Vertebrata

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Lilac-breasted Roller (Coracias caudatus) by Allan Hopkins
Via Flickr:
The classic photogenic ‘safari bird’. Tarangire National Park, Tanzania, East Africa.

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The tube-eye fish (Stylephorus chordatus), one of my favorite fishes.

Its eyes are tubular in shape, so it can see very well in the depths. Its can enlarge its mouth 30-40 times its original size, so it can suck a lot of seawater and then expels that water through the gills, leaving behind the copepods on which it feeds.

Scientist are not sure about its phylogenetic position. For now is considered a  lampriform, but it also may be related to Gadiformes.


El “pez gallo” (Stylephorus chordatus), uno de mis peces favoritos.

Sus ojos tienen forma tubular, por lo que puede ver muy bien en las profundidades. Puede alargar su boca 30-40 veces su tamaño para absorber agua marina y atrapar su alimento, botando el agua por las agallas y dejando a copépodos (zooplancton) dentro.

Los científicos no están muy seguros de su posición filogenética. Por ahora está considerado un lampridiforme, pero también podría estar relacionado a los Gadiformes.

Confocal micrograph of a blind cavefish embryo at around five days post-fertilisation viewed from the side (lateral view) with an antibody that targets a calcium binding protein (calretinin) shown in green, which highlights different neuronal types and their processes in the nervous system. The cavefish Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) has a seeing and a blind form; the latter lives in dark environments, and relies on other senses. The blind cavefish has specially adapted traits that its sighted relation (dwelling near the surface) does not. These include a greater number of sensory receptors and taste buds along its body; these taste buds are also more efficient than the equivalent cells in the seeing cavefish. The eyes are still present at this stage of development but they will degenerate naturally during the lifetime of the fish as they live in a dark environment where eyes are redundant. Adult cavefish are blind.

anonymous asked:

Feline here! So if Doc Scratch is an emissary to the horroterrors, does that mean that my Scientologist Doc Scratch is now off the table? Can he be both human cult leader and emissary at the same time, and his oracular visions are from LE? Does LE kill other horrorterrors? Also, what kind of animals are there on Skaia? What do carnivorous Carapacians eat, and how are these animals farmed?

WELL!!! The story of Doc Scratch and his origins will need to be its own post because that’s a BIG DEAL (and no, your scientologist scratch idea was not thrown out the window, you’ll see!) but to answer the question of what animals are native to Skaia…

Skaian animals run the same gamut of diversity as on Earth but with the caveat of being form another planet that has a different astronomical history. It’s possible there will need to be a very subtle new branch of animal classification that I would personally put in between Kingdom and Phylum tier, determining whether the following animals are Earthling or Skaian. To whit:

The Kingdom is Animalia, because we’re talking about Animals. The Origin is Skaian, because we’re looking specifically at animals native to that planet. The Phylums of Skaian animals are generally the same, because it will include a LOT of the same types of animals. Skaia still has Cnidarian animals, like jellyfish, corals, and anemones. It also still has Molluscan animals, such as gastropods (snails), a SHITLOAD of cephalopods (octopus and squid), etc. There are also the more complex animals, like chordates, which is where we step out of the ocean and onto land animals and amphibians.

Carapaces themselves are in the chordate phylum, subphylum Vertebrata, but they would obviously not be classified as “human” or even CLOSE to human, for that matter, because this is where things get Fucky.

For the purposes of this answer I made a cute little diagram explaining the basic taxonomy of a human being. For any kind of animals to be drawn from this base, we go backwards and make up some kind of imaginary deviation from it. Let’s say for example, instead of a Homo sapiens, a bipedal creature with a big brain and no tail, there was a Felis sapiens, a creature with the same big brain of a human, but with a tail, that stands on four legs, and has all the other trappings of a cat.

You can go backwards from this to make up a bunch of cool animals. How does a carapace square up taxonomically, then?

(For the record, a lot of the naming is just latin gibberish I made up because most/all taxonomic names are in latin)

From this, we can go backwards and determine what other kinds of land animals there are on Skaia that would branch off from the previous taxonomic classifiers. What other kinds of “lucoromutous” animals are there? What about the other animals that might exist on Skaia, like Skaian mammals or Skaian amphibians? I’d basically have to come up with an entire ecosystem, but thanks to this knowledge of taxonomy and my own imagination, I at least don’t have to start from scratch.


TL;DR Carnivorous carapaces eat a lot of deep-sea fish from Derse, or otherwise hunt local fauna to their ecosystems that would take a lot longer than one answer to explain.

Phylum Chordata

Chordates are defined by five distinct characteristics:

1) The presence of a notochord. A notochord is a flexible rod that is the main axial supporting structure in all embryo and some adult chordate animals.

2) The presence of a dorsal, hollow nerve chord. The nerve chord is located dorsal to the notochord.

3) The pharyngeal apparatus. This embryonic structure consists of pharyngeal arches, pharyngeal pouches, and pharyngeal groves. These structures are used for feeding and respiration. In lower chordates parts of this structure develop into gill slits that are used to filter water and collect food particles. More derived chordates have modified pharyngeal arches into structures of the head and neck. (A common misconception is that human embryos have gill slits. This is incorrect terminology. Human embryos have the pharyngeal apparatus that do not actually develop into slits.)

4) The presence of a post-anal tail. This structure is an extension of the notochord and nerve chord past the anus.

5) The presence of the endostyle. This structure is an elongated groove in the pharynx floor of protochordates (”primitive chordates” that are not vertebrates) that develops into thyroid gland in chordates. These structures play a role in regulating metabolism.

It is important to note that all five traits are present throughout the development of a chordate; however, not all five traits may be present at the same time. This phylum includes the subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, and subphylum Vertebrata. 

Eocypselus vincenti, E. rowei

By Fraizer on @saint-nevermore

Name: Eocypselus vincenti, E. rowei

Name Meaning: New Swift

First Described: 1984

Described By: Harrison

Classification: Dinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptora, Pennaraptora, Paraves, Eumaniraptora, Averaptora, Avialae, Euavialae, Avebrevicauda, Pygostylia, Ornithothoraces, Euornithes, Ornithuromorpha, Ornithurae, Neornithes, Neognathae, Neoaves, Cypselomorphae

Why am I doing a very long ago described bird randomly and out of order? Because art was donated of it of course! Eocypselus is an interesting little bird that looks a lot like what you’d expect the common ancestor of Swifts and Hummingbirds to look like. A small bird, less than 13 centimeters in length, it also probably had black feathers. It was found in the Fur Formation in Denmark and the Green River Formation in Wyoming, and though right now it has two species ascribed to it, it’s entirely possible that more will be in the future (because bird paleontology does a lot more with species than nonavian dinosaur paleo). It lived in the Ypresian age of the Early Eocene, with Y. vincenti living between 55 and 53 million years ago, and E. rowei living between 53 and 48 million years ago. Though it shares many features with swifts and hummingbirds, it is not thought to be in Apodiformes (the group containing the two) proper; instead, it shows that that group evolved their small size first, and then went on to evolve the specialized flight capabilities (speed and hovering) later. It probably was black in coloration, at least E. rowei was, and its feathers made up half the size of its wingspan. It also would have fit in the palm of your hand, and probably was an insectivore. 

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eocypselus_rowei

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypselomorphae

Harrison, C. J. O. 1984. A revision of the fossil swifts (Vertebrata, Aves, Suborder Apodi) with descriptions of three new genera and two new species. Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 4(21): 157-177. 

Ksepka, D. T., J. A. Clarke, S. J. Nesbitt, F. B. Kulp, L. Grande. 2013. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20130580. 

Mayr, G. 2005. A new Cypselomorph bird from the Middle Eocene of Germany and the Early Diversification of Avian Aerial Insectivores. The Condor 107:342-352. 

Shout out goes to @justthatguyme!

Blue's Clues: A Jurassic World chatfic that went progressively out of hand
  • Owen: Slowly... slowly...
  • Hoskins: Grady, tell it to back off. We could still make a fortune out of both of them. Just let it stand down.
  • Owen: They're your weapons. You disarm them.
  • Delta, in Raptorese: Father, shall I slay the corpulent unpleasant one so we can dine on its flesh in your honor?
  • Owen: Chirp chirp.
  • Delta, still in Raptorese: Father is kind <mauls Hoskins>
  • Owen: Zach, Gray, drop the chair.
  • Lowery, grabbing the thinking chair: You heard him.
  • Hoskins, while being eviscerated: At least let me shart on it first.
  • Dr. Wu, in the choppah: Why does everyone want to pass gas on my good chair!
  • Owen: Lowery, lower the chair.
  • Lowery: Awww man.
  • Barry: We will need a lot of therapy to make this moment in our lives okay.
  • Gray: Hey, remember when just a few minutes ago when we were going through the motions of a show you watched when you were 3.
  • Zach: Where's Aunt Claire?
  • Indominus, outside, doing the bring it pose: Claire Dearing, this ends now!
  • Claire, eyes glowing, flares on hand: It's come to this, Indominus. Run, or face me like a woman.
  • Indominus Rex: Fool, you are but one woman and I am the greatest carnivorous mechanism of the terrestial vertebrata there will ever be. What chance have you?
  • Claire, using her high heeled shoes as imrpov nunchuks while levitating: You assume that I fight alone, sparsely feathered one.
  • Zach, as wind effects too expensive for even Spielberg's budget swirl around his aunt: Oh no. Aunt Claire's entering the High Heels state.
  • Gray: Awesome!
  • Blue and Delta, standing by Claire's side: Chirp chirp.
  • Owen, in a kinda perverted way: I'll say. <sees raptors run toward Claire as she battles the I. Rex with only her high heels.>
  • Echo, in Raptorese: Father disapproves of our betrayal.
  • Charlie, as if they can speak anything other than raptorese anyway: How can you tell, sister?
  • Owen: <stares, "I am disappoint">
  • Echo: How shall we seek his forgiveness.
  • Charlie: As recompense for our disloyalty, we must challenge the one they call Indominus.
  • Echo: Indominus. Let's put her name to the test.
  • Claire: Lowery, now.
  • Lowery: Now, what now? <sees a flare> Oh, that. <the "Be a Man" song from Mulan plays in the background>
  • Rexy: Roar.
  • Raptor squad: Chirp chirp.
  • Owen: They're switching sides! Attagirls!
  • Claire: We fight as one!
  • Rexy, roaring as if to say: Bitch I work solo.
  • Indominus: Well, granny, nice of you to join us. <pwnage>
  • Rexy, in Rexese: Okay, I take it back. We share the glory.
  • Raptor Squad: Harooh, Harooh, Harooh <it's chirping, but whatevs, there was pwnage>.
  • Indominus, as her ass is handed by Rexy, Claire, and the Raptor Squad: This cannot be, I'm indominable. <gets hit by Claire's shoes, specifically the heely bits, in the eyes> AAAAAAAGH
  • Rexy: Bitch, shut your face.
  • Indominus: This is Madness.
  • Claire: We're not doing that reference! <the combined awesomeness of her, Rexy, and the raptor squad push I. Rex into the lagoon.>
  • Mosasaur, chomps on Indominus: Omnomnomnomnom.
  • Owen: I'm so proud of you girls.
  • Blue: Is Claire going to be our new mommy?
  • Owen: I have no idea what you just said Blue, but you do daddy proud. Go, for now it's time for so long...
  • Zach: Owen, we might have to do this in the ferry.
  • Owen: No, we have to do it here.
  • Owen, singing: But we'll sing just one more song. Thanks for doing you're part, you sure are smart, you know with me, and Claire, and these guys here, we can...
  • Claire: Owen, wrap it up.
  • Owen: Alright, alright. <goes to the ferry, waving at the raptors as they board> can and will be awesome, everything is cool when we're part of a team.
  • Zach, holding a yellow pages in his hand: And yet he butchers it again.
  • Gray, overlooking the yellow pages: Nitpicking later, find therapist now.
  • Zach: Dr. Malcolm seems affordable. Think our insurance would cover it?
  • Owen: Goodbye kids. See you soon.
  • Raptor squad: Chirp chirp <Farewell, father! We shall rule the island in your name>.
Neoceratosauria

By José C. Cortés on @ryuukibart

Group: Neoceratosauria

Classification: Cellular Life, Archaea, Proteoarchaeota, Eukaryota, Unikota, Opisthokonta, Holozoa, Filozoa, Metazoa, Eumetazoa, Planulozoa, Bilatera, Nephrozoa, Deuterostomia, Chordata, Craniata, Vertebrata, Gnathostomata, Eugnathostomata, Teleostomi, Euteleostomi, Sarcopterygii, Rhipidistia, Tetrapodomorpha, Eotetrapodiforms, Elpistostegalia, Stegocephalia, Tetrapoda, Reptiliomorpha, Anthracosauria, Batrachosauria, Cotylosauria, Amniota, Sauropsida, Eureptilia, Romeriida, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Archosauromorpha, Archelosauria, Archosauriformes, Crurotarsi, Archosauria, Avemetatarsalia, Ornithodira, Dinosauromorpha, Dinosauriformes, Dinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Ceratosauria

Definition: The clade of the most recent common ancestor of Ceratosaurus and Carnotaurus, and all of that most recent common ancestor’s descendants. 

Organisms Within: The clades Ceratosauridae and Abelisauroidea

Time Range: Given this is another node-based clade, we can only guess at when the earliest member of this group evolved. Since earliest known Abelisauroids are from the earliest portion of the Middle Jurassic, it stands to reason that the earliest Neoceratosaur had to evolve before this; the best guess at such is shown below. 

Characteristics: This group contains all the more derived members of Ceratosauria, and they remained as weird and strangely diverse as their less derived relatives. The bulk of this group included the Abelisauroids, which ranged from the huge and tiny-armed Carnotaurus to the small and fast Noasaurids. 

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratosauria

Neoceratosaurs were relatively medium-sized predators or smaller during the Jurassic; however, the later Abelisaurids that would inhabit mostly the Southern Hemisphere got very large and often were at the top of the food chain in their environments. 

By Jack Wood on @thewoodparable

The beginning members of this group would probably have had some feathers, though as Abelisauroids evolved, the derived Abelisaurids primarily lost their fluffy covering. Furthermore, Ceratosaurids probably had osteoderms along their back, though this says nothing about the Noasaurid group, which were primarily small and thus probably retained their feathers. 

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eoabelisaurus

Biogeography: It is very uncertain where Neocreatosauria originated, given that Ceratosaurs were very widespread and Neoceratosaurs were also; early members of Abelisauroidea are not helpful, either, as they are fairly widespread. As such, it is unlikely it will ever be determined where this group first evolved. 

Posts about Ceratosauridae and Abelisauroidea to come soon.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abelisaur

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratosaurus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratosauria

Shout out goes to @vikingstar!