lachryphagy is the term used to describe the behaviour of tear drinking in nature, typically in environments - like the purvian amazon shown here - where sodium and other micronutrients are hard to find. 

bees and butterflies need sodium for egg production and metabolic purposes, but their diets of nectar are low in salt. so the orange julia and sulfur yellow butterflies you see here turn to the salty tears of often stationary turtles and caiman. 

and though the caiman and turtles seem to receive no reciprocal benefit from the interaction, they’re apparently happy enough to just help out. (x, x, x, x, x, x)


Creative people are more likely to possess psychological androgyny. Men and women who aren’t slaves to gender-role stereotyping are more innovative and have double the amount of ways they can interact with the world because they’re able to be feminine, masculine, passive, dominant, sensitive, and tough regardless of who they’re expected to be.

Read more psychology facts Here


Many experimental techniques in fluid dynamics use lasers. One such technique, particle image velocimetry (PIV), introduces tiny particles into the flow and uses a laser to illuminate the particles. By taking pictures in rapid succession and comparing them, researchers can measure the velocity in different parts of the flow. This technique is incredibly powerful but it’s rarely used to study topics like animal flight, except using mechanical substitutes for live animals.

Part of the reason researchers don’t typically use live animals in this type of experiment is that these very powerful lasers can blind people or animals that aren’t properly protected. So to protect their test subject, Stanford researchers designed and built a special pair of laser safety goggles for their parrotlet. This let the bird fly safely despite the lasers and enabled the researchers to measure flow around realistic bird flight conditions. (Image credit: Stanford News, source, and E. Gutierrez; research credit: E. Gutierrez et al.; submitted by Simon H. via Wired)


Petition to start a group called “Party Poopers Club” that’s basically people who remind others that Science is a Thing and that you have to actually support your ideas with facts 

Potential Slogans: 
“I ruined so many people’s days” 
“If the truth always ruins your fun, consider that you might just be a really boring person” 
“Accept Reality, it’s hella cool”
“I feel delight by means of the truth” 

Various things that means you are a member of the society: 
- Reminding people that Pluto isn’t a planet 
- Explaining that Human-Caused Climate Change is a thing and it’s bad 
- Yelling that birds are dinosaurs, and dinosaurs have feathers, and Jurassic World is Bad Science 
- Describing in great detail about how GMO’s aren’t actually terrible for your body 
- Screaming about how vaccines do not cause autism 
- Explaining how evolution actually works and yes, we are all evolving 
- Talking about how animals aren’t like people and shouldn’t be anthropomorphized 
- Reminding people that prehistoric animals behaved like animals and were not monsters 
- Explaining how Nanotyrannus, Dracorex, and Stygimoloch aren’t actual things 
- Screaming about how focusing conservation efforts on “cute” organisms completely misses the point 
- Shouting about how gender is a societal construct, not connected to biological sex, which is a scientific model, and that both are not limited to just two options 
- Reminding people that neuroatypical conditions such as OCD and personality disorders are real conditions and that you don’t feel “sooooo schizo” because that’s not how it works 
- Explaining that there is no scientific basis for the idea that any “race” is superior over any other
- Screaming about how accurate representations of prehistoric creatures is really freaking important 
- Shouting that in general it’s better to have data to back up your ideas than just random anecdotes and that pseudoscience is bad

Feel free to add your own causes/facts that mean you are a member of this society. 

Other potential members of the Party Poopers Club include: 

- @palaeofail / @palaeofail-explained
- @why-animals-do-the-thing
- @biologizeable
- @aurusallos
- @bruh-i-nevre-seen-a-cooler-dino
- @fezraptor
- @albertonykus
- @synapsid-taxonomy

Potential Seals/Symbols of this Society: 

Pluto, Smiling like the little shit that it is 
A scientist holding up data/graphs/a paper 
Feathered, accurate Velociraptors 
Earth, on Fire 

Anyways reblog if you’re a proud member of the Party Poopers Club. 

cypriusgray  asked:

How do thunder snows happen?

Thundersnow is pretty cool since we don’t see it often. 

So for anyone unfamiliar, thundersnow is basically lightning that occurs during a snowstorm. In concept it sounds pretty boring, but really there’s only about 6.3 snow events with lightning on average each year nationwide.  

Being so rare, it’s just the sort of thing that makes Jim Cantore more excited than a three year old on Christmas

Lets first breakdown the dynamics of a typical storm that has lightning - so no snow necessary as of yet. Lightning happens after the storm has gained a charge as a result of particles rubbing and colliding against each other in the strong vertical convection greater than 5m/s. The clouds that make up these storms are massive in height, as high as 50,000 feet or more. All of this results in an updraft of moist air from the surface. 

This is a massive contrast to a snowstorm. Snowstorms usually have fairly gentle vertical convection when compared to a summer thunderstorm. Additionally, they’re a lot more shallow in the atmosphere, about 20,000 feet in height usually. The surface being around or below freezing temperatures just doesn’t allow for a massive amount of moisture content and instability. So how do we get the sort of atmospheric movement to match up to a summer thunderstorm? We need strong forcing mechanisms! 

Often if we observe thundersnow we see rather strong conditions working in combination with each other. This can include things like lifting from frontal activity, lake-effect snows, orographic lifting, or even synoptic forcing underneath the trowal in strong occluding mid-latitude cyclones. There’s a number of other mechanisms that play into strong winter storms that can create lightning but these are a few of the culprits we can often point to. 

See trowal

We’ve basically established that thundersnow is most often observed in the most elite of winter storms - blizzards with snowfall rates of 2-4 inches per hour. Interestingly enough, that snowfall decreases your visibility to ¼ a mile and dampens the sound of thunder to a 2-3 mile radius (normal thunderstorms can be heard from much larger distances), so even if you’re in a storm that has thundersnow, you may never notice! 

As an aside, there appears to be evidence that tall buildings and communication towers may reduce the thresholds needed for positive cloud-to-ground lightning in winter storms (see 5.3)

Feel free to ask if you have more questions! 

Dr. Alexander Langmuir, the father of modern day epidemiology was a strong supporter for development of the vaccine even though he knew that measles was a

“self-limiting infection of short duration, moderate severity, and low fatality, which has maintained a remarkable stable biological balance over the centuries.”[14]

He also stated,

“To those who ask me, ‘Why do you wish to eradicate measles?’ I reply with the same answer that [Sir Edmund] Hilary used when asked why he wished to climb Mt. Everest. He said ‘because it is there.’ To this may be added “And it can be done.”[15]

He never said, “Because it’s maiming thousands with blindness and encephalitis and killing hundreds, and is a blight worse than Black Plague”.


 A. Langmuir, “The Importance of Measles as a Health Problem,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 52, no. 2, 1962, pp. 1–4.

A man with perspective,