Soldiers from D Company, 3rd Battalion, 116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team (CBCT), Oregon Army National Guard, maneuver M1A2 Abrams tanks during a company live fire exercise, Aug. 16, 2015, at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, Calif.
Back in the 1980s, when it still existed, the Soviet Union maintained a number of “friendly” relationships with a variety of African and Asian nations, mostly for the purposes of selling military hardware to counter the West. One such nation was Libya, which opted to arm and equip its military with a variety of Soviet products, including MiG and Sukhoi fighters for its air force.
At the time, the USSR was also in the process of shopping around its Mil Mi-25 Hind-D, the export variant of the Mi-24 Hind helicopter. The Hind was a fairly unique vehicle at the time, as it was built from the ground up as a heavily-armed attack gunship with the ability to accommodate a maximum of eight fully-armed soldiers in an extremely cramped bay directly behind the cockpit. The Hind could therefore deliver special forces teams to the battlefield and remain in the area of operations for air support, or function solely as a very well-armed gunship, akin to the role the two-seater AH-1 Cobra played for American ground forces during the Vietnam conflict.
In contrast, the US primarily used helicopters like the UH-1 Huey to deliver (and extract) troops from the battlefield, and they were moderately armed at best (in comparison to the Hind) with door-mounted machine guns serving as defensive weaponry more so than in the offensive role.
Now, around the time of the Hind’s introduction into service in the late 70s, the Central Intelligence Agency, along with British intelligence services, sought to learn more about this big Soviet helo. Interest heightened when word broke that Ethiopia pressed an export Hind into combat successfully. The Hind then quickly made an appearance in Afghanistan during the Soviet Union’s controversial involvement there, operating to great effect against mujaheddin fighters towards the beginning of the conflict. Western intelligence needed to get a better look at the Hind and its heavily-armored airframe, especially for the purposes of determining whether or not an American equivalent needed to be designed, built, and fielded as a counter to the Hind’s capabilities. An opportunity for such a look finally presented itself in the form of the discovery of a Libyan Mi-25 left behind in Chadian territory in 1987.
Historically, Libya and Chad weren’t exactly on the best of terms. Their strained relationship was mostly the result of repeated attempts from Libyan-backed rebel groups to usurp the Chadian government. Constant Libyan attempts to occupy sovereign territory belonging to the Republic of Chad didn’t do much to help their situation either. When Chadian troops were finally able to fully expel Libyan forces from their borders in 1987, the retreating Libyans abandoned a considerable amount military hardware that would have otherwise bogged down and hindered their egress. Among the treasure trove of armored vehicles, guns, and light artillery stranded in the desert was a Hind-D in relatively good condition, parked on an old airfield ramp at Ouadi Doum. The CIA, after confirming that such a helicopter did indeed exist at that particular location, quickly set its sights on recovering the helo, or at least as much of it as possible, before the Libyans knew about their missing gunship.
All this would have to be done through a covert operation. After negotiating with (and eventually gaining permission from) the Chadian government through diplomatic channels, the CIA enlisted the Department of Defense’s help, and both began planning the extraction of the abandoned helo to American-controlled facilities, where it would be taken apart and analyzed in details. There’s a saying in the military that goes along the lines of: “Gear adrift is a gift”. Christmas was about to come very early for a bunch of CIA analysts and military technical experts.
[Image: The abandoned Hind. Photograph by Steve Ouellette.]
Mount Hope III was the name bestowed upon the operation. The very first order of business was wrangling up a group of pilots skilled (and crazy) enough to perform the mission to perfection. Who better to ask than the aviators of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Group, the legendary Night Stalkers? The preparation phase, creatively code-named Mount Hope II, began in April of 1987 in New Mexico. The dry, desert conditions would add a layer of realism to the training. CH-47 Chinooks from the 160th’s Echo Company were modified to bear the weight of the Hind-D, judged to be somewhere in the ballpark range of 17,000 to 18,000 pounds. Chinooks are already able to sling-load different pieces of military equipment, including the Humvee utility vehicle. But there’s a huge difference between a four-wheeled Humvee and an oversized Mil-25. Load-bearing hooks needed to be reinforced, the engines and transmissions needed to be checked and tuned, and the relatively ideal placement of the carcass of the Hind underneath the Chinook needed to be determined. Practice commenced in dark, low-light conditions. Six large blivets of water weighing roughly the same as the Hind were strapped to the underside of a Chinook. The Night Stalkers flying the Chinook were then supposed to fly to a “Forward Support Base” (or FSB for short) after stopping twice to refuel. The first dry run went off without a hitch, so the next test was to strap an actual airframe similar to that of the Hind in terms of size and weight and perform the test run once again under the same conditions. The Night Stalkers once again proved themselves and their aircraft and in good time, Mount Hope II was completed, meeting or exceeding the expectations of the CIA and Department of Defense’s overseeing officers. They were now ready for the real thing.
On May 21st, the order to execute Mount Hope III was handed down from the Oval Office, and the Night Stalkers immediately geared up, loading two Chinooks aboard a C-5 Galaxy heavy airlift jet, departing for Germany first, and later on to the Ndjamena airfield in southern Chad. The Army was to temporarily deploy an ADVON (advanced echelon) scouting and reconnaissance team to the location for around two weeks to keep an eye out for enemy forces, who weren’t all that far away from the airfield. The French government added their support to the mission by sending over a contingent of soldiers to cover the opreation on the ground and a set of Mirage F.1 fighter jets to provide top cover for all aircraft involved. A C-130 Hercules tactical airlifter would land at one of the Forward Arming and Refueling Points (FARPs) to provide fuel for the Chinooks on their way back to the FSB during the mission.
After arriving at Ndjamena on June 10th, Night Stalker pilots and crew unloaded their Chinooks from the gargantuan Galaxy. On June 11th, they proceeded with the mission as they had previously planned. The mission would see the Night Stalkers fly over 500 nautical miles under the cover of darkness, and would then pick up the abandoned Hind right at daybreak. An advance team (Chalk 1) flew to Ouadi Doum to ensure that the site was relatively secured for the incoming Chalk 2 Chinook and to prep the Hind for removal.
As mentioned earlier, a large element of Libyan military forces were still highly active in the area, even after most had been expelled from Chad’s borders during the previous year’s conflict. The slightest hint of military action nearby would have likely sparked a firefight and a subsequent international incident if it was discovered that the United States was actively trying to remove Libyan military hardware from the desert, even though the Hind was abandoned in Chadian sovereign territory. The ADVON team had reported back with a detailed threat analysis, highlighting the fact that the Libyans were definitely still in the region. Chalk 1, having been inserted at Ouadi Doum, cleared the location and quickly rigged the Hind for extraction while the Chalk 2 Chinook hovered close above, allowing for the team to sling-load the airframe to the waiting helo. Chalk 2 then left the area to return to Ndjamena. After covering Chalk 2’s extraction, Chalk 1 loaded up and got the hell out of Dodge. The Libyans were totally clueless of what was happening just miles away from their positions.
Chalk 2 stopped twice to refuel, at one point on a French Foreign Legion airfield, rendezvousing with the Air Force C-130s at each location. However, not long after stopping at FARP 2, the mission hit a slight snag in the form of an unanticipated 3000 ft sand storm. The Chinook bearing the weight of the Hind was now only 45 minutes out of home base. Hauling ass, Chalk 2 reached Ndjamena just ahead of the storm, flying through near-zero visibility and setting down with little time to spare. Waiting a little over 20 minutes in their helos for the storm to move onwards, the Night Stalkers finally loaded their aircraft and their newly-acquired prize into the Galaxy they arrived in, and within 36 hours were back on American soil. After 67 hours in-country, the mission was completed; an unmitigated success. Mount Hope III was also the very first major operation where the Night Stalkers used their CH-47s.
[Image: A FLIR Image of Chalk 2 lifting off with the Hind]
One of the munitions we had in Vietnam was filled with small sub-munitions about the size of a D-cell flashlight battery. Each munition had 256 of these small sub-munitions. When dropped from a helicopter, each one would cover an area the size of a football field with a thick cloud of [riot control] agent. The munition was so popular with the fighting troops on the ground that we couldn’t get enough of them to fill all requests.
Being a bright young guy, I invented a munition made from RCA [riot control agent] grenades (grenades weren’t in great demand because you had to be within throwing distance from the enemy to use them, and soldiers don’t like to get THAT close to the enemy if not necessary!). I filled wooden boxes with grenades, each of which had the “pin” pulled and the handle held in place by it’s packing container. I rigged the box so it would fall apart just above the ground when dropped from the right altitude in a helicopter. The grenades would then spill out, fall out of their packing containers, and start burning. Each of these munitions, which I called a BFOG, pronounced “Beefhog” for “Box Full of Grenades,” would also cover a football-sized area.
I received an Army Commendation Medal for inventing that munition, and we had a hard time making enough of them to keep up with demand.
Coalition Special Operations Forces members defend their position from insurgent small arms fire during a day-long fire fight in Nuristan province, Afghanistan, April 12, 2012. Afghan National Army Commandos and coalition SOF, the first to visit that area in more than two years, defeated insurgent forces overrunning a village.
Holocaust survivor salutes American soldier who
liberated him from Nazi concentration camp hell in emotional reunion
after 70 years
This is the poignant moment when a man rescued from the hell he
endured at the hands of the Nazis met his saviour and gave him a salute
almost 70 years later.
Joshua Kaufman first saluted his rescuer Daniel Gillespie. Then he
kissed his hand and finally, he fell to his feet, exclaiming: ‘I have
wanted to do this for 70 years. I love you, I love you so much…’.
Kaufman, now 87, was a ‘walking corpse’ on April 29 1945 when U.S.
Army soldier Gillespie, 89, marched in with his comrades to liberate the
charnel house that was the Dachau concentration camp near Munich.
By the time it was liberated more than 35,000 people had been
murdered there - in executions, in cruel medical experiments, starved,
worked and beaten to death.
The first person he saw was Hungarian Jewish prisoner Kaufman. He was
hiding in the latrines with other prisoners, uncertain if the soldiers
who arrived were liberators or a Nazi death squad sent to liquidate the
'We were confined to barracks by the guards. This meant most of us were marked for death,’ Mr Kaufman said.
'Then I saw the white flag flying from the watchtower and I realised
then that the torture was at an end. When the Americans smashed in the
door, my heart did somersaults.’
Gillespie helped the emaciated prisoner into the daylight and back
into the land of the living. Both parted with tears in their eyes - both
believed they would never see one another again.