Solvent

1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene (Limonene)

This gorgeous little compound will strip paint, dissolve polystyrene, alleviate your heartburn and leave everything smelling lemony-fresh.

It’s also combustible, so I guess Cave Johnson wasn’t kidding.

Piece requested by @nerdgirlnarrates

Bernie Sanders is trying to save millennials’ retirements

  • On Friday, Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Rep. Peter DeFazio (D-Ore.) introduced a bill to make Social Security solvent for generations while also expanding benefits.
  • The bill would lift the payroll tax cap on highest earners and extend the life of the program through 2078. 
  • Currently, Social Security is funded through a 6.2% payroll tax that only applies to the first $127,200 a person earns in a year. 
  • The Sanders plan is similar to one he proposed during his presidential campaign and would lift the cap on all income above $250,000. Read more (2/17/17 10:42 AM)
where was your suffering?

Facebook gets a bad rap, but there’s a lot of serious shit going down there these days.  Via a friend’s reposting:


From Scott Mednick, when a Facebook friend told him, “We suffered for 8 years. Now it’s your turn.”

Scott’s reply:


"I am surprised you would wish suffering upon me. That of course is your right, I suppose. I do not wish harm on anyone. Your statement seems to continue an ‘US v THEM’ mentality. The election is over. It is important to get past campaigning and campaign rhetoric and get down to what is uniting not dividing and what is best for ALL Americans.

There will never be a President who does everything to everyone’s liking. There are things President Obama (and President Clinton) did that I do not like and conversely there are things I can point to that the Presidents Bush did that I agree with. So I am not 100% in lock step with the outgoing President but have supported him and the overall job he did.

And, if you recall, during the Presidential Campaign back in 2008 the campaign was halted because of the "historic crisis in our financial system.” Wall Street bailout negotiations intervened in the election process. The very sobering reality was that there likely could be a Depression and the world financial markets could collapse. The United States was losing 800,000 jobs a month and was poised to lose at least 10 million jobs the first year once the new President took office. We were in an economic freefall. So let us recall that ALL of America was suffering terribly at the beginning of Obama’s Presidency.

But I wanted to look back over the last 8 years and ask you a few questions. Since much of the rhetoric before Obama was elected was that he would impose Sharia Law, Take Away Your Guns, Create Death Panels, Destroy the Economy, Impose Socialism and, since you will agree that NONE of this came to pass,

I was wondering:
Why have you suffered so?

So let me ask:
Gays and Lesbians can now marry and enjoy the benefits they had been deprived of. Has this caused your suffering?

When Obama took office, the Dow was 6,626. Now it is 19,875. Has this caused your suffering?

We had 82 straight months of private sector job growth - the longest streak in the history of the United States. Has this caused your suffering?

Especially considering where he the economy was when he took over, an amazing 11.3 million new jobs were created under President Obama (far more than President Bush). Has this caused your suffering?

Obama has taken Unemployment from 10% down to 4.7%. Has this caused your suffering?

Homelessness among US Veterans has dropped by half. Has this caused your suffering?

Obama shut down the US secret overseas prisons. Has this caused your suffering?

President Obama has created a policy for the families of fallen soldiers to have their travel paid for to be there when remains are flown home. Has this caused your suffering?

We landed a rover on Mars. Has this caused your suffering?

He passed the Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act. Has this caused your suffering?

Uninsured adults has decreased to below 10%: 90% of adults are insured - an increase of 20 Million Adults. Has this caused your suffering?

People are now covered for pre-existing conditions. Has this caused your suffering?

Insurance Premiums increased an average of $4,677 from 2002-2008, an increase of 58% under Bush. The growth of these
insurance premiums has gone up $4,145 – a slower rate of increase. Has this caused your suffering?

Obama added Billions of dollars to mental health care for our Veterans. Has this caused your suffering?

Consumer confidence has gone from 37.7 to 98.1 during Obama’s tenure. Has this caused your suffering?

He passed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act. Has this caused your suffering?

His bi-annual Nuclear Summit convinced 16 countries to give up and destroy all their loose nuclear material so it could not be stolen. Has this caused your suffering?

He saved the US Auto industry. American cars sold at the beginning of his term were 10.4M and upon his exit 17.5M. Has this caused your suffering?

The deficit as a percentage of the GDP has gone from 9.8% to 3.2%. Has this caused your suffering?

The deficit itself was cut by $800 Billion Dollars. Has this caused your suffering?

Obama preserved the middle class tax cuts. Has this caused your suffering?

Obama banned solitary confinement for juveniles in federal prisons. Has this caused your suffering?

He signed Credit Card reform so that rates could not be raised without you being notified. Has this caused your suffering?

He outlawed Government contractors from discriminating against LGBT persons. Has this caused your suffering?

He doubled Pell Grants. Has this caused your suffering?

Abortion is down. Has this caused your suffering?

Violent crime is down. Has this caused your suffering?

He overturned the scientific ban on stem cell research. Has this caused your suffering?

He protected Net Neutrality. Has this caused your suffering?

Obamacare has extended the life of the Medicare insurance trust fund (will be solvent until 2030). Has this caused your suffering?

President Obama repealed Don’t Ask Don’t Tell. Has this caused your suffering?

He banned torture. Has this caused your suffering?

He negotiated with Syria to give up its chemical weapons and they were destroyed. Has this caused your suffering?

Solar and Wind Power are at an all time high. Has this caused your suffering?

High School Graduation rates hit 83% - an all time high. Has this caused your suffering?

Corporate profits are up by 144%. Has this caused your suffering?

He normalized relations with Cuba. Has this caused your suffering?

Reliance on foreign oil is at a 40 year low. Has this caused your suffering?

US Exports are up 28%. Has this caused your suffering?

He appointed the most diverse cabinet ever. Has this caused your suffering?

He reduced the number of troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Has this caused your suffering?

Yes, he killed Osama Bin Laden and retrieved all the documents in his possession for analysis. Perhaps THIS caused your suffering?

From an objective standpoint it would appear that the last 8 years have seen some great progress and we were saved from a financial collapse. Things are not perfect. Things can always be better. We are on much better footing now than we were in 2008.

I look forward to understanding what caused you to suffer so much under Obama these last 8 years.“

Barbarian Week: Berserkers and You!

There honestly isn’t much to be said about the D&D 5e barbarian. It’s a class that’s even more about fighting than the fighter. That said, there is always some depth into the mentality and mechanics of this class. I’m going to talk about how the DM, the player, and their allies should be using the barbarian in their game.

image credit: Will Murai

As a DM:

If you have a barbarian in your playgroup, there are some things you should know. For one thing, the barbarian doesn’t do much other than fight and get hit. So delve into the narration of combat. Make every attack dramatic, whether a hit or a miss, and make every attack against them just as dramatic. Combat is the whole reason they chose to play a barbarian. They want to hit hard and often, so you should let them be the hero that they want to be.

It might be difficult if the barbarian doesn’t want to play along with roleplaying encounters. They might screw up diplomatic relations, try to kill a friendly NPC, etc. You could remind them of the consequences of their actions, but it’s much easier to use positive reinforcement. Show them the reward for playing along, like treasure, land, revenge, crushing your enemies, seeing them driven before you, hearing the lamentation of their women, etc.

Be aware of their strengths. Primarily, their STR score and CON score. Fill your adventures with opportunities to test their STR modifier with Athletics checks. Give them pits to jump, underwater encounters, boulders to throw, stone gates to hold open, etc. They will be able to resist most poisons, disease, exhaustion, nausea, indigestion, and transmutation/necromancy spells thanks to their CON. Give them creatures and traps to face that offer a CON saving throw to make them feel strong by how easily they can resist it.

The barbarian runs the most risk of being overpowered. They are built for it. A berserker barbarian can get up to three attacks (at level 5) with advantage just for raging, and with their added damage that’s easily a deadly turn for any victim with less than 40 HP. Remind them that they are not invulnerable, despite their resistance to “bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing” damage. Be mindful that they do have weaknesses.

If you want to challenge a barbarian, you need to give them insurmountable odds. Many, many creatures will have enough attacks to get consistent hits on a barbarian. One or two high-CR creatures will force them to use up lots of healing resources. Even so, these “insurmountable odds” can be swept up by the right adventuring party if spellcasters are present. If you hold up the spellcasters for a turn or two, the barbarian will start to feel those odds stacked against them, which may be enough to remind them of their vulnerability. That is, before the magic-user charms the high CR creature or fireballs the mob of enemies to make things more manageable.

Another easy way to challenge the barbarian is to target its biggest weakpoint: it’s mental ability scores. If a barbarian has to make a WIS, INT, or CHA saving throw, there is a good chance they will fail. Protip: if the adventuring party starts to rely too much on their barbarian, a Dominate Person spell on the berserker is easily the best way to turn the tide and put the fear of God in them.

As a Player:

As someone playing a barbarian, you will be tempted to just roll attacks every round. This is not a bad thing, but remember you have another strength: your Strength! Replace one or two of your attacks with Shove or Grapple attempts to help your allies get the edge they need. You may have advantage while recklessly raging, but your allies could use the help!

You shine brightest as the tank, absorbing damage for your team. You might not have as high of an AC as the fighter, but the halved damage is a huge plus. If you can get items or buffs from your friends or from shops to boost your HP, you will be able to withstand even greater threats. Stay away from seas of enemies unless you can get a surprise round in, since your AC being on the low-end will make those ten or so attacks much more likely to hit. You will have to trust in your allies to defend you. The healer will give you aid when you are low, the bard will boost your damage, the wizard will grant you False Life.

Other tips:

  • Kill the wizard and healer first. They have the lowest HP/AC and are the biggest threat to you since you have a low WIS score (don’t take it too personally, but I mean, you can’t even read or write).
  • Remember that you have Danger Sense! It works on “things you can see” so take Perception as a skill so you don’t miss anything.
  • Get plenty of gadgets. Batman uses them because he doesn’t have magic or superpowers, so you should too! Buy nets, grappling hooks, manacles, Dust of Disappearance, Universal Solvents, anything that you think might help a walking beefcake with no powers.
  • When all else fails, remember that “death” is the best crowd control.

 As a Team:

The barbarian in your group is the only thing standing between you and certain death. Use them to absorb all that damage that would normally be directed at your tender frame. They are glad to do so. Well, “angry” to do so. It’s the rage, you see.

If you’re a healer or support, keep them healed and buffed. Crowd control some of the enemies so the barbarian doesn’t get too claustrophobic. You don’t want them getting too many attacks made against them what with D&D 5e’s concept of bounded accuracy. However, you also want to make sure that multiple enemies are reachable by the barbarian. Thankfully they have increased movement for this, but just keep it in mind that the barbarian’s rage will end if they don’t attack for a round. Stick to the back lines as you do so.

If you’re a melee-type, use the barbarian for a flanking bonus and give them yours, as well. Shove enemies away from the barbarian if they are getting crowded. If you have a higher AC, draw the fire of the weaker enemies and let the barbarian take the big guys’ damage.


Well that’s it for today. Now that we are aware of how to use barbarians in your game, tomorrow I will delve into some homebrew Primal Paths for the barbarian! I’ve been spending time coming up with some homebrew magic items as well, which I will unveil later in the week. Happy Barbarian Week, everyone!

Hints and tips for meth smokers!!

Loading

Not much to say here, other than… don’t load huge bowls. As by loading more you’re more likely to not spread it around enough and end up with a fat puddle boiling and burning up your drugs. Load a moderately small bowl, spread it around good, and smoke that shit son. If you get to the end of the bowl and don’t think you’re high enough, load another one.

Cutting

Anyways, first things first. “Cutting,” or at least that’s what I’ve always heard it refered to, and learned it that way. The act of melting down and allowing your meth to recrystalize all over in the bowl of the pipe. (While it is recrystalizing, roll that puddle around and spread it out. Do this inbetween hits also.) Supposedly ment to burn off cuts and impurities, however this is bullshit. Most cuts and practically all impurities melt right down and recrystalize in with the meth. Burning off while you smoke, and going into your lungs. Don’t worry, this stuff is good for you. It’ll grow some hair on your chest. Although “cutting” doesn’t burn off any impurities or cuts, it does allow you to make the bowl last longer. By spreading it around while it recrystalizes, you will in turn not heat it all at once and have more control over it. You’re less likely to burn up and destroy a bunch of meth smoking a thin puddle. Whereas trying to smoke a fat puddle will waste meth. Longer lasting bowls equal more smoke and more high.

There is one exception to this that I’ve found so far, which is… MSM. If you know what you’re doing, you CAN burn off most of it and be left with cleaner dope to smoke. You know sometimes when you take that first hit, and exhale barely any smoke? That was mostly MSM. Sadly though I have no clue how to explain the process through which you burn it off. But don’t loose hope now, because you CAN burn it off.

Lighters

Don’t use one of those fancy shmancy torch lighters unless you know what you’re doing. They burn too hot, and will destroy your drugs if you’re not careful. This is not good, you want to just vaporize them and suck them into your lungs. Not burn them up into nothing. A regular Bic lighter works best, with Crickets coming in second. But be forwarned, lighters get really fucking hot when you keep them lit for those long hits so common with meth. They will burn you and hurt you, possibly making you jerk or twitch… only to end up throwing a frail glass pipe accross the room. Be careful with lighters kids.

Needle Lighters
The point of the needle lighters is to force the gas(which has been turned way down) through the smaller hole of the needle, and lighting it up on top. Makes for a tinny tiny not so hot flame which is good for smokin’ dope. And having the needle somewhat long prevents the crappy plastic lighter(which most adjustable ones are) from melting itself and dying.

Heating and smoking

The flame of your lighter should never be touching the glass. If it’s close, it’s probably too close. Getting too close means you’re heating it too much, this destroys drugs. Not good. And it blackens up the pipe, which is a pain in the ass to clean and hard to see through.

Don’t apply constant heat, as this will also get it too hot and destroy drugs. Again, not a good thing. Heat it until it’s smoking good and pull flame away. When the smoke starts thinning, reapply flame until it’s smoking good again.

Roll it side to side slightly while heating to help prevent overheating one spot and destroying product. You just want a nice smoking puddle, not a boiling one.

When coming to the end of your hit, after you’ve stopped heating it and the smoke is again starting to thin. But you don’t have that much breath left to warrent reheating and getting it smoking good again. Carb it, or put your finger over the carb(hole on top of the bowl) to stop the airflow and allow more vapor to condense inside. Then once a little has condensed, release the carb and continue with the inhale. Not too fast, not too slow though. A slow tapping kind of action works best. Carb for a second, uncarb and inhale, carb for a second, uncarb and inhale, etc…

Before smoking the stem, remelt that shit down and let it recrystalize. Or if you have enough residue, melt it down and let it drip down into the bowl to recrystalize. While melting, plug the end of the stem with your finger to prevent vapor from escaping.

Hold the pipe with the end of the tube BEHIND your teeth. Although not the sole cause of tooth decay/loss, it sure as hell doesn’t help anything to be sucking those water hungry meth vapors past your chompers. Holding the pipe on your lips will most likely result in some cute little dried out dead spots, which will also show up on your tongue if you get that in the way. So don’t use your tongue as a valve to restrict airflow by plugging part of the tube. Yes it does slow down the hit, and allow for a bigger hit. But it fucks your tongue up pretty bad for a day or two.

Nice slow inhalation with micropuffing action seems to work best. Don’t pause and hold your hit whiling searching for another spot to smoke because you have a little breath left. Don’t hold your hit period. By the time you’re done taking those long ass hits, most of what you’re going to get out of the smoke has already been absorbed. Holding it longer may get you a little more out of it, but it’s doing way more damage to your lungs in the process.

Getting the most out of it

If you’re worried about wasting smoke, share it with a boyfriend/girlfriend via mouth to mouth action. It doesn’t have to take forever like a hit off the pipe. Quick and smooth works fine. Or, if you have no one to share with you could exhale into a ballon. And take a few more hits off it, inhaling and exhaling into the ballon. With breaths of fresh air inbetween hits of course.

Then if you’re a real stickler, you can save that balloon. Since it has all them little water droplets from your breath that have absorbed a little vapor. Or if you have nice dry breath, the balloon may have a coating of residue. Just like the stem of your pipe. Get that stuff wet, and put it in with your Kool Aid/Juice/Water, or just lick it if you’d like. Or I suppose you could try to scrape it and load another bowl…

Cleaning the pipe

So you’ve not been listening to me and burnt up some of your drugs smoking, and in the process blackened the fuck out of the bottom of your pipe. Good job dumby. Now you have a few options, you can either just not care and wipe it off your your shirt or pants. Or, you can have a semi-damp rag handy. Preferably warm or room temperature water. If you use cold water you run the risk of busting the pipe. Or you can learn how to smoke correctly and never deal with soot again.

Now for cleaning that brown/black residue left inside after you’ve gone through a sizable amount of meth. Again you have a few options.
You can either;

a) Throw your pipe away and make a new one.
Now if you know how to blow your own pipes option a is pretty damn easy, just blow a new one and sell the old one to another tweaker for $5.

b) Bust out the propane torch and burn it out.
If you have a propane torch, no acetone, and no knowledge on blowing pipes then option b is your best bet. But be forwarned, don’t heat your pipe too much because it will get soft and start to deform if you heat it too long. And don’t do this outside on a cool night, hot glass needs to be cooled slowly. Exposing it to the cold night air while it’s glowing hot will break it. Inside, preferably warm room.

c) Use a solvent like acetone and let it soak for a while, then rinse.
Just fill the bowl with a little acetone, let it soak for a while, empty and rinse. Repeat if neccessary. Do in a well ventilated area, not in the closet with the doors shut

Molecule of the Day - Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (C2H6OS), also known as DMSO, is a colourless liquid that is commonly used as a reactant and solvent in laboratories and in the chemical industry.

It is classified as a polar aprotic solvent, and is capable of dissolving a range of both polar and non-polar compounds, and even ionic substances as well. Being an aprotic solvent, it cannot form hydrogen bonds with and stabilise nucleophiles, causing their nucleophilicity to be enhanced. As a result, SN2 reactions are preferred in such media over SN1 reactions and elimination reactions. (The photo below shows acetone molecules instead of DMSO, but the logic still applies)

DMSO is also used as a reactant in some reactions, such as Swern oxidation, in which alcohols are oxidised to aldehydes or ketones. However, while this has been an important synthetic technique in the past, its use is now gradually declining due to the production of toxic by-products such as carbon monoxide and dimethyl sulfide.

An interesting property of DMSO is that people have noticed a garlic-like taste in the mouth upon exposure to it!

The curious case of Gloria Ramirez, in which a pungent, garlic-like smell from her body after defibrillation was administered caused 23 hospital staff to collapse, has been attributed by some to her use of DMSO as an alternative remedy for pain. It is postulated that the DMSO was oxidised to dimethyl sulfate, which is highly toxic, upon administration of the electric shocks from the defibrillator, and this resulted in the mass poisoning of nurses and doctors.

Industrially, dimethyl sulfoxide is produced from the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide with oxygen. 

Requested by anonymous

justcyborgthings  asked:

ok, so I really love seeing all these questions about Elsewhere University, and I really wanna know how the Fae would react to me. By major, I'm a Biomechanical Engineer. Most of my expertise is in making prosthetics, some of which I use. I'm no stranger to augmenting myself with iron and plastic and lightning, and my fingers are frequently stained with solvents and metallics. I also come from a Wiccan family, and I'm a practicing Chaote sorcerer. What the fuck would the Fae do with me?

Equal parts fascinated and horrified. You’d have an audience watching you work but they would also try very hard not to be seen when you turned around.

—The Ultimate Guide to Marijuana Extracts

Been browsing GreenRush menus and getting confused by all the talk about hash, BHO, crumble, tinctures and waxes? In this post we take a detailed look at the different kinds of marijuana extracts currently available on the market and what makes them unique.

So whether you’re already a fan of cannabis concentrates or you’re a newbie looking to find out what all the hype is about, read on to find out all you need to know. And remember, sign up to GreenRush today and get cannabis delivered from the best dispensaries in your area in minutes.

•What are Marijuana Extracts?

The term “marijuana extracts” basically refers to any product that is made by extracting desirable compounds (such as cannabinoids and terpenes) from the cannabis plant and combining them in a concentrated form.

In cannabis, the compounds manufacturers are looking to extract are cannabinoids (such as THC, CBD, CBN, etc) and terpenes (such as pinene, limonene, etc). Cannabinoids are unique compounds that give cannabis its medicinal properties, while terpenes are mainly known for giving cannabis the aromas and tastes that we all treasure, although they also have medicinal properties of their own.

By extracting and concentrating these compounds, manufacturers are all striving towards one common goal; to create a pure product with high concentrations of the chemicals that give cannabis its distinct effects.

The process of extracting and concentrating these compounds, however, isn’t easy. The purity and quality of the end product is governed by countless variables, including everything from the chemical profile of the strain and the particular extraction method being used.

•It’s All About The Trichomes

All marijuana extracts are made by separating the trichomes (those sticky, hair-like crystals on your buds) from the plant matter. These trichomes contain the highest concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant, meaning they also harness the plant’s maximum medicinal potential.

Many plants have trichomes, such as The Venus Fly Trap, which uses them to sense prey on the inside of it’s leaves, or the tomato plant, which uses them to sense predators, such as caterpillars.

Scientists hypothesize that the trichomes found on cannabis work similarly, as a defense mechanism.

•Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction

There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:

-Solventless Extraction Methods:

Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction

There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:

Solventless Extraction Methods:

Although the term “solventless” technically refers to a concentrate that is made using an extraction method that doesn’t rely on any kind of solvent, the term is generally used by the industry to refer to products that are made without the use of chemical solvents such as butane or alcohol.

The most common solventless extraction methods include:

Dry sifting: Literally sifting cannabis flowers through various sieves to separate the trichomes from the flower. Dry ice is often used to produce kief or hash.
Cold water extraction: Cannabis plant matter is combined with ice and water and then agitated to separate the trichomes from the plant. The mixture is then filtered to remove the water and leave behind a relatively pure concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to produce ice-water hash.
Heat and pressure extraction: Most commonly used to make rosin, this method uses heat and pressure to press cannabis flowers and extract a thick, golden oil that contains high concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create rosin.
CO2 extraction: A complex extraction method that works by turning CO2 gas into a supercritical liquid and using that liquid as a solvent to extract the desired compounds from cannabis plant material. This method is used to create CO2 Oil.

•Solvent-based Extraction Methods

Technically, the term “solvent-based extract/extraction” refers to any product which is made using a solvent, in which case any marijuana extracts made using CO2 or water extraction methods would fall under this heading.

However, the cannabis industry generally uses this term to refer to cannabis extracts made using chemical solvents such as butane and ethanol. The most common solvent-based extraction methods include:

Butane extraction: As the name implies, this method uses butane as a solvent to extract the key cannabinoids and terpenes from plant material. This is usually done by packing cannabis plant matter into a container with a small opening and ‘blasting’ or pouring liquid butane over the flower to extract the good stuff from the plant. The resulting mixture is then heated to remove as much of the solvent as possible, resulting in a concentrate that is rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create a type of hash oil known as BHO (Butane Hash/Honey Oil) which is often referred to by names like Shatter, Crumble or Wax, depending on the consistency and appearance of the final product.
Alcohol extraction: This method is similar to butane extraction, but uses alcohol (most commonly isopropyl alcohol or ethanol) as the solvent to extract the key compounds from the plant. Most commonly, plant material is soaked in alcohol for short amounts of time, before the mixture is filtered and occasionally heated in order to remove as much of the solvent as possible. This method is used to create tinctures and hash oil, the latter of which may be sold under a variety of names describing the texture of the oil or the alcohol it was made with.

•Types of Marijuana Extracts

There are a variety of cannabis concentrates currently available on the market. Here’s a simple guide to help you understand the differences between them:

-Kief and Hash

Kief is the oldest form of cannabis extract and is the main ingredient used to make hash. Using a dry sifting technique, frozen flower is sifted through fine mesh screens to separate the trichomes from the plant matter. The end product is a fine powder with a high concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Regular flower, for example, tends to reach a maximum THC concentration of 25-30%, while good quality kief can reach up to 60%.

Kief is often heated and compressed into big blocks, popularly known as hash. The color of the kief or hash will often speak for its purity; a high-quality concentrate is usually golden, while lower quality products will have a greenish tinge, which indicates that it is contaminated with more plant matter.

-Ice Water Hash

Ice water hash is, you guessed it, a type of hash. The term refers to hash that is made using a ice-water extraction method.

Frozen cannabis trimmings are combined with cold water and ice and agitated (either shaken or stirred) in order to separate the brittle trichomes from the plant matter. The mixture is then sifted through various fine sieves and dried to form a granular concentrated that can be pressed or molded by hand.

-Rosin

Rosin is a cannabis concentrate made using a heat and pressure extraction method which can be easily done at home. Cannabis flower is placed inside parchment paper and pressed between two hot sheets of metal (such as the panels of a hair straightener) to release a sticky, golden oil that’s very similar to shatter.

-CO2 Oil

CO2 oil is the end product of CO2 extraction, or supercritical fluid extraction. This method, relying on complex and very expensive equipment allows for one of the purest extractions of cannabis compounds currently available on the market. CO2 oil is a beautiful amber/gold color and is jam-packed full of cannabinoids and terpenes.

The oil is mixed with food grade propylene glycol or glycerin to keep it liquid at room temperature and is most commonly vaporized in vape pens, although it can also be frozen and dabbed using a regular dab rig.

-Hash Oil

Hash oil is arguably the most popular marijuana extract currently on the market and is most commonly made using the butane extraction method we described earlier.

Hash oil is available in various consistencies which are determined by minute factors in how the cannabinoids and terpenes were extracted from the plant.

Here are some of the most common types of hash oil and how they differ from one another:

–Shatter

Shatter refers to hash oil that has a similar texture to glass and commonly shatters when it is dropped or manipulated. It is clear and usually amber or golden in color and can have a potency of up to 80% THC. Due to its transparency, many mistake shatter as being the purest type of cannabis concentrates.

However, shatter simply owes its transparency to the fact that it’s molecules have been left undisturbed and not agitated like the molecules in wax, crumble, or bubble hash.

During the manufacturing process, shatter is purged of butane by heating it (often under a vacuum) until the butane evaporates. Because the product isn’t agitated, it’s molecules are undisturbed, making for a transparent concentrate.

The consistency of hash oil is governed by factors such as the heat it was exposed to during manufacturing, whether it has been decarboxylated, and it’s terpene contents. Here are some different names applied to concentrates like shatter but with different consistencies:

Pull-and-snap: A concentrate similar to shatter but with a more taffy-like consistency which can be pulled, manipulated, and snapped apart, unlike glass-like shatter.
Sap: A runnier, sticky concentrate that resembles tree sap or honey. This stuff usually can’t be manipulated by hand and you’ll need some kind of tool to load it into a dab rig without making a mess.

–Wax

Cannabis wax has a sticky texture which, much like shatter, can differ in consistency. The most obvious difference between shatter and wax is that wax isn’t transparent. Instead, it can have a creamy white color, similar to honey when it solidifies.

Wax is opaque because, unlike shatter, its molecules have been agitated. While shatter is just heated during the purging process, waxes are usually whipped. The agitation from the whipping is what creates this non-transparent concentrate.

Like shatter, wax is available in a variety of consistencies which are referred to by various names. These include:

Crumble: A concentrate with a slightly granular texture that can be pressed or molded by hand. As it’s name suggests, it has a similar texture to the topping on an apple crumble dessert.
Honeycomb: Honeycomb waxes are usually hard and very brittle, much like the honeycomb centres in some snack bars.
Budder: Budder has a very rich, creamy, and soft texture similar to peanut butter.

•Tinctures

Tinctures are marijuana extracts made by soaking cannabis trimmings in alcohol. The finished product is a potent extract which is usually applied in drops and administered orally. According to Leafly, tinctures were the most common form of medical cannabis prior to prohibition in 1937.

cripplelikeapunk  asked:

Honestly fuck the teenagers in front of me at a till today. Y'all are obviously underage for buying solvents and knives, but you're still spitting and screaming at the poor cashier and her manager when they refuse you. The lady on the till was crying by the time you were done. Then you had the balls to storm back in with your mum who screamed and swore all over again. I hope you all get banned. Stores can't break the law, even for your little brats

And I still wouldn’t sell it because I know your going to give it to your child. I’m sorry but the law is the law. Now please leave while I call the cops. If your still here when they arrive I’ll have you trespassed.

-Rodney

Molecule of the Day: Caffeine

Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in water. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid and is the most commonly consumed drug worldwide. It is consumed for its ability to promote wakefulness and reduce lethargy.

It does so by acting as an antagonist to adenosine receptors in the central nervous system. Since the binding of adenosine to the receptors leads to drowsiness, this inhibition temporarily promotes alertness. Furthermore, it promotes the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, resulting in its stimulant effects.

Caffeine can be found in many different beverages:

Caffeine is usually extracted from coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide. While carbon dioxide normally sublimes and deposits under normal pressures, bypassing the liquid phase, under high pressures, it can exist as a supercritical liquid. Liquid carbon dioxide is a good solvent for caffeine extraction, as it is non-polar and leaves the aroma chemicals intact.

While caffeine is readily available from decaffeination processes, it can still be synthesised from dimethylurea and malonic acid:

In nature, it is biosynthesised from xanthosine instead:

Caffeine consumption results in a mild form of drug dependence; furthermore, upon regular consumption, tolerance can be built up, resulting in the need for an increasing amount of caffeine to produce the same effects. In small doses, caffeine reduces cardiovascular problems, but it increases its probability in larger doses (over 5 cups of coffee).

Originally posted by such-vodka

Casefile #0146 [Auto-Upload]
The Riddler

Casefile #0146

SEQUENCE: [AUTO-UPLOAD]

anonymous said: Dear Riddler, can we hear Query and/or Echo say something? Thanks, Jo.

and

definitelynotclayface said: Mr. Nygma, are we ever going to hear from your lovely associates Echo and Query on this blog?

and

anonymous said: Why always henchgirls and never henchmen?

[Transcript Included Below]

Keep reading