“One of the things that I’ve kept over the years is a book of classical Greek myths from my grade nine English class that was falling apart by the time I got it. The notes in its margins from past students who borrowed it - beginning in 1976 - seemed like they were just for me. I knew that if I stole it I couldn’t pass it on to the next student but I fell so much in love with it that I had to.”
Christian Lo was photographed in New York City on May 18th. You can follow her on Instagram.
Humans have developed sophisticated concepts like mass and gravity to explain a wide range of everyday phenomena, but scientists have remarkably little understanding of how such concepts are represented by the brain.
Using advanced neuroimaging techniques, Queen’s University researchers have revealed how the brain stores knowledge about an object’s weight – information critical to our ability to successfully grasp and interact with objects in our environment.
Jason Gallivan, a Banting postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Psychology, and Randy Flanagan, a professor in the Department of Psychology, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to uncover what regions of the human brain represent an object’s weight prior to lifting that object. They found that knowledge of object weight is stored in ventral visual cortex, a brain region previously thought to only represent those properties of an object that can be directly viewed such as its size, shape, location and texture.
“We are working on various projects to determine how the brain produces actions on the world,” explains Dr. Gallivan about the work he is undertaking at the Centre for Neuroscience Studies at Queen’s. “Simply looking at an object doesn’t provide the brain with information about how much that object weighs. Take for example a suitcase. There is often nothing about its visual appearance that informs you of whether it is packed with clothes or empty. Rather, this is information that must be derived through recent interactions with that object and stored in the brain so as to guide our movements the next time we must lift and interact with that object.”
According to previous research, the ventral visual cortex supports visual processing for perception and object recognition whereas the dorsal visual cortex supports visual processing for the control of action. However, this division of labour had only been tested for visually guided actions like reaching, which are directed towards objects, and not for actions involving the manipulation of objects, which requires access to stored knowledge about object properties.
“Because information about object weight is primarily important for the control of action, we thought that this information might only be stored in motor-related areas of the brain,” says Dr. Gallivan. “Surprisingly, however, we found that this non-visual information was also stored in ventral visual cortex. Presumably this allows for the weight of an object to become easily associated with its visual properties.”
In ongoing research, Drs. Gallivan and Flanagan are using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to temporarily disrupt targeted brain areas in order to assess their contribution to skilled object manipulation. By identifying which areas of the brain control certain motor skills, Drs. Gallivan and Flanagan’s research will be helpful in assessing patients with neurological impairments including stroke.
The work was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). The research was recently published in Current Biology.
Jet aircrafts typically cruise at speeds of around 600 miles per hour. According to the pokédex, so does Garchomp! If that’s true, this land-shark dragon pokémon flies more than twice as fast as the speediest bird in our world, the Peregrine Falcon.
Everyone knows that planes fly faster than birds. But have you ever stopped to consider why? Let’s start by talking about the forces involved in any kind of flight. There are four main ones that we have to work with.
Gravity is a downward force due to the weight of the object. Lift is the upward force generated by the wings (see Latios). Drag is the air resistance and friction which slows the object down, and thrust is the force that pushes an object forward.
Thrust, then, is the force that controls the speed of the flight. In airplanes, thrust is created through their engines. Engines work through understanding Newton’s Third Law: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the sake of an airplane, the engines or propellers push the air backwards, which in turn pushes the airplane forwards.
But how do birds create thrust? Bird wings work in the same way that airplane wings do when it comes to creating lift, but birds don’t have engines to create thrust. They obviously move forward when they fly so they must make thrust somehow. Birds actually create thrust by flapping their wings. Their wings don’t flap straight up and down, but rather at an angle. This angle is what creates not just an upward lift, but a forward thrust. Depending on whether a bird is taking off, cruising, or landing, the angle they flap at (and the resulting thrust) change accordingly.
So birds don’t fly as fast as airplanes do because they don’t have engines. Their wing muscles aren’t powerful or efficient enough to create large thrust forces. Garchomp, in order to fly as fast as a jet plane, must use something other than his wings to create enough thrust. It’s pretty obvious where this thrust comes from: they even look like airplane engines.
Garchomp flies at speeds of 600 mph, which is possible because its wings aren’t the only thing generating thrust. Garchomp’s ear-things act like an airplane’s engines, which push Garchomp forward in its flight.
“For my final contortion show at the National Circus School, my director told me, ‘Be different.’ So I saved money (a lot), bought myself a beautiful pair of ballet shoes, and created a choreography that I performed with such pleasure. So yes, I love my ballet shoes.”
“As a product designer, I have always had a special place in my heart for objects. I found this old-school cap gun on a routine hunt in my basement and knew it would be with me forever. In many ways, this toy gun is a lot like me - small, harmless, classic, nostalgic.”
Michael Madjus was photographed in Toronto on May 16th. You can follow him on Instagram.
Objects that seem like half finished sketches, each weighted at the base for support. Made from oxidized copper, with the vase also having a shallow silver dish for holding water. The candle holder and vase can be used, while the bottles and dishes are decorative.
The object 775.
Class : missile tank.
Combat weight : 36 tons.
The description of case/tower : 80-120/30-90 mm, respectively.
Armament : 125-mm rifled gun-launcher D-126 and one machine gun of 7.62 mm.
Ammunition : 15 ATGM "Rubin" and 22 rocket pods "drill".
Equipped with diesel,700 HP 5TDF engine.
It’s not possible for unicellular organisms, such as the spidery “germs,” to grow to “badger” size as the surface area of the cell exterior would be insufficient to absorb enough nutrients to sustain the greatly increased interior volume.
Once laid, eggs do not increase in mass. Due to the loss of water vapor, eggs actually weigh less as they age, not more. Yes, the organism contained within is increasing in size; however, it does so by consuming the egg’s nutrient stores, creating, for argument’s sake, a closed, zero-sum system.
While there are areas on the Moon where the density of the crust is so great that it creates a positive gravity anomaly – they’re called mascons, and they’re why NASA can’t keep a lunar satellite in orbit for longer than a few months, or land a lunar module with pinpoint accuracy – they increase, not decrease, the weight of nearby objects. Even if the entirety of the organism within the egg moved to the other side of the Moon, (a) it wouldn’t cancel out Courtney’s weight entirely, and (b) it would affect a large area, and not pinpoint Courtney, specifically.
The reflected light from the areas of the Earth that are experiencing daytime would be so great as to drown out any manmade lights, making it impossible to tally Earth’s “votes.”
Sound cannot travel through the vacuum of space, so the Doctor, standing on a beach, on Earth, would not hear the roar of the newly hatched space creature. Further, as the Moon is 238,900 miles away, and the speed of sound is only 761 miles per hour, the Doctor would have to wait more than 13 days to hear the shriek, after seeing the creature roar.
While not every organism needs to mate in order to lay an egg, to expect a newborn creature to lay an egg the same size as the one from which it just hatched, mere seconds after being born, is sheer lunacy.
I wish I read this before I typed out my huge rant. I could have just copy/pasted.
Most sci-fi shows have a Scientific Advisor or two who points out basic holes like this. Does Doctor Who not have one? Or do the writers just laugh at their notes and say: “Oh, it’s all in good fun. Nobody knows what the speed of sound is!”
100% weight retention is a massive plus as a heavier object moving at a faster speed has more energy. Now apply that to ballistics and what you said is almost spot on. Not only does it increase penetration (as long as speed stays the same), it also creates a larger wound cavity. This dictates that 45 ACP should be the king but unfortunately due to modern ballistics, 9mm has come leaps and bounds from where it was. Especially now that JHPs are understood, as most duty 9mm expands to about .7in wide. Weight also plays in to sub/super sonic rounds like with 45acp or 300blk. it also effects mil-surp 556, which I’ll explain in a bit.
M855 is the greatest hype round to ever come out of the 556 family. M193 is up there too. Simply because people don’t truly understand HOW rifle bullets make holes and a piece of paper called the Hague Convention from 1899.
The Hague Convention outlawed the use of “bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core, or is pierced with incisions.” during war. (you can thank the British for this BTW, their .303 was EXTREMELY deadly for its time period)
Because of this militarizes of the world had to find a way to increase lethality while still abiding by the Hauge. So we have really two methods of wounding in mil-surp rounds. Fragmentation and Yaw.
Fragmentation: It is truly a great idea in theory. I’m going to shoot you with a bullet that once it hits you is going to explode into tiny little bits and hopeful rip up something important. If not, it’s going to take forever for a Doc to find all the pieces and get them out.
This is fully recovered (98%) M193 (55gr) round that hit the gel at about 3150fps. Nasty round. It truly is.
So what is it’s downfall? The fact that it has to be moving above 2700fps. This isn’t that large of deal with 16in or even 14.5in barrels. It still gives you a fairly large ballistic envelope that extends well out side “normal” self-defense ranges. Check the following table for the ranges at which M855 and M193 frag at. Please keep in mind that this is a guide, by no means is this a law. Each round will be different do to all the variables, like temp, humidity, altitude, etc.
Now hold up here. Out of a 11.5in gun I only have 45 yards, that’s only 135 feet until it dips below the threshold. That’s like the distance between your mail box and your next door neighbors mail box….. that’s actually really close in terms of a gun fight. I mean I have made shots on steel with a 9mm longer than that. This is why 7.5in barrels are stupid, not only are they over gassed to the point that they quite literal burn themselves to death. Your ballistics out of them SUCK!
An additional note on M855. It has a tungsten core that DOES NOT fragment due to it being denser than copper. This is by design as the core is meant to penetrate a Russian steel helmet if the Cold War ever went hot. You actually lose some frag when compared to M193 but you gain penetration against barriers, think car doors. This makes M855 act like both a fragmenting round and a round that yaws due to the tungsten core.
Yaw (not to be confused with yall, I know we Texans all sound weird.)
Yaw is mainly found in Russian mil-surp rounds. And is caused by a engineered non-center of gravity, located to the rear. Causing the back end of the round to either go higher or lower than the tip of the bullet when ever it meets a rapid deceleration.(ie flesh).
This is a picture of a unofficial gel test of 7.62x39. Notice how near the end of the block it dramatically widens? That’s because the round has turned on its side, going form a 7.62mm bullet to a 39mm plow as it turns end over end. Given enough time and gel we would see the perm cavity grow and shrink as the bullet tumbles.
As I’m sure most of us agree taking larger chunks out of someone trying to kill you is a good thing. So whats the problem with yaw? The issue is timing.
For yaw to be effective the round must be designed to yaw at the correct point, any sooner and we won’t have adequate penetration, any later and you just put a hole that is a glorified 22lr (556 and 545). That is the issue with 762x39, it begins to yaw well outside of the 15-17in range unless there is a medium in front of it to destabilize the round sooner, or it hits bone.
DO NOT CONFUSE THIS WITH BULLET YAW AT THE MUZZLE! THIS IS DIFFERENT!
Expansion: This is what JHP pistol rounds do so I will save time by not covering they way they work again. Instead I will jump into WHY they are better.
Before I continue, the above tests are preformed with a 50gr Barnes TSX 556 round. One of them came from a 20in barrel (bottom) and the other one came from a 8in barrel (top). Please notice that both gel tests look very similar and that both rounds expand well and meet the 15in mark. Something that M855 would be very, very hard pressed to do out of a 8in barrel. Below is the recovered rounds from the 8in barrel.
Here we have a FANTASTIC round that can be fired in a AR-15 even those with a slow twist rate like DPMS with the 1:12 rate. Where traditional you need a 1:9 or faster to stabilize the 70-77 grain rounds. Nor is it dependent on velocity like M855/M193 is, so SBR users have a round that they can use and greatly extend their envelope, which is never a bad thing. We also get reliable, repeatable, ballistic results that we may not see in a round that yaws.
love your blog! How would 707 react when figure that female mc was actually a secret agent that has been targeted by his agency. I'm ready for the angst ( i've replayed 707's route 5 time,so i think i am strong enough)
[ lol sorry i lost the angst and got into silly seven for some reason ]
“Haha! That’s really funny Vanderwood, but where’d you get a picture of my girlfriend? That’s kinda creepy for you to have, y’know.” Seven swiveled around in his chair to face his comrade who looked down on him with arms crossed. Vanderwood chose not to reply. Seven swiveled back towards his computer screen and read the target briefing. All the measurements were hers, height, weight, bust, the only issue was that his objective was to eliminate her. This was a joke, of course … right?
Vanderwood piped up, arms uncrossing. “I’m afraid that your squeeze-thing is working for the sister agency of our primary enemy. We fear she may be trying to collect information to sell out to them. I assume that it was decided that it should be handled by you since you’re already close enough to the target to meet the objective in less that a few hours.”
Seven went rigid in his seat. This couldn’t be right? His love? His girlfriend? You were an agent? Thoughts flooded Seven’s head. Did you know the whole time? Was this entire relationship a setup that he foolishly fell for? He didn’t like to make himself out to be that easy. Either way, he wasn’t ready to let you go or his agency. He’d make it work.
“Okay, Vanderwood, I’ll talk with my sweetheart tonight and see what we can do about this.” He swiveled one final time and returned to his work. Vanderwood heaved a sigh.
“You have until tomorrow or someone else will do the job for you.” That final warning had Seven biting his lip.
So I'm a fat trans guy. Before I had top surgery, one of my doctors had to make sure I knew the surgery wouldn't solve all my life problems. But he kinda gave me whiplash when he suggested I lose weight despite my objections that dieting doesn't work long-term. He scolded me, telling me to look at it as "lifestyle changes". But if losing breasts won't solve my problems, why will losing 20 lbs? It feels like a punishment when I want to try and be at peace with my own body.
So your surgeon was transphobic and fat phobic. Double yuck. I’m sorry you were subjected to that. It is so much harder to cope with bigotry when you are vulnerable… ya know, like when you are about to undergo surgery.
Your body is just fine the size that it is. You deserve to be at peace, and I hope you get there.
Weightlessness is a state in which an object has no actual weight because it is in space or in a situation where a object is unaffected by gravitational attraction.
“Zero gravity” or even nearly zero gravity is a misnomer, and does not really exist anywhere in the universe. Gravity is an omnipresent, if sometimes subtle force. What is usually meant is instead better described as weightlessness.
There are ways to simulate weightlessness that do not involve going into space. Since the early 1970s, aircraft flying on six-mile long parabolic arcs have been used to create 25-30 seconds of weightlessness. The NASA aircraft that have filled this role are traditionally dubbed “vomit comets” because the induce Space Adaptation Syndrome.
The two biggest problems with weightlessness and the human body are what the loss of resistance does to muscles and bones. Muscles begin to atrophy, and bones experience osteopenia or the loss of bone mass. These things happen because the lack of resistance tells your body to stop maintaining its bone and muscle tissue.
Fragile looks into the world of shipping. A flexible packaging system as a reusable companion to the packaged object rather than a disposable skin. An inquiry into the materiality and the typologies of transport packaging for valuable goods.
Form follows format. Format follows logistics.
Fragile is a method for shipping valuable goods. By using the properties of an elastic composite membrane, Fragile traps objects of different shapes and weights in an immediate bespoke packaging. A standard for the non-standards. A quick method to ship works of art, collectibles and other singular objects in a package that is reusable, modular, collapsible and fits into existing logistics.
Objects that seem like half-finished sketches of candle holders, vases, bowls and bottles won British designer Maya Selway second prize in the Object category of the Interieur Design Awards 2012 at the Interieur design biennale in Kortrijk, Belgium.
Each object in the Kishu collection is carefully weighted at its base to support its lopsided structure. “I worked for a long time to get the balance just right,” Selway told Dezeen.
The delicate pieces are made from oxidised copper, and the vase also has a shallow silver dish for holding water.