Marxism is a revolutionary worldview that must always struggle for new revelations. Marxism must abhor nothing so much as the possibility that it becomes congealed in its current form. It is at its best when butting heads in self-criticism, and in historical thunder and lightning, it retains its strength.
Director/muse relationships: Margarethe von Trotta & Barbara Sukowa
Films together: Marianne and Juliane (1981),Rosa Luxembourg (1986), L'africana (1990), The Other Woman (2004), Vision (2010), Hannah Arendt (2012), The Misplaced World (2015)
I trust her so much and she trusts me; six films we’ve done together. That was like taking each other by hand and going through a tunnel together: you are very fearful from the beginning, we didn’t know if the film would come out and be successful or right, so it was like an adventure, intellectual but also in friendship to get through this invisible space to visibility.
“It is contrary to history to represent work for reforms as a long-drawn out revolution and revolution as a condensed series of reforms. A social transformation and a legislative reform do not differ according to their duration but according to their content. The secret of historic change through the utilisation of political power resides precisely in the transformation of simple quantitative modification into a new quality, or to speak more concretely, in the passage of an historic period from one given form of society to another.
That is why people who pronounce themselves in favour of the method of legislative reform in place and in contradistinction to the conquest of political power and social revolution, do not really choose a more tranquil, calmer and slower road to the same goal, but a different goal. Instead of taking a stand for the establishment of a new society they take a stand for surface modifications of the old society…Our program becomes not the realisation of socialism, but the reform of capitalism; not the suppression of the wage labour system but the diminution of exploitation, that is, the suppression of the abuses of capitalism instead of suppression of capitalism itself.”
Today (05.03.13) it is 142 years ago since Rosas birth
Rosa Luxemburg, along with Karl Liebknecht, was to play a key role in Germany in the months that immediately followed the Armistice in November 1918. Rosa Luxemburg was one of the key leaders of the Spartacist movement.
Luxemburg was born in March 1871 in Zamosch, Poland. In 1889, aged 18 and because of her revolutionary agitation, she had to leave for Zurich in Switzerland. If she had stayed in Poland, it was almost certain that she would have been imprisoned for her political views. While abroad, Luxemburg continued to study and she received her doctorate in 1898.
While in Zurich, she met many exiled revolutionaries from Russiaincluding Gregory Plekhanov. Luxemburg and the exiles from Russia fell out over what they believed should happen to Poland – should Poland receive self-determination or not? Luxemburg was against self-determination as she believed that a newly created state was weak and at a disadvantage to the people there as the “bourgeoisie” would use this national weakness to their advantage to strengthen their hold over the workers. Her view was opposed by many and as a result Luxemburg formed the Polish Social Democratic Party.
In 1898, Luxemburg left Zurich for Berlin where she joined the German Social Democratic Labour Party. Luxemburg was very keen on supporting the idea of debate and in 1900 she produced “Reform or Revolution”. She supported reform as a way of improving life but she did not want to stop at reforms that came from the government as she believed that governments frequently gave only what they wanted to. Luxemburg wanted a complete revolution of governmental systems.
She saw the revolution in Russiain 1905 as a very good sign of hope. She moved to Warsaw where she hoped to make more of a mark in Russia. However, she was caught by the authorities and put in prison.
When the war broke out in 1914, she was very much against it. Luxemburg was very angered by the Social Democratic Party that had fully supported Germany’s entry into the war. Luxemburg left the SDP. It was at this time that she allied with Karl Liebknecht who shared the same views and had also left the SDP. They formed the Internationale Group that was to become the Spartacists. Their main party platform during the war was for German soldiers to turn their weapons against their officers and then against the government thus overthrowing it.
Both Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested for their political activities. While in prison, Luxemburg wrote the “Junius Pamphlet” which was to become the foundation of the Spartacists beliefs.
In November 1918, Luxemburg was released from prison. Prince Max von Baden had introduced a general amnesty for all political prisoners though there was reluctance to let Luxemburg have her freedom. On her release, she immediately started her revolutionary activities again. In December she co-founded the German Communist Party which was essentially made up of Spartacists. At this time the so-called German Revolution was taking place and Berlin was a very dangerous place to be. The head of the government,Friedrich Ebert, had moved the government to the safety of Weimar and the right-wing Freikorps was left to deal with the communists.
On January 15th, 1919, Luxemburg, Liebknecht and Wilhelm Pieck, another Spartacistleader, were arrested. What happened next is unclear but Luxemburg, Liebknecht and Pieck were taken from the Adlon Hotel in Berlin, where they were being held, to be local prison. Pieck managed to escape. Luxemburg and Liebknecht were both murdered by their captors. Luxemburg’s body was found in a river.
Mon moi le plus profond appartient davantage aux mésanges charbonnières qu'aux camarades. (…)
Je voudrais une vie douce, je suis un chat ordinaire qui aime qu'on le caresse et ronronne. Malheureusement, l'humanité me donne la nausée, et j'éprouve toujours en présence des autres un sentiment de déchirement intérieur.
N’oubliez pas, même si vous êtes occupés, même si vous traversez la cour à la hâte, absorbés par vos tâches urgentes, n’oubliez pas de lever la tête un instant et de jeter un œil à ces immenses nuages argentés et au paisible océan bleu dans lequel ils nagent.
Au milieu des ténèbres, je souris à la vie, comme si je connaissais la formule magique qui change le mal et la tristesse en clarté et en bonheur. Alors, je cherche une raison à cette joie, je n’en trouve pas et ne puis m’empêcher de sourire de moi-même. Je crois que la vie elle-même est l’unique secret. Car l’obscurité profonde est belle et douce comme du velours, quand on sait l’observer. Et la vie chante aussi dans le sable qui crisse sous les pas lents et lourds de la sentinelle, quand on sait l’entendre.