queen but because you have to seriously understand the psychology of her breaking before you can consider how she recovered from it.  In 5.19 we have Cora tell Henry Sr. that she can’t heal Regina with her magic because it needs to be someone whose magic has never hurt Regina.  It’s a casual and off hand statement that yes even at ten Cora has been hurting her daughter with magic.

We’re talking about a woman who grew up in a house hold where she could hear the beats of hundreds of hearts her mother had taken in their living room.  Who desperately did not want to be like her.

But like many victims of childhood abuse she also internalized a lot of lessons from Cora.  Though not at first that “love is weakness”.  What she learned first was that you were either a victim or a victimizer.  That no one could or would protect you from pain but yourself.  She articulates this to Graham in 1.07 in her “I always felt there were two kinds of people – wolves and sheep. Those who kill, and those who get killed.”  This comes from someone who lives in a world where there are people who are supposed to protect the young and the innocent (parents, heroes, fairies…) and who have consistently failed to protect her.

(Cut for long post with lots of gifs)

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anonymous asked:

How do you see Madelynne's story concluding? What will the state of Blackmarsh/Lordaeron be at the time?

I think she dies.

That’s ultimately how her story has to end. Of course I suppose she could abdicate the throne once she felt her heir was ready to assume it and work from behind the scenes to maintain until she died…

Functionally, I think Morgana will probably be the last absolute monarch of Blackmarsh and following that more concessions will be made to maintain balance. I don’t think Madelynne will live to see that so her time period will probably be idealized to future generations and acceptable to contemporaries.

a finer chain (part one); a grisha trilogy au

Title: A Finer Chain

Summary: Parem falls to the hands of those who have no qualms about mass producing it, and Ravka must decide how to face this new threat. Do they force their own Grisha to take it in order to defend themselves? Or do they find another way?

(spoilers: sort of)

Characters: Nikolai Lantsov, Zoya Nazyalensky, Genya Safin, Alina Starkov, Malyen Oretsev, Davis, Toyla, Tamar, Nadia

Pairings: Nikolai/Zoya, Genya/David, Alina/Mal, Nadia/Tamar

Notes/Warnings: Themes of addiction & death, spoilers for six of crows.

part ii | part iii


The King of Ravka is in hiding.

It’s becoming something of an unfortunate habit. But when the alternative is sitting in a throne room and waiting for someone to walk through the walls and stab you, going on the run doesn’t seem like such a bad idea. Dramatic last stands make for a good exit, but Nikolai isn’t ready to leave the world yet.

Neither is politics, it seems. On more than one occasion, he’s wished he could have left his council behind. What was the point in being an absolute monarch if you still had to listen to the nattering of men more afraid for their own skin than the concept of Ravka - of the world - falling into chaos?

“We have the parem,” one of them was blustering now. “And we have Grisha working on a cure around the clock. Sooner or later they’re going to hit on an answer - unless you don’t have faith in your own people, Nazyalensky?”

Nikolai resists the urge to groan. It wouldn’t be especially kingly. Zoya’s returning smile is all white teeth and death. When she speaks, it’s with the sweet tone of poison.

“I’ll tell you what, minister. I’ll force my people to take parem, when you take a dose first.”

A new shade of red is invented on the minister’s face that day.

They argue on - and on, and on. All the while, Nikolai feels the thick coils of fear turning around them, strangling. If he listens very carefully to the gaps between all the yelling, the Darkling’s chuckle lingers.

This would not have happened if I had been king.

“No one will be forcing anyone to take parem.”

Silence, except for his head. Does anyone else notice the way Zoya’s shoulders slump? The terror of Fjerdan nightmares is paler than usual, for all that Genya Safin has seen to the circles under her eyes.

“Your majesty–”

“Any Grisha on the drug is bad enough. A resentful Grisha? They might be unable to think about much beyond the next fix, but we aren’t the only source of parem. I won’t have the might of the Second Army turned against Ravka when some Fjerdan promises revenge.”

It’s paper thin and he can see the disgust on some of their faces already. Saints, even Nikolai isn’t sure he’s doing the right thing. He’s seen Grisha under the influence. They might turn traitor for more parem, but they’ll come back for the same. The idea of playing master with the drug for a leash turns his stomach, but so does the idea of seeing Ravka fractured and overrun.

If that happens, it won’t matter who’s holding the leash. The Grisha will all be slaves.

“How does your majesty propose we defend the nation against this new threat, then?”

It’s Zoya again, to murmurs of surprise around the table. He looks at the set of her jaw, the bottomless depths of those blue eyes, and knows she will kill him before she lets him force her people to devastation. Him, and anyone else who tries to force her hand, Ravka be damned. She might be a patriot - and more patriotic than any of the rest of the men in this room. But she is a Grisha before that.

He remembers a girl, powerful and arrogant, who begged for the Darkling’s favour with everything in her. He thinks that girl is probably dead. The same as the boy who had thrown on identities like they were new suits, who had run off to become a privateer without a second thought.

“We are not defenceless,” he reminds the table. “The advantage of letting Grisha work unhindered is that, shockingly, they are a great deal more creative. This isn’t the first time we’ve faced down impossible odds with the right attitude.”

They aren’t convinced. He isn’t, either, which is why he keeps talking. He forces himself to keep his gaze on the combat arm of the triumvirate. She deserves to have his eye contact when he speaks again.

“I have also learned,” he continues, swallowing the bitterness, “that Grisha, like anyone, will fight harder for what they love than what they fear. Which is why I will be asking for volunteers.”

The table tenses. All eyes turn to Zoya, as though waiting for her to explode. They really have learnt nothing.

She closes her eyes, the dark sweep of lashes over her cheeks somehow more dignified than all the generals’ medals in the room. She folds her hands neatly in front of her, pale against the dark grain of the wood. Her shoulders, Nikolai notes, are stiff again.

“All right,” she says. They at least have the courtesy to pretend they can’t hear the self-loathing in her voice. “But on one condition. If Grisha are to be harnessed, it will be Grisha who hold the reins. I won’t have otkazat’sya with that kind of power over us.”

The word us sends a tremor of unease through Nikolai, as the rest of the table erupts into protest. Grisha handlers will be susceptible. Grisha handlers will be too sympathetic. He forces himself to look away from Zoya as he deals with this new issue, not wanting to give the impression of favouritism.

But he can’t shake the look of awful determination on her face, long after he retires for the evening.

9

Day 11: A Toutes les Gloires de la France

Day 11 was a veritable highlights package of Paris, cramming as much as we possibly could of the great city into one last day in France.  Starting off with the famous Louvre museum, students and staff made an obligatory bee line for the Mona Lisa, but were also greeting with more interesting masterpieces seemingly at every turn.

Next up was the opulence of Versialles, a testament and symbol to the absolute rule of monarchs Louis XIV - XVI.  Almost overwhelming in its grandeur, this is a breathtaking glimpse into the height of French style and power.

Braving the Paris Metro at peak hour a contingent of us went to the Sacre Couer Basilica  where the soothing atmosphere and the choir of nuns singing hymns made this a welcome oasis from the maze of street hawkers we had to wend our way through to reach the church.

Not quite finished with Paris, another contingent of us went for an evening stroll (more like a power walk) through the streets of the capital to a small restaurant called L’Escargot.  You can probably guess what we were there for and yes, the snails were delicious once you managed to prise them out of their shells.

The Paris experience was now complete.  Rome here we come.