Die Bastei is a rock formation towering above the Elbe river in the Sandstone Mountains of Sachsen, Eastern Germany. Reaching 305 m above sea level, its jagged rocks were formed by water erosion over 1 million years ago. They are situated near Rathen, not far from Pirna near Dresden, and are the main landmark of the Saxon Switzerland National Park. They are part of a climbing and hiking area that extends over the border into the Bohemian Switzerland in the Czech Republic. The Bastei has been a tourist attraction for over 200 years. The spa town of Rathen is the main base for visiting; the town can be reached from Dresden by paddle steamer on the river Elbe.

Germany Facts: Biodiversity

The territory of Germany can be subdivided into 2 eco regions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. The majority of Germany is still covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30%); 13% consists of permanent pastures, and only 12% is covered by settlements and streets. Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe: Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute 1/3 of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir predominate in mountain areas; pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include deer, wild boar, mouflon/wild sheep, badger, fox, hare, and beaver. The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol. 

The 14 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park, and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there are 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is the largest number in any country. The Berlin Zoo, opened in 1844 - it’s the oldest zoo in Germany, and has the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.

Art History Resource List: Early European Art to Late 20th Century

To Request a resource list for your discipline, you can request HERE. My resource list for classics can be found HERE or anthropology HERE. 

See disclaimer at base for sources. This is an extensive list of the thousands of resources available to Art History Students, please add to it if something is missing. is a valuable resource list for students. It is very thorough, and my list is based heavily off this list. I have altered many sources for the sake of space and convenience. I do not take credit for this list, it is the property of Dr. Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe!

Useful Links: 

  • Art webgraphie
  • Lita Annenberg Hazen and Joseph H. Hazen Center for Electronic Information Resources 
  • ArtSource 
  • Voice of the Shuttle 
  • Mother of All Art History Links Pages 
  • Art on the Web 
  • CODART list of museums 
  • Art History Index, through World Wide Art Resources
  • Art History
  • Chinese and Japanese Art History WWW Virtual Library
  • Architecture and Building Web Resources 
  • Architecture Web Sites 
  • Aesthetics and Visual Culture 

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The Pillars of Hercules

One of the famous climbing sites in the Saxon Switzerland National Park (see, close to the border between Germany and the Czech Republic features these eroded rock pillars looking like stony sentinels across the landscape. There are over a thousand pinnacles in the region, each of which must once have had a legend attached to it. The highest peak is 556 metres above sea level, but only 120 above the Elbe river that it overshadows. The area got its name in the 18th century from a couple of Swiss artists who thought it resembled their home in the Swiss Jura.

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