1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene (Limonene)

This gorgeous little compound will strip paint, dissolve polystyrene, alleviate your heartburn and leave everything smelling lemony-fresh.

It’s also combustible, so I guess Cave Johnson wasn’t kidding.

Piece requested by @nerdgirlnarrates

Bernie Sanders is trying to save millennials’ retirements

  • On Friday, Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Rep. Peter DeFazio (D-Ore.) introduced a bill to make Social Security solvent for generations while also expanding benefits.
  • The bill would lift the payroll tax cap on highest earners and extend the life of the program through 2078. 
  • Currently, Social Security is funded through a 6.2% payroll tax that only applies to the first $127,200 a person earns in a year. 
  • The Sanders plan is similar to one he proposed during his presidential campaign and would lift the cap on all income above $250,000. Read more (2/17/17 10:42 AM)
Molecule of the Day: Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether (C4H10O), also known as ethoxyethane, is a colourless, volatile liquid with a sweet, pungent smell at room temperature and pressure.

It is a commonly used polar aprotic organic solvent used in laboratories, and has low solubility in water. Therefore, it can be used in liquid-liquid solute extractions in conjunction with water.

Diethyl ether was also historically used as an anaesthetic - it was first used as such in the 19th century, and gradually replaced chloroform as an anaesthetic due to its lower toxicity. However, in recent years, its use has been largely supplanted due to its flammability and side effects such as vomiting and nausea.

Diethyl ether can be produced by the acid-catalysed condensation reaction of two ethanol molecules, which is how it is produced industrially as a by-product of acid-catalysed hydration of ethylene to produce ethanol:

Alternatively, it can be synthesised using the Williamson ether synthesis, in which an ethoxide salt is reacted with an ethyl halide to produce diethyl ether via an SN2 reaction:

While diethyl ether has a low toxicity, it has a tendency to react with oxygen in the air to produce highly shock- and heat-sensitive explosive peroxides, which is why old bottles of diethyl ether should be disposed of carefully as they may detonate.

Molecule of the Day - Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (C2H6OS), also known as DMSO, is a colourless liquid that is commonly used as a reactant and solvent in laboratories and in the chemical industry.

It is classified as a polar aprotic solvent, and is capable of dissolving a range of both polar and non-polar compounds, and even ionic substances as well. Being an aprotic solvent, it cannot form hydrogen bonds with and stabilise nucleophiles, causing their nucleophilicity to be enhanced. As a result, SN2 reactions are preferred in such media over SN1 reactions and elimination reactions. (The photo below shows acetone molecules instead of DMSO, but the logic still applies)

DMSO is also used as a reactant in some reactions, such as Swern oxidation, in which alcohols are oxidised to aldehydes or ketones. However, while this has been an important synthetic technique in the past, its use is now gradually declining due to the production of toxic by-products such as carbon monoxide and dimethyl sulfide.

An interesting property of DMSO is that people have noticed a garlic-like taste in the mouth upon exposure to it!

The curious case of Gloria Ramirez, in which a pungent, garlic-like smell from her body after defibrillation was administered caused 23 hospital staff to collapse, has been attributed by some to her use of DMSO as an alternative remedy for pain. It is postulated that the DMSO was oxidised to dimethyl sulfate, which is highly toxic, upon administration of the electric shocks from the defibrillator, and this resulted in the mass poisoning of nurses and doctors.

Industrially, dimethyl sulfoxide is produced from the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide with oxygen. 


During a workup of a reaction we often need to wash the product with different solvents, in this case water and methanol. 

Why is this needed? Because most reaction what is performed between A and B what are mixed to produce compound (the product what we want) D, E, F, G, H… (things what we do not need) are also produced. 

To remove the side products (D, E, F, G, H…) different techniques should be used to purify the product of the reaction. In this case I used water to wash down the excess starting compounds (A, B) and methanol to remove side products (that white thing floating in the upper phase).

justcyborgthings  asked:

ok, so I really love seeing all these questions about Elsewhere University, and I really wanna know how the Fae would react to me. By major, I'm a Biomechanical Engineer. Most of my expertise is in making prosthetics, some of which I use. I'm no stranger to augmenting myself with iron and plastic and lightning, and my fingers are frequently stained with solvents and metallics. I also come from a Wiccan family, and I'm a practicing Chaote sorcerer. What the fuck would the Fae do with me?

Equal parts fascinated and horrified. You’d have an audience watching you work but they would also try very hard not to be seen when you turned around.


Column chromatographic purification of a ferrocene containing compound.

Why is this great? The reaction mixture contained at least 5-6 compounds. During the first wash I removed 3 of them, including the used ligands and minor products. With the second wash with another solvent system I removed the not reacted reactants and at the end with a third solvent I washed down my product from the column (third flask contains it)

Serial Killer Freed 
Aleksandr Rubel

Between September 1997 and June 1998 in a small town in Estonia, Aleksandr Rubel brutally murdered 6 people.

The solvent abuser would huff gasoline vapours before killing

One of the victims was stabbed multiple times by his father, Andrei Rubel. The victim was reportedly sleeping with Andrei’s wife, Aleksandr strangled the victim to death before the pair chucked him out the window.

At trial, Aleksandr Rubel was sentenced to the maximum sentence for a youth, 8 years

In 2006 he was freed, his last known whereabouts are Ukraine

Some deuterochloroform with a little added tetramethylsilane for NMR spectroscopy.

Deuterated chloroform (CDCl3), is an isotopologue of chloroform (CHCl3) in which the hydrogen atom (“H”) is replaced with a deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope (“D”), therefore it’s much more expensive. Deuterated chloroform is a common solvent used in NMR spectroscopy of organic molecules.

“We live with such easy assumptions, don’t we? For instance, that memory equals events plus time. But it’s all much odder than this. Who was it said that memory is what we thought we’d forgotten? And it ought
to be obvious to us that time doesn’t act as a fixative, rather as a solvent. But it’s not convenient–it’s not useful–to believe this; it doesn’t help us get on with our lives; so we ignore it.“

Julian Barnes, from The Sense of an Ending (Jonathan Cape, 2011)

faz muito frio aqui lipe, tem chovido desde que você se foi, e as suas lembranças não me aquecem mais.
as gotas de chuva escorrem pela janela do ônibus e eu penso que você é um solvente como a água. porque eu me dilui em você, e eu achava que éramos uma mistura que nem mesmo um processo de destilação conseguiria separar.
mas não tinha o que separar, eu era tão pequena lipe, tão pequena que quando eu me misturei a você, eu sumi. eu simplesmente deixei de existir.
eu era uma mísera gotícula de uma substância qualquer extremamente solúvel em você. não existo mais, nem em você, nem em mim.
eu não sei o que fazer. e apesar de tudo, sinto sua falta.


Spark and Candela become semi-frequent visitors to you in your lab, alongside a steady stream of recruits looking for your opinion. You eventually create a schedule, so the number of people wanting to see you doesn’t become a hazard… and you have a few hours to work uninterrupted.

Your fellow team leaders show only relative regard for it, nip at the edges of the time you set to talk, tell you to take a break, and sometimes just waltz in to watch you work.

Spark asks a lot a questions, about this step, the purpose of that solvent. Candela is quieter by a degree, but you feel both their presences like rocks jutting up from a river, water frothing in an otherwise uninterrupted flow to accommodate.

Eventually Candela makes the point that it’s hard to lead when you’re glued to a lab desk all the time, and you have to admit its validity.

…Though how that led to you shopping, watching her and Spark talk breeding and training techniques between stores, you’re not entirely sure.

Keep reading


Hace 46 años comenzó la estafa internacional más grande de la historia, el dólar dejo de estar respaldado en oro y a través del uso de la fuerza Estados Unidos obligo al resto del mundo en 4 décadas a usar solamente su moneda en las transacciones internacionales, esto volvió al dinero actual es deuda de especulación y a mantenerse en la cúspide solo a través de las deudas con los grandes bancos internacionales, por medio de la usura y la amenaza militar.

Toda la dinámica de guerras y conflictos en Estados Unidos actualmente es parte de la estrategia de los grandes banqueros que controlan el dinero del mundo,  Según fuentes solventes, la propiedad del 80% de la rama de Nueva York de la Reserva Federal, que es la rama más importante, corresponde a los Goldman Sachs, los Rockefeller, los Lehman y Kuhn Loeb de Nueva York; los Rothschild de Paris y Londres; los Warburg de Hamburgo; los Lazard de Paris; y los Israelies Moses Seif de Roma.

A.      N.M. Rothschild de Londres

B.      Rothschild Bank de Berlín

C.      Warburg Bank de Hamburgo

D.      Warburg Bank de Amsterdam

E.       Lehman Brothers de Nueva York

F.       Lazard Brothers de París

G.      Kuhn Loeb Bank de Nueva York

H.      Israel Moses Seif Bank de Italia

I.         Goldman Sachs de Nueva York

J.        JP Morgan Chase Bank de Nueva York

Estos banqueros controlan la mayoría de las transacciones internacionales, con la usura de la impresión del dólar. Al ser muy pocos los involucrados en esta estafa, les conviene mantener, aunque sea de forma artificial su poder en la impresión de moneda, sin importar las vidas o los problemas reales del mundo actual, ellos parasitaran al dólar hasta que haga implosión y se lleve consigo al país norteamericano que caerá en default debido a su abultada deuda interna y externa impagable.

¿Cómo llego estado unidos a tener una deuda de 14 000 000 de millones de dólares estadounidenses? Pues es fácil mis lectores, las familias de banqueros lucraban con el negocio de impresión y emprestamos en dólares, peor a cambio el gobierno se hacía cargo de los intereses, esos intereses se cobraban en impuesto de las personas, pero pronto se hizo imposible pagar esos impuestos con solo estadounidenses, por ello estados unidos se vio en la necesidad de invadir países para saquearlos.