Counting Down to the Solar Eclipse on August 21

On Aug. 21, 2017, everyone in North America will have the chance to see a solar eclipse if skies are clear. We’re giving you a preview of what you’ll see, how to watch and why scientists are particularly excited for this eclipse.

On Aug. 21, within a narrow band stretching from Oregon to South Carolina – called the path of totality – the Moon will completely obscure the Sun, giving people on the ground a view of the total solar eclipse. Outside this path – throughout North America, and even in parts of South America – the Moon will block only a portion of the Sun’s face, creating a partial solar eclipse.

Image credit: T. Ruen

Eclipses happen when the Moon, Sun and Earth line up just right, allowing the Moon to cast its shadow on Earth. Because the Moon’s orbit is tilted with respect to the Sun-Earth plane, its shadow usually passes above or below Earth. But when they all line up and that shadow falls on Earth, we get a solar eclipse.

How to Watch the Eclipse Safely  

It’s never safe to look directly at the un-eclipsed or partially eclipsed Sun – so you’ll need special solar viewing glasses or an indirect viewing method, like pinhole projection, to watch at the eclipse.

If you’re using solar viewing glasses or a handheld solar filter, there are a few important safety tips to keep in mind:

  • Check a few key characteristics to make sure that you have proper solar filters – sunglasses (even very dark ones) or homemade filters are NOT safe  
  • Double-check that your solar filter is not scratched or damaged before you use it
  • Always put your solar filter over your eyes before looking up at the Sun, and look away from the Sun before removing it 
  • Do NOT use your solar filter while looking through telescopes, binoculars, or any other optical device, such as a camera viewfinder – the concentrated solar rays will damage the filter and enter your eyes, causing serious injury

Get all the details on safety at

No solar viewing glasses? Pinhole projection is an easy and safe way to watch the eclipse. You can create a pinhole projector from a box, or simply use any object with tiny holes – like a colander or a piece of cardstock with a hole – to project an image of the Sun onto the ground or a piece of paper.

If you are in the path of totality, there will come a time when the Moon completely obscures the Sun’s bright face. This is called totality, and it is only during this phase – which may last only a few seconds, depending on your location – that it is safe to look directly at the eclipse.

Wherever you are, you can tune into throughout the day on Aug. 21 to hear from our experts and see the eclipse like never before – including views from our spacecraft, aircraft, and more than 50 high-altitude balloons.

A Unique Chance for Scientists

Total solar eclipses provide a unique opportunity to study the Sun and Earth. During a total eclipse, the lower parts of the Sun’s atmosphere, or corona, can be seen in a way that cannot completely be replicated by current human-made instruments.

The lower part of the corona is key to understanding many processes on the Sun, including why the Sun’s atmosphere is so much hotter than its surface and the origins of the Sun’s constant stream of solar material and radiation – which can cause changes in the nature of space and impact spacecraft, communications systems, and orbiting astronauts.

Photo credit: S. Habbal, M. Druckmüller and P. Aniol

For those in the path of totality, the few moments of the total solar eclipse will reveal the Sun’s atmosphere, the corona. 

Total solar eclipses are also a chance to study Earth under uncommon conditions: In contrast to the global change in light that occurs every day at dusk and dawn, a solar eclipse changes illumination of Earth and its atmosphere only under a comparatively small region of the Moon’s shadow. This localized blocking of solar energy is useful in evaluating our understanding of the Sun’s effects – temperature, for example – on our atmosphere. Of particular interest is the impact on Earth’s upper atmosphere, where solar illumination is primarily responsible for the generation of a layer of charged particles called the ionosphere.

We’re also inviting eclipse viewers around the country to become citizen scientists and participate in a nationwide science experiment by collecting cloud and air temperature data and reporting it via the GLOBE Observer smartphone app.

For more eclipse info, visit and follow @NASASun on Twitter and NASA Sun Science on Facebook.  

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:

Things to Research as a Beginner Fire Witch
  • The history of witchcraft
  • Flame reading 
  • The feast of Sol Invictus
  • Sun worship 
  • Wiwanke Wachipi - The Sun Dance
  • Tawa. The Sun God Kachina
  • Agni the Hindu deity of fire,
  • Herbs, Plants + Woods good for burning 
  • Crystals + Gems + Stones
  • Types of witches
  • Fire Deities/Archetypal God-desses 
  • Altar building + devotions
  • Types of magick
  • Types of energy
  • Types of fire/ candle spells
  • Types of divination
  • Elements + their magick
  • Moon + Sun Phases 
  • Seasonal Magick
  • Spells with Ashes 
  • Wheel of the Year
  • Wheel of Days (celebrations and feasts)
  • Native Spirituality
  • Dragons  
  • Famous Witches
  • Astral Travel + Projection
  • Solar Plexus

The best antidote to the unknown is to learn as much as you can.

Blessed be,

Rosemary Milk
South Australia to get $1bn solar farm and world's biggest battery
System will include 3.4m solar panels and 1.1m batteries, with operations set to begin by end of 2017

A huge $1bn solar farm and battery project will be built and ready to operate in South Australia’s Riverland region by the end of the year.

The battery storage developer Lyon Group says the system will be the biggest of its kind in the world, boasting 3.4m solar panels and 1.1m batteries.

The company says construction will start in months and the project will be built whatever the outcome of the SA government’s tender for a large battery to store renewable energy.

A Lyon Group partner, David Green, says the system, financed by investors and built on privately owned scrubland in Morgan, will be a “significant stimulus” for South Australia.

“The combination of the solar and the battery will significantly enhance the capacity available in the South Australian market,” he said.

Continue Reading.

2 A.M

A/N: So this is the second installment of my apparently new A.M series that I didn’t even knew I needed on my blog. You can read Luke’s version here

Pairing: Y/N/College!Michael

Rating: PG-All

Request: No

Words: 6.000+

Summary: Y/N’s and Michael’s hate for each other won’t get any better when they’re paired up for a science project. And when a thunderstorm appears and Y/N isn’t safe to walk home she has to stay at Michael’s dorm against her will

Keep reading


2017 Total Solar Eclipse projected through cereal box (method)

First time trying this way of viewing the solar eclipse since I didn’t have last min $ for solar viewing shades and honestly this was way cool. I sat out with my chair in the corner with my speakers, some water and started viewing it. People quickly stopped by to get a glimpse of it some because they weren’t getting it (cereal box method) to work  and others just for the convenience and ingenuity of it, others were so amazed they likened it to magic lol I was hype af. Even got to record some passing clouds in a vid that made it very obvious it was a projection. Felt like I had front row seats to it movie form. I hadn’t been as interested in astronomy for months, almost a year now, and this really brought be back to it. I forgot how fun community science is.


“Just that act of seeing someone struggling and then letting them know that you see their struggle makes a difference.” - Chester Bennington

StateFarm Neighborhood Session with Linkin Park, interviewed on May 22nd and posted November 3rd. Beautiful moments with Chester and a closer look at the solar suitcase project.


Leading U.S. solar scientists today highlighted research activities that will take place across the country during next month’s rare solar eclipse, advancing our knowledge of the Sun’s complex and mysterious magnetic field and its effect on Earth’s atmosphere.

Experts at the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) provided details at this morning’s press conference about the array of technologies and methodologies that will be used to obtain unprecedented views of the Sun on Aug. 21. The experiments, led by specialized researchers, will also draw on observations by amateur skywatchers and students to fill in the picture.

“This total solar eclipse across the United States is a fundamentally unique opportunity in modern times, enabling the entire country to be engaged with modern technology and social media,” said Carrie Black, an associate program director at NSF who oversees solar research. “Images and data from potentially as many as millions of people will be collected and analyzed by scientists for years to come.”

“This is a generational event,” agreed Madhulika Guhathakurta, NASA lead scientist for the 2017 eclipse. “This is going to be the most documented, the most appreciated eclipse ever.”

The scientific experiments will take place along the path of totality, a 70-mile wide ribbon stretching from Oregon to South Carolina where the Moon will completely cover the visible disk of the Sun. Depending on the location, viewers will get to experience the total eclipse for as long as 2 minutes and 40 seconds. It will take about an hour and a half for the eclipse to travel across the sky from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic.

NASA and other organizations are reminding viewers to take eye safety precautions because it is not safe to look at the Sun during an eclipse except during the brief total phase, when the Moon completely blocks the Sun’s everyday bright face, which will happen only if you are within the path of totality.

For scientists, the celestial event is a rare opportunity to test new instruments and to observe the elusive outer atmosphere of the Sun, or solar corona, which is usually obscured by the bright surface of the Sun. Many scientific questions focus on the corona, including why it is far hotter than the surface and what role it plays in spewing large streams of charged particles, known as coronal mass ejections, that can buffet Earth’s atmosphere and disrupt GPS systems and other sensitive technologies.

Black noted that the Moon will align exactly with the Sun’s surface, which will enable observations of the entire corona, including very low regions that are rarely detectable. Obtaining observations from the ground is particularly important, she explained, because far more data can be transmitted than would be possible from space-based instruments.

“The Moon is about as perfect an occulter as one can get,” she said. “And what makes this an even more valuable opportunity is that everyone has access to it.”

In addition to training ground-based instruments on the Sun, scientists will also deploy aircraft to follow the eclipse, thereby increasing the amount of time they can take observations.

An NCAR research team, for example, will use the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V research aircraft to take infrared measurements for about four minutes, helping scientists better understand the solar corona’s magnetism and thermal structure. Scientists with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder will use visible and infrared telescopes on NASA’s twin WB-57 airplanes in a tag-team approach, enabling them to get a unique look at both the solar corona and Mercury for about eight minutes. The goal is to better understand how energy moves through the corona as well as learning more about the composition and properties of Mercury’s surface.

Scientists will also study Earth’s outer atmosphere during the eclipse. The ionosphere is a remote region of the atmosphere containing particles that are charged by solar radiation. Disturbances in the ionosphere can affect low-frequency radio waves. By blocking energy from the Sun, the eclipse provides scientists with an opportunity to study the ionosphere’s response to a sudden drop in solar radiation.

For example, a Boston University research team will use off-the-shelf cell phone technology to construct a single-frequency GPS array of sensors to study the ionospheric effects of the eclipse. This project could lay the foundation for using consumer smartphones to help monitor the outer atmosphere for disturbances, or space weather events, caused by solar storms. Another experiment, run by researchers at the University of Virginia and George Mason University, will use transmitters broadcasting at low frequencies to probe the response of regions of the ionosphere, while a Virginia Tech team will use a network of radio receives and transmitters across the country to observe the ionosphere’s response during the eclipse.

Citizen scientists also are expected to play a major role in taking valuable observations during the eclipse.

“This is a social phenomenon, and we have a significant opportunity to promote this and do all the science that we can,” Guhathakurta said.

The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment by the National Solar Observatory and the University of Arizona, for example, will rely on volunteers from universities, high schools, informal education groups, and national labs for an eclipse “relay race.” Participants spaced along the path of totality will use identical telescopes and digital camera systems to capture high-quality images that will result in a dataset capturing the entire, 93-minute eclipse across the country. And a project led by the University of California, Berkeley, will assemble a large number of solar images, obtained by students and amateur observers along the eclipse path to create educational materials as part of the Eclipse Megamovie project.

“As these projects show, the eclipse will place the Sun firmly in the forefront of the national eye,” said Scott McIntosh, director of NCAR’s High Altitude Observatory. “This is a unique opportunity to communicate the fact that our star is complex, beautiful, and mysterious. At the same time, it is more critical than ever to study it, as solar activity can pose significant threats to our technologically driven society.”

Late To Class (Part 4) [a Barry Allen AU]

a/n: last part….PLEASE RETWEET/SHARE MY VIDEO [x] <- instagram

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

“I still have to grade those fucking quizzes…” Barry mumbles under his breath, straightening his black tie that’s tucked into his matching cardigan. A quiet noise comes out of you as you wrap your arms around his slender torso, head resting in between his shoulder blades. “If you’re trying to get me back in bed, it won’t work, sweetheart.” he chuckles, adjusting his red cuffs from inside the cardigan.

Pouting, you peek up at him, flowery tan shawl draped around your shoulders, exposing your naked chest. “Can’t you call in sick?” you attempt to bargain, flashing him your best puppy dog eyes. “Please, Mr. Allen?”

He takes a deep breath in, feeling your breasts pressed to his back. His fingers grab the circular container of gel, unscrewing the dark blue top. “You know I can’t do that, princess… We’re starting the solar cooker project today. Besides, I think I used up all my sick days.” he giggles, going to dip his fingers in the white goop.

You beat him to it, snatching the gel out of his hands. Rubbing your fingers together, you reach up to run the gel through his flat light brown hair, spiking it up in the front. “Ooo, solar cookers, sounds fun. I wish I was in your class.” you smirk, adding in a cheeky wink while heading to the small kitchen.

Barry follows after you, buttoning his black skinny jeans. Ah, casual Friday. He hears the coffee machine start up as he grabs his sneakers from the closet. “Maybe you can come pop in one day? I’m sure the kids would love it!” he beams brightly, watching you stir the spoon in the mug. He toes on his shoes quickly, suddenly finding the mug in front of his face. “Thanks, love!” he says, taking the cup from you before kissing you.

Your lips attack his, pulling on his upper one, making him whine faintly. Laughing, you let go, backing away. “I added extra cream, just how you like it.” you smile; he takes a big sip, moaning slightly while he walks around the living room, collecting stray sheets of paper. He sighs happily when he finishes the coffee, grinning at you. “Here, you got a little…” you grab a napkin, wiping his upper lip.

He pecks your lips in a rush, setting the mug in the sink. “I love you, honey…” he muses. Strapping his brown messenger bag over his shoulders. After he pecks your lips again, he heads towards the door. “I’ll see you after school! Love you!” he shouts, puckering his lips in the air and squinting his eyes.

Giggling, you mock his expression, blowing him a kiss. “Love you Barr!” you call after him. He shuts the door, stomping down the steps of the apartment building. You sigh to yourself, enjoying the moment of bliss before getting ready for work.

This Just Became the World's Cheapest Form of Electricity Out of Nowhere
And there's one country that can claim a huge share of the credit.

And there’s one country that can claim a huge share of the credit for it.

Solar power is becoming the world’s cheapest form of new electricity generation, data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) suggests.

According to Bloomberg’s analysis, the cost of solar power in China, India, Brazil and 55 other emerging market economies has dropped to about one third of its price in 2010. This means solar now pips wind as the cheapest form of renewable energy—but is also outperforming coal and gas.

In a note to clients this week, BNEF chairman Michael Liebreich said that solar power had entered “the era of undercutting” fossil fuels.

Bloomberg reports that 2016 has seen remarkable falls in the price of electricity from solar sources, citing a $64 per megawatt-hour contract in India at the tart of the year, and a $29.10 per megawatt-hour deal struck in Chile in August—about 50% the price of electricity produced from coal.

Ethan Zindler, head of U.S. policy analysis at BNEF, attributed much of the downward pressure to China’s massive deployment of solar, and the assistance it had provided to other countries financing their own solar projects.

“Solar investment has gone from nothing—literally nothing—like five years ago to quite a lot,” Zindler said.

When the numbers come in at the end of 2016 the generating capacity of newly installed solar photovoltaics is expected to exceed that of wind for the first time: at 70 gigawatts and 59 gigawatts respectively, according to BNEF projections.


Science project : Solar System

It’s getting late, why don’t you go inside and have dinner with the rest of your family?

I need to do this project

You have the entire week to do it.

I know, but I want to have time to make the adjustments. It’s important!

Why is it so important? It’s just a small school project

Because if I don’t make a good grade I won’t make it to the high school Lacey will attend…

That’s a fair reason….