A week of exotics EMS & absolutely loved it! Such hard work, made me realise how little I know about even how to hold half these creatures for bloods or injections but so so worth it. There’s so much more to exotics than just giving it Baytril and hoping for the best, can’t wait to start the clinical phase of our course & learn more!

Online Vet Student Resources

Here are some great resources I have used throughout vet school: 


Clinical Pathology:

  • eClinPath: by Cornell, wonderful site that has explanations for findings on ClinPath results, lists differentials, as well as describes that pathophysiology basis of some processes. 
  • Serum Chemistry: You will need VIN access to open this, but another great Clin Path resource to refresh your memory on what each profile tests for and various differentials for the fluxes. 


  • CAPC Vet: Great site that list parasites, life cycles, prevalence, emerging patterns, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and public health concerns. 


  • AMRLS: A wonderful website that provides information on antimicrobial pharmacology and provides information on resistance patterns.


  • VetBact: provides basic information on veterinary important bacteria. List current bacteria name changes, microbial tests, hosts, and a basic description of the clinical disease. 

Veterinary Search Engine: 

  • VETNEXT: Essentially a search engine like that on VIN. You can search by species or clinical sign. Provides decent information about diseases. 
  • WikiVet: Another decent search engine, I believe you will need to be a student to use this site (like VIN), I don’t use it often because it is extremely slow, but there is a lot of information on there. 

Horses have thinner skin and may feel pain more than humans.

For those who think horses don’t feel pain as we do - you could be right. They may feel far more. Australian TV programme ‘Catalyst’ asked vet pathologist Dr. Lydia Tong to look at the differences between horse and human skin, something that has surprisingly never been studied before. She found the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) is thinner in horses and they have a higher density of 'pain sensing’ nerve endings than we do. So what happens to the great whip debate now I wonder?

This information was revealed as part of an interesting film looking at the use of the whip in racing and is well worth a watch. Professor Paul McGreevy is also interviewed here, one of the authors of the article I shared a couple of days ago analysing whip use in UK racing. The information about the horse’s skin starts around 12.30.

The image below is of horse skin on the left with the thinner epidermis. On the right, human skin.

You can watch the programme here:

Further information here:

via facebook:

anonymous asked:

Could you explain why the marihuana smoke is toxic to animals?

There are two reasons why marijuana smoke would be toxic to animals. The first is for the same reason people like to smoke it, delta-9-THC. This is the main cannabinoid in marijuana that causes the “high”. In animals it causes CNS depression sometimes so severe they can become comatose. Granted the most severe side effects are going to happen if an animal ingests pot. But with newer strains are being grown that have much higher concentrations of THC so they will be more toxic to animals. It is also stored in body fat so the symptoms can last several days in animals.

Don’t think that they just get a little high and that’s all. Dogs and other animals can become bradycardic, hypothermic, and there have been animals that have died from exposure.

The second reason is simply because breathing in any kind of particulate matter, i.e. smoke, can cause respiratory disease. 

Indoor cats vs. outdoor cats.

It’s a huge debate between pretty much anyone that has any contact with cats: owners, vets, homeowners, wildlife managers, and so on. There have been many arguments given by both sides. Outdoor supporters often mention the cats’ need for outdoor enrichment. Indoor supporters fire back with safety and wildlife concerns.

I’m not going to go through the arguments. Instead, I’m going to tell you a few clinical experiences that resulted from cats being let outdoors.

First are the abscesses. There is no one experience that stands out, just the many, many people coming in with cats inappetant, lethargic, and oozing foul pus from a recent bite wound. And there would always be the same excuse: oh, but she’s so sweet, she never fights. Oh, he always runs away from other cats.

Doesn’t matter. Other outdoor cats don’t care how sweet another cat may be. Fights happen regardless, and cats are left with ugly abscesses that their owners then struggle to pay to treat.

And then there are the unexpected, unknown accidents.

Take the kitty brought in unable to stand, hind end covered in urine. Owners don’t know what happened. She’s always been indoor-outdoor, but last night, she just didn’t come back. This morning, they find her in their yard, meowing and unable to rise. They rush her in. On examination, she’s painful in her abdomen. Painful enough that I’m not comfortable palpating more than minimally without pain meds. And without doing some basic imaging. For all I know, palpating her will cause more damage.

She’s able to feel and move her hind legs, but won’t stand up. Her lungs sound harsh. Her abdomen feels swollen.

As is often the case in emergencies, the owners are tight on money. They do, however, have enough to at least let me take x-rays. So I do.

Kitty has a broken pelvis. That’s immediately obvious. The second huge finding is confusing at first, because I’ve never seen it before. After a minute of staring at the image and trying to come up with another reason for what I was seeing, I finally acknowledge that it was as bad as what it looks like: her bladder has herniated through her body wall. It is now outside her actual abdomen, buried under her skin in her fat. Which was why she can’t control her urination and is covered in urine. I shave her belly to better examine the area. Her abdomen is one giant bruise.

I relay the findings to the owners. My best guess is that she was hit by something. A car, likely. They tearfully tell me that she never goes in the road, that she must have gotten spooked by something and ran in by accident.

Well, all it took was one time. Because of finances and the aggressive treatment and surgery she would need, kitty is euthanized.

Another case, a different kitty: a woman comes in with her indoor-outdoor kitty who came home acting very strange last night. I do the exam. I watch kitty walk around. I watch him walk around some more. And I come to the conclusion that kitty is totally blind.

His eyes work. As in, the retinas are intact, the eyes can detect light, the pupils constrict when they should. The communication between eyes and brain is somehow compromised. Why? I have no idea. Does kitty have a head injury? A neurological disease or parasite? Did he get into something toxic? Does he have a brain tumor that has nothing to do with his outdoor adventure?

I have no idea, and the owner can’t give me any good history because the cat was gone all day. She doesn’t have the means to work the case up and wants to take kitty home to monitor. Okay, I say, with the warning that, without knowing what happened or what’s going on, things could turn life-threatening at any time. We never hear from her again.

So after reading all of this, can you guess which side of the debate I’m on?

Keep your cats inside. Provide them with enrichment. It’s your responsibility as a pet owner to give your pets what they need SAFELY.

The moment you let your cat out unsupervised, you risk any number of injuries, diseases, and horrible accidents that will leave you rushing to the vet, unable to tell anyone what actually happened and faced with hefty bills to try to fix your cat. And more often than anyone wants, that cat may not make it through.

I don’t care how smart your cat is, how well it avoids roads, how safe you believe your neighborhood is. All it takes is that one freak accident, that one unexplained malady, and you’ve got big trouble to deal with.

If you let your cat go outdoors, know that, at any moment, you could become the owner of a dead cat. And you may not even know why.

And all of this isn’t even considering the owners whose cats go out and just never come back.

The Mercer Veterinary Clinic for the Homeless is a free clinic that cares for the pets of the homeless population of Sacramento, CA. It has been running since 1992. 
In 2013 the warehouse we ran our clinic out of was demolished. We raised funds to buy our mobile trailer that we are currently in. To abide by city building codes, the trailer must be made a permanent structure, which requires city permits and a lot of renovations. This will cost up to $200k (I will post a cost breakdown when I get my hands on the paperwork). Our normal annual fundraising needs are around $20k, so this is very much beyond our means. 
The city has the right to shut us down at any moment. However, if we work quickly enough to raise the needed funds, the clinic might survive. 
We treat hundreds of dogs and cats belonging to homeless individuals at our free monthly clinic. This includes providing vaccinations, flea and heartworm preventative, and care for sick animals. Every animal is spayed/neutered to help reduce the homeless pet population. 
Without the clinic, these animals will go without essential medications and vaccinations. Their owners do not have the resources to bring them to regular clinics. Some of them will succumb to illness. Please consider helping the Mercer clinic. These pets are often the only positive things in their owners’ lives. They deserve proper care. 
Here’s our website:

Just wanted to post some articles from news outlets that attended the clinic this past weekend. Thank you to everyone who came out!

The 15 clients you will meet in veterinary medicine:

1. The I only feed a grain free raw diet that I cook myself. I read all about it on the Internet client.
2. The can I post date this already post dated check client.
3. The no you can’t take them to the back and draw blood out of my sight client.
4. The emergency started three days ago but I’m calling ten minutes before closing Friday night client.
5. The I brought this dog in for routine exam and vaccines but I also have another super sick dog in my car that I would love if you could squeeze into this thirty minute appointment client.
6. The breeder client.
7. The show dog judge client.
8. The ranch dog/hunting dog client. (These three need no explanation)
9. The I know everything and you can’t get a word in edgewise client.
10. I’m a doctor…a real doctor client.
11. The this dog/cat is my child client.
12. The can you diagnose my pet over the phone for free client.
13. The I stopped giving the meds because he got better but now he is sick again client.
14. The I’m going to breed this mixed breed dog because I need the money client.
15. The amazing clients who bring a smile to your face and whose animals you genuinely enjoy seeing.