we all write essays that need sources like 5 seconds before it’s due so here is my #1 tip that i haven’t been called out for yet in my 3 years of college 

writing a paper on alexander the great but couldn’t be bothered to look at more than the wikipedia page? WELL 

GO to the wikipedia page and find a fact that you’d like to incorporate…

coooool honor and glory so Manly™ ANYWAYS 

see that little circled 169? click it and it’ll take you HERE: 

so with this one you’ll get not one, but two sources. that GIVE YOU PAGE NUMBERS. mla in-text citations? done. just paraphrase the fact, and add “…”(Green 5). 

but we need the full thing, don’t we? go here by clicking on the hyperlink -

and that’s all the info you need! now google to find the exact book and more up-to-date accurate info you need for your works cited and, maybe, find a pdf online or a copy in your library. 

BUT THAT’S NOT ALL. for this example it doesn’t work, because the page this specific fact is on is not available in the way i’m gonna show you, but oh well. 

you could’ve clicked on “Roisman and Worthington 2010, p. 190,” which’ll take you here: 

scroll down aaaaaand 

see those blue links? those are available chapters of the book! for free! right at your fingertips! no need to get up and run to your library, or stress out that you can’t find the book online. google books has TONS of resources.

at the bottom of a wikipedia article, the sources are categorized into primary and secondary sources as well, in case you need to fill a specific source type requirement. 

you can do this with anything. i’ve done it with audrey hepburn (my school library had no books/articles of use), world war ii, the hebrews in the old testament…literally, anything. as a disclaimer, this probs isn’t 100% foolproof, but none of my professors have caught on. and in a pinch, it works better than scanning an entire book or article for a fact you need.  

I made this guide for my mom because she is trying to eat more plant based! I hope this helps you too :)

Vitamins:
 
- B1 (Thiamine)
 - B12 (Cobalamin)
 - B2 (Riboflavin)
 - B3 (Niacin)
 - B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
 - B6 (Pyridoxine)
 - B7 (Biotin)
 - Folate
 - Vitamin A
 - Vitamin C
 - Vitamin D
 - Vitamin E
 - Vitamin K

Minerals:
 
- Calcium
 - Copper
 - Iron
 - Magnesium
 - Manganese
 - Phosphorus
 - Potassium
 - Selenium
 - Sodium
 - Zinc

B1: Maintains healthy hair, nails and skin and aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Nutritional yeast, pine nuts, soymilk, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, green peas, asparagus, most beans, rice bran, watermelon, whole grains, macadamia nuts, artichokes, coriander.

B12: Red blood cell production, needed for optimal brain function to prevent depression and mania. Aids in digestion and improves iron uptake.
-Fortified almond milk, fortified cereals, spirulina, vegan protein powder and nutritional yeast. I just take a B12 tablet J

B2: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Whole grains, almonds, sesame seeds, spinach, fortified soy milk, mushrooms, quinoa, buckwheat and prunes.

B3: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
­-Chili powder, peanuts, peanut butter, rice bran, mushrooms, barley, potatoes, tomatoes, millet, chia seeds, whole grains, wild rice, buckwheat, green peas, avocados, and sunflower seeds.

B5: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Nutritional yeast, paprika, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, whole grains, broccoli, avocados, tomatoes, soy milk, rice bran and sweet potatoes.

B6: Aids in maintaining homeostasis, prevents anxiety by helping the amino acid tryptophan to convert to niacin and serotonin for healthy nerve function. Also helps ensure a healthy sleep cycle, appetite, and mood. Helps with red blood cell production and immune function.
- Almonds, chia seeds, peanuts, sweet potatoes, peanut butter, onions, oats, tomatoes, carrots and walnuts.

 B7: Converts food to energy, helps reduce blood sugar by synthesizing glucose, helps make and break down fatty acids needed for healthy hair, skin and nails.
- Almonds, chia seeds, peanuts, peanut butter, sweet potatoes, oats, onions, tomatoes, carrots and walnuts. 

Folate: Merges with B12 and Vitamin C to utilize proteins and is essential for healthy brain development and for healthy red blood cell formation.
- Spinach, beans, lentils, asparagus, lettuce, tomatoes, broccoli, avocados, mangoes, oranges, whole grains, basil, peanuts, artichokes, peanut butter, cantaloupe, walnuts, flax seeds, sesame seeds, cauliflower, sunflower seeds, peas, celery, hazelnuts, and chestnuts.

Vitamin A: Keeps skin healthy, improves immune system function and aids in the production of healthy blood and cellular function.
- All leafy greens, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, winter squash, wheatgrass, grapefruit, cantaloupe, red bell peppers, orange bell peppers, and goji berries.

Vitamin C: Helps fight inflammation, improves your mood, and helps fight off diseases and colds. Beneficial for skin, hair and nails and supports natural collagen function in the body.
- All leafy greens, all vegetables, all fruits, chestnuts, goji berries. Oranges, lemons, limes and fortified orange juice are the best sources.

Vitamin D: Helps with bone health, digestive health, overall metabolic health, and important in preventing muscle weakness, cancer and depression.
- All types of mushrooms, fortified cereals, almond milk, soy milk and the sun!!

Vitamin E: Protects your skin, fights the look of aging. It’s a powerful fat soluble antioxidant that helps protect cell membranes against damaged caused by free radicals. Helps with cholesterol.
- All nuts, all seeds, avocado, spinach, rice bran, wheat germ, whole grains, broccoli, mango, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, swiss chard, olives, mustard greens and asparagus.

Vitamin K: Helps with blood clotting to prevent excessive bleeding. Also helps prevent blood clots. Important for protecting our bones and prevents easy breaks and fractures.
-Kale, spinach, romaine lettuce, swiss chard, parsley, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, blueberries, prunes, grapes and raspberries.

Calcium: For bone building, as well as responsible for proper muscle contraction, maintenance of the heartbeat and transmission of nerve impulses.
-Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, butternut squash, carrots, cauliflower, kale, sweet potato, chickpeas (hummus), lentils, pinto beans, black beans, kidney beans, fortified almond milk, fortified soy milk, whole wheat, fortified orange juice, orange and raisins.

Copper: Helps with bone and connective tissue production. Also helps produce melanin. Without it you can cause osteoporosis, joint pain, lowered immunity and helps absorb iron.
-Kale, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, cashews, sesame seeds, chickpeas, prunes, avocado, and tofu.

Iron: Needed to make proteins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin in the blood. It helps carry oxygen from our lungs to our tissues. Iron rich foods should be eaten with foods high in Vitamin C to help with absorption.
-Molasses, dark leafy greens like kale and spinach, tofu, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds.

 Magnesium: Important nutrient for a host of regular enzymatic functions throughout your body. Helps with energy, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, lack of energy and fatigue, joint pain, low blood sugar, lack of concentration and PMS. 
-Oats, almonds, cashews, cocoa and cacao, seeds, all leafy greens, bananas, sweet potatoes, whole grains, beans and brown rice.

Manganese: Required by the body for proper enzyme functioning, nutrient absorption, wound healing and bone development.
-Hazelnuts, pecans, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, sesame and flax seeds, whole wheat bread, tofu and beans.

Phosphorus: Required for proper cell functioning, regulation of calcium, strong bones and teeth, making of ATP, and helps with anemia, muscle pain, bone formation and weakened immune system.
-Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, chia seeds, sesame seeds, flax seeds, Brazil nuts, tofu, beans and lentils.

Potassium: Important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues and organs in the human body. Helps with your nervous system and shin splints or locked toes.
-Lima beans, swiss chard, sweet potato, potatoes, soy milk, spinach, avocado, lentils, pinto beans and coconut water.

Selenium: Mineral that is needed in small amounts by the body to help regulate the thyroid hormones and support a healthy immune system. It is also an antioxidant that protects cells from damage due to free radicals.
-Mushrooms, couscous, whole wheat pasta, rice, oats, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tofu and beans.

Sodium: Needed for proper muscle contractions, nerve transmissions, maintaining pH balance and hydration.
-Everything has sodium, don’t worry about this one. If you use table salt, you are good. (But don’t use too much or it will cause bloating). Drink lots of water when consuming sodium.

Zinc: Helps your body with carbohydrate metabolism, efficient production of testosterone to prevent estrogen dominance, helps enhance skin and nails, helps enhance your sense of smell, healthy growth, healthy eyesight, wound healing and your immune system. 
-Beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, oats, wheat germ, and nutritional yeast.

Learning About Introversion

I think I speak for all of us when I say that it can be VERY annoying to be called names and have people assume things about us that just isn’t true. That being said, books and articles are a great way for non-introverted people to learn more about what introversion is and how to best interact with introverts. Do you guys know of any good books, articles, or other sources about introversion?

Note: This is also a chance for introverts to seek out sources for themselves as well. Learning about oneself is a great way to spend your alone time. :-)

If you’re an introvert, follow @introvertunites

French sources (for intermediate or advanced learners)!

Hi :)
Some time ago I asked my followers to suggest me some films/books/tv series/general sources to improve my French, and a lot of you (more than I excpected) answered.
If you have other suggestions, please reblog this post and spread the knowledge!
So, here you are the list of all the books/films/singers you suggested, I hope it will help some of you, too:

Books:

  • L'étranger, Camus
  • Si c'était vrai…, Marc Levy
  • Comment je suis devenu stupide, Martin Page
  • Huis clos, Jean-Paul Sartre
  • Mateo Falcone, Prosper Mérimée
  • Monsieur Ibrahim et les fleurs du Coran, Éric-Emmanuel Schmidt
  • Le blé en herbe, Colette
  • Le petit prince, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
  • Le petit Nicolas, René Goscinny
  • Cyrano de Bergerac, Edmond Rostand

Grammar book: “Action Grammaire” (for any level)

Films:

  • Les intouchables (2011)
  • Entre les murs (2008)
  • Amélie (2001)
  • Un Prophète (2009)
  • La Règle du Jeu (1939)
  • Des Hommes et des Dieux (2010)
  • Le Scaphandre et le Papillon (2007)
  • Au Revoir, les Enfants (1987)
  • Le passé (2013)
  • La vie d'Adèle (2013)
  • Les choristes (2004)
  • Jeune et jolie (2013)
  • L'Auberge Espagnole (2002)
  • Ne le Dis à personne (2006)
  • Chaos (2005)
  • Delicatessen (1991)

TV series:

  • RIS police scientifique
  • Les revenants
  • Extra French avec sous-titres (YouTube)

Music:

  • Stromae
  • Louise Attaque
  • Dionysos
  • Coeur de Pirate
  • Yelle
Positives of BPD

(Borderline personality disorder/emotional regulation disorder).
I made a post like this a while ago when I first started to use tumblr. It was pretty brief and choppily written (in my opinion) so as I’ve said, I decided to remake this with more explanation/research included for more understanding and since lots found it and really liked it. Might as well start 2015 off focusing on these positives.

This is important for awareness/understanding and for those of you who have it, as it really helped me overcome feelings of guilt towards having BPD/ERD and the horrible stigma. It helped me gain self-acceptance. That is why I decided to share it here.

Emotional Regulation Disorder (BPD) is a chronic mental disorder of emotional hypersensitivity and dysregulation.
In BPD, neurobiological emotion and systematic reactions fire off rapidly, longer, easily, and with more intensity as they are hypersensitivity and do not regulate, balance out, or process well and the same as others.
This results in its many symptoms in such behavior, moods, reactions, identity, perception, dissociation, thought patterns, etc.
(The fight/flight system is easily triggered, while the system responsible to regulate that is underactive. There are brain structural differences that are responsible for emotions, decisions, behavior, learning, instincts thoughts, perception, stimuli, relations, etc. Additionally, emotions have been shown to fire off longer and hormones, chemicals, transmitters, all play its part in the hypersensitivity and dysregulation. And so on).
It then causes a wide range of symptoms (depressive, dissociative, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, anger, aggression, suicidal ideations, extreme reactions to real or perceived rejection, abandonment and criticism, etc.) as there are hundreds of ways to recognize ERD/BPD reactions, symptoms, and features.

As the condition influences ‘all’ emotional reactions and functioning, and there is such a wide range of symptoms, it is often described as a version of multiple mental disorders combined. (borderline of multiple conditions)
However, these neurobiological reactions mean the hypersensitivity can affect positive reactions as well.
-For those of you who read this and suddenly think that you have a chronic condition because it says something positive and you say you have them all, stop. It is incredibly disrespect to those of us that have it. You can’t just tell you have it from being able to relate to a post because it says something positive. Posts aren’t some checklist.

Some of the main symptoms of BPD may generate some positive responses or features.
Specifically, with research, analysis, and observations, some hallmark features may be:

-Passionate: As the level of psychological reactions highly differ in those with BPD compared to those without, individuals with the condition experience a higher extremity scale and baseline. For instance, this includes: Depression instead of sadness, humiliation instead of embarrassment, panic instead of nervousness, rage instead of anger, and euphoria instead of happiness, to name a few. Individuals with BPD have been observed to be especially very passionate and reactive as they often react and express this passion and euphoria.

-Lively:
Intense reactions may also result in high euphoria and engaging/active behavior and energy.

-Insightful: Studies on BPD indicated that because of their own hypersensitivity and pain, some people with BPD may easily connect to what is around them. For instance, they were able to easily read facial expressions, behavior, and emotions of those around them in an expression test. People with BPD may take experiences like these and emotions and turn it into insight and understanding, for one example.

-Curious: Observations and studies show unusually high curiosity is common in some people with BPD from the hypersensitivity and connectivity with their emotions, senses, and surroundings.

-High awareness: As a result of being hypersensitive and easily connected to surroundings and outside stimuli, some people with BPD have been observed have high awareness.
Such strong emotions and connections may call for or reinforce high awareness.
For other examples, Marsha Linehan also states they may have higher levels of spiritual experiences more often. Furthermore, people with BPD have been observed to have a high level of comfort, security, and connection to nature and animals, such as pets, as stated by the DSM.

-Compassionate/empathetic: As a result of their own hypersensitivity and pain, many with BPD may portray a high level of empathy and understanding to others.

-Dependent: Dependency is a hallmark symptom of BPD. One main reason for this is the extremity of the hypersensitive emotions, which often generate a huge fear of being alone and abandonment and rejection. Identity symptoms, such as a lack of sense of self, may also result in dependency. Yet, dependency can be a good thing with the proper balance, like for support, closeness, affection, and interconnectivity.

-Protective: This reaction may be common as a result of the intensity and care someone with BPD feels towards a situation or person. It also relates to the high aggression noted in BPD symptoms. Aggression isn’t always a bad thing- aggression can mean protective of someone or the self.

-Loving/appreciative:
Idealization is a main symptom of BPD. Some people with BPD may idealize and glorify another individual in their life because of such strong emotions, reactions, and needs, and they may also be very appreciative because of hypersensitivity and painful experiences.

-Loyal: Idealization, dependency, hypersensitivity, etc- such reactions and features may prompt strong loyalty and devotion.

-Creative: The intensity and hypersensitive highs and lows may generate creativity and expression. An unusually high amount of writers have BPD. High levels of creativity were linked to some individuals with BPD in research cases- new ideas, artistic or musical ability, writing, or other areas of creativity. Fantasizing is a common feature in BPD as well as daydreaming.

-High nociception (pain tolerance): Studies indicate alterations between pain processing in over half of those with BPD, as opposed to individuals without. It has shown an alteration in acute pain processing- they have a higher tolerance for such. Individuals with BPD were far more likely to tolerate it, despite being hypersensitive psychologically. The result of this comes from different systematic responses and antinociception and may be a result of long-term self harm behavior in some cases.

-Discipline: Obsessive compulsive features are on a spectrum amongst many disorders, and some are quite common in BPD. This includes intrusive thoughts in the thought pattern/processes, repetitive behavior as a result of anxiety and distress, and perfectionism, to name a few.
Research observes that with the proper balance and use, people with BPD may also display high levels of self-discipline, work orientation, and drive connected to these features of perfectionism, repetition, etc.

-Sarcastic/funny:
The DSM and other observations state some people with BPD may often express sarcasm and humor.

-Bold:
One of the main symptoms of BPD is impulsiveness; however, research states this may be tied to a positive trait in some individuals with BPD- boldness, bravery, and ability to speak their mind.

-Spontaneous: Living free, acting on the moment, open minded, adventurousness, which is all related to the connections, reactions, and impulsiveness.

-Alluring/Interesting: Such extreme reactions and expressions are shown or felt to others. Because of the intensity, many people note the interesting and/or alluring behavior or energy of someone with BPD in observation.
There are books and other psych writings noting individuals with BPD as “sirens”- Interesting and intense, yet, impulsive, aggressive, and hypersensitive.
Other studies have stated foundings of “physical attractiveness” patterns-however, not entirely realistic, hormonal differences found amongst BPD individuals may relate.

-Individualistic: BPD is a complex disorder that has hundreds of symptoms and features. There is a lot of depth, changeability, intensity, and reactions.
Furthermore, some features may allow one to cultivate such individuality.

-Strong: On a psychological level, people with BPD are often described as feeling the some of the most intense, agonizing reactions, and one needs to be quite strong to handle them.

-Intense: Overall, people with BPD are intense and hypersensitive individuals. The listed^ features may be noted with intensity.  BPD is also called, “Emotional Intensity Disorder.”

Marsha Linehan
states, “Although it is likely that emotion dysregulation is most pronounced in negative emotions, borderline individuals also seem to have difficulty regulating positive emotions and their sequelae.”

Reliable Sources

Komiði sæl og blessuð, vinir,

I simply can not emphasize this enough. I post a lot of information on my blog, and, if that tells any story, it is to say that I am not always correct. With that being said, I encourage community input. You should always challenge everything you are told; you should question the reality that is posed to you. 

Now, before I go too far astray, I spend hours on end making sure that my sources are reliable, and that I have considered various possibilities and perspectives. Despite this, however, I often receive refutation. I have no problem with this, at all

Yet, it troubles me when my lengthy posts, often with fifteen or more footnotes making use of five or more books written by various Ph.D. holding scholars, are refuted with no sources to back the refutal. Even worse, many of the ‘sources’ I see in these refutals are not reliable places for information (in other words, they do not cite their sources).

With the growth of the internet into the jötunn that is has become, I find it unfortunate that people continue to allow ‘bad’ information to circulate. I find it troublesome that hard work is refused simply because the reliable sources that have been used do not agree with the internet-hersay that this jötunn promotes. 

It is true that even my sources do not represent some ‘absolute truth’ on these subjects, but we must realize that, especially in a field like history, there is no such thing as an obtainable ‘absolute truth.’ I can be refuted - No, I must be refuted. This is about our habits moving forward. This is about how we do not know the difference between information and knowledge

You simply can not deny something on the basis of something you ‘heard’ on the internet. Where did that information come from? From what context does it stem? Who wrote this? What basis does this have? I ask myself these questions often. In fact, I often include a footnote to point out the ambiguity of a given claim or statement. 

Yes, it takes much more work and effort to make sure that a source in reliable. Yes, I know, it is a pain and chore. I do it every single time I make a post onto the internet. Yet, it is your responsibility. At the very least, know not to spread unreliable information and, perhaps more importantly, know how to recognize it. So what makes a source reliable? 

Three elements are the most important, although there are many that apply: authorship, publisher, and information used.


Authorship:

There are actually many, many books and articles that participate in the spreading of unreliable information. Many articles, especially those with click-bait titles, are simply fantasizing a small portion of historical information, romanticizing it for the sake of clicks and ratings. Their goals do not lie in educating people, but rather getting people interested and clicking.

To tell if an author is reliable, make sure that an article, for example, lists an author in the first place. There is actually a surprisingly large amount of articles circulating the internet without authors listed. Those are bad news.

Books, although they have been published, are not guaranteed to be reliable. In fact, there are many books published by authors not necessarily qualified to stand as an authority on a given subject. Always check the author. Look into their background and their credentials. Make sure a book on history is by a person who has professionally studied that history, or a closely related field.

Publisher:

Is the published a university press (i.e. University of California Press) or a popular press (i.e. Penguin)? I have used Penguin books, but the authors are also holders of at least one Ph.D. on a related subject. Jesse L. Byock, for example, earned his tenure before he began to publish in ‘popular presses.’ Plenty of professors publish here to engage with people that are not in academic circles. 

Yet, the reason the publisher is important is because a university press includes other scholars who check the academic credibility of a book before publishing it. A popular press, however, does not have this ‘security check.’ Essentially anyone can publish anything through a popular press.

Information used:

This may seem vague, but it is perhaps the most important. When I post my Viking History lessons, for example, I include footnotes and citations to primary (from or near the period) and secondary (by scholars with Ph.Ds) sources. I currently do not even have my B.A., however, I use my information very carefully. I am not the most reliable source, but I am also not a bad source to most standards.

The sources used by a given author are important because they are the foundation of their argument. If no information is cited, it is not a good source. If unreliable sources (.com, .org, click-bait article, a pin, a Facebook post, etc.) are used to formulate their claim, then that author is not reliable.

Reliable information is the same as reliable sources. The books used are by sound authors and the primary sources are provided by sound translators. Reliable sources include, but are not limited to:

  • Books by an author with a relevant Ph.D.
  • Books published by a university press
  • Articles falling under the same conditions as above
  • Primary sources translated by reliable authors
  • ‘.edu’ websites (although this must be used carefully)

All I can say, after having made this most much longer than anticipated, is that you must check the reliability of a source or claim before using it. It troubles me to see people continuing to spread information without any basis. I know that not everyone will use citations in the same way that I do, but I would like to see people make the effort to show where their information comes from. 

I will refuse to accept any refutal that is not backed by reliable information, and I refuse to acknowledge any argument made without a responsible foundation.

Challenge the information you read or hear, but challenge it with equally reliable information. Do not challenge someone’s hard work with some pin you came across on Pinterest that doesn’t tell you where that information even came from.

I hope that some of you will take these words into consideration.

Þakka ykkur fyrir.

Roman sources about Africa south of the Atlas are bizarre because often, the authors have no idea what they are talking about, and, as a result, I have no idea what they’re trying to describe.

I spent a long while yesterday studying maps of Libya, Mali, Niger and Algeria looking for a river Pliny mentions and I have no idea what river he could possibly be talking about.

MONDAYNjideka Akunyili Crosby explores her sources, processes, and the development of her work with associate curator Jane Panetta. Tickets at whitney.org

Njideka Akunyili Crosby (b. 1983), Before Now After (Mama, Mummy and Mamma), 2015. Collection of the artist; courtesy Victoria Miro, London