RNAS

Support women in STEM

Because they’ve advanced the success and growth of those fields for just as long as men, even when they weren’t afforded the opportunity, the recognition, or the grants. Onward:

Rosalind Franklin (July 25, 1920—April 16, 1958)

Originally posted by bhagatkapil

Rosalind Franklin was a chemist and, get this, X-ray crystallographer. As far as titles go, you can’t do much better than crystallographer. Her work in understanding the molecular structure of DNA laid the foundation for the discovery of the double helix. She also made significant contributions to understanding the structures of RNAs. And viruses. And coal. And graphite. Her work was not fully appreciated until after she passed away. Two teams of all-male scientists who used her work to discover great things later went on to win Nobel Prizes.

Rebecca Lee Crumpler (February 8, 1831—March 9, 1895)

Originally posted by pylonss

Rebecca Lee Crumpler spent most of her professional life being the first at things. She was the very first Black woman to become a physician in the United States. The first (and only) Black woman to graduate from New England Female Medical College. She authored Book of Medical Discourses, one of the very first medical books written by a Black person. Every obstacle she powered through was done in an effort to provide care for other people. Hero. 

Mary Anning (May 21, 1799—March 9, 1847)

Originally posted by rejectedprincesses

Mary Anning discovered the first full Ichthyosaur skeleton at 11,  the very first Plesiosaur at 22, and then opened up her own fossil store front a few years later. We repeat: She opened up her own fossil store. We could go on and on, but Rejected Princesses (@rejectedprincesses​) already did it best in this biographical comic. While you’re over there, check out their whole archive and the dozens and dozens of women’s life stories within.

Follow these too:

  • She Thought It: Crossing Bodies in Sciences and Arts (@shethoughtit​​) is a database dedicated to shedding light on women making strides in both science and the arts. A whole bunch of great things.
  • Lady Scientists of Tumblr (@scientific-women​​) promises everything you could ever want from a feminist science round-up blog: intersectionality and equal representation of all scientists who identify as female. Hell yeah.
  • Math Brain (@ihaveamathbrain​​) backs the novel idea that women are indeed capable of understanding math. Shocking. With the perfect amount of sarcasm, they tackle the idea some bozos have that women just don’t have the mind for mathematics.

  • Jaime: Have you seen Bart?
  • Tim: -without looks up from his laptop holds up a cheeto which vanishes in a second-
  • Jaime: Uh....
  • Tim: He got into my Monster stash, has yet to slow down.
  • Jaime: Shouldn't we call, like, The Flash for help or something?
  • Tim: Nah, this is the most work he's gotten done in ages. He already has all his homework for the school year done and is now tackling the RNA folding problem.
  • Jaime: The what?
  • Tim: -points at white board across the room- I don't know, man. You try to keep up with his thought process.
youtube

Gene Editing Strategy Eliminates HIV-1 Infection:

For the first time ever, scientists have shown how they can edit animal genes to shut down a HIV infection and then stop it from spreading further. The new study is the next step in the ongoing efforts to find a permanent cure for the disease.
During acute HIV infection, the cells replicate within the human body but are able to effectively conceal themselves in latent reservoirs – making them much harder to locate and treat.
But the new findings from Temple University and University of Pittsburgh, have shown that researchers are able to excise HIV DNA from the genomes, using gene-editing technology, and this causes the process of replication to stop.
Not only that but they can them eliminate infected cells, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60 to 95%.
The tool, known as CRISPR/Cas9 is the first to be used in this way, and was tested in three different animal models, including a ‘humanized’ model in mice where they were transplanted with human immune cells infected with the virus.
With this, the researchers were able to investigate the ability of CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to block viral replication and potentially prevent systemic infection.

A Genetic Oddity May Give Octopuses and Squids Their Smarts

By Steph Yin

Coleoid cephalopods, a group encompassing octopuses, squid and cuttlefish, are the most intelligent invertebrates: Octopuses can open jars, squid communicate with their own Morse code and cuttlefish start learning to identify prey when they’re just embryos.

In fact, coleoids are the only “animal lineage that has really achieved behavioral sophistication” other than vertebrates, said Joshua Rosenthal, a senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. This sophistication could be related to a quirk in how their genes work, according to new research from Dr. Rosenthal and Eli Eisenberg, a biophysicist at Tel Aviv University.

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Neurons - Anatomy Overview

Going to be covering nerves and synapses this week so here’s a recap!

  • Soma (cell body) contains the nucleus which produces RNA to support cell functions, + organelles surrounding the nucleus which are mostly made of up endoplasmic reticulum. Supports and maintains the functioning of the neuron.
  • Dendrites - cellular extensions with many branches ‘dendritic tree’. majority of input occurs via the dendritic spine. The sum of all excitatory (neuron fires) or inhibitory (prevents firing) signals determines whether the neuron fires or not. If firing the action potential is transmitted down the axon.
  • Axon - fine, cable-like projection that can extend thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length. The axon carries nerve signals away from the soma (and also carries some types of information back to it). Can undergo branching - communication with target cells. 
  • Axon hillock - where the axon emerges from the soma. the part of the neuron that has the greatest density of voltage-dependent sodium channels - therefore the most easily excited part of the neuron and the spike initiation zone for the axon - most negative action potential threshold. Can also receive input from other neurons.
  • Axon terminal where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft to signal the next neuron

Myelin sheath

Myelin is a fatty material that wraps around axons and increases the speed of electrical transmission between neurons. It is broken up by nodes of Ranvier, between which electrical impulses jump. Myelin is produced by schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS.

Classes of neurons

Sensory neurons bring information into the CNS so it can be processed.

Motor neurons get information from other neurons and convey commands to  muscles, organs and glands.

Interneurons,found only in the CNS, connect one neuron to another. 

Types of neuron

Multipolar neurons have one axon and many dendritic branches. These carry signals from the central nervous system to other parts of the body eg muscles and glands.

Unipolar neurons are also known as sensory neurons. They have one axon and one dendrite with branches. Pass signals from the outside of the body, such as touch, along to the central nervous system.

Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite branch. They pass signals from one neuron to the next inside the central nervous system.

Pyramidal neurons have one axon and two main dendrite branches. These cells pass signals inside the brain and tell the muscles to move.

Purkinje neurons are found in the cerebellum, controlling balance, coordination, and timing of actions. They have one axon and a dense and complicated dendrite arrangement.

University/College Au Masterlist

#latteart - imagines

Tiger House looks like it can’t decide if it’s an English pub, a used book store, or a bakery. The only sign that it actually sells coffee is the smell of freshly-roasted beans that hits Otabek when he pushes open the door, a little bell jangling above him. There’s nobody here but a bored-looking barista leaning on the counter by the register. “Can I help you?” the barista says, in a tone that heavily implies he would rather do no such thing.

100 Ways to Say ‘I Love You’ - Kelly_J_Jackson

Every day for the first 100 days of the New Year, I will be posting a drabble for each writing prompt that tumblr p0ck3tf0x created on their list “'100 Ways to Say I Love You’.” It will be mostly Victuuri with some Yurio (and possibly Otabek). It’s going to be a challenge, but I’m going to try my best to update daily. OR They’re a bunch of dorks, really.

admiration in falling asleep - calliopinaround

Rooming with Otabek is fine. It really is—they’re best friends, Otabek is the perfect roommate, and there’s nothing about each other that they don’t already know to make it weird. (Except Yuri hadn’t known that Otabek walks around only in his pajama bottoms in the morning, or what he smells like right out of the shower, or that he likes his coffee with two sugars and nothing else, or that he has a knack for losing the television remote regardless of where he puts it, or that he keeps his keys on his nightstand and nowhere else, or that he opens the blinds half-way first thing in the morning to let the sunrise in…) So it’s fine. It really is. Yuri likes this arrangement, and no matter how many looks Mila gives him, that’s the truth. He just wishes it sounded like all of the truth.

A Gays guide to Surviving College. - CoffeeAndDesperation

Yuuri katsuki, a young mathematics major starting his 2nd year of college, finds himself rooming with an illegally hot Russian linguistics major. While across the hall things heat up between Yuri plisetsky, and his interesting roommate who has a deep passion for writing.

a glass heart, and all its parts - AliFyre

Katsuki Yuuri comes to study in America with the hope that a change of environment will give his mental health the break he needs to finally write that book he’s always wanted. Viktor Nikiforov ended up in America a long time ago and stays there because he can’t think of anywhere better to be, sitting on a novel draft with zero inspiration to finish it. This is the story of how they struggle with themselves and their stories, and how they maybe find love in the process.

All the Warmth of the Sun - pythaglorious

Yuuri wasn’t sure if he could call it a date, but Phichit had set them up, and they were alone. In a bar. And, if Yuuri should consider this a date, there was worse company to be had than Viktor Nikiforov, with his shining silver hair and a baby blue stare that somehow held all the warmth of the sun.

Anatomical Accuracy - Fayina (Dayea)

Yuri has a secret talent in drawing, and he’d be damned if Otabek finds out about his shameful collection of the Kazakh’s portraits. Oh and his skype call with Mila and Sara is getting out of hand.

An eternal bee buzzes in my ear - mozaikmage

AU where the russian characters are international students studying in NYC, and otabek the kazakh guy is the hot waiter at that one russian restaurant they go to every weekend, and anyway don’t look at me 

artistry - lilium_parvum

“The city lights always called to Yuuri. Even as a boy, he dreamed of the neon glow on his face and riding fast, fast, fast down the busy roads. Maybe in a sports car. Or a motorcycle. Perhaps he would just run. He hadn’t worked out the details on that yet. Yuuri dreamed of a whirlwind love, the kind of person with cold eyes and a dark smile, a troubled person with a kind heart. ” In which Phichit’s Instagram leads to Yuuri and Viktor meeting.

A Yellow Highlighter - henriqua

Otayuri Week 2017 Day 7: Soulmates | Too bad Otabek is a people watcher, not a people meeter, and on top of that he’s convinced he would probably live a happier life without meeting a soulmate whose first words to him are rude ones.

Behind Locked Doors - dia_dove

College student Yuuri Katsuki is in love with his professor, Viktor Nikiforov. A love he plans on keeping to himself, until one drunken mistake leads him to a world of pleasure.

centripetal force - braveten

Victor speaks seven languages. (Physics isn’t one of them.) Luckily, though, he ends up rooming with his antithesis: a shy, black-haired boy who just so happens to be a physics major.

Close Quarters - i_like_my_eggs_benedict

Yuri moved thousands of miles away from home in Russia to attend a prestigious performing arts university in the States, gambling that his stupid former rink mate Victor (who also attends) wouldn’t be anywhere near him. Otabek also took a chance by coming to this university so far away from the security of life back home, hoping his future and career will go somewhere. They were both slightly worried about who their roommate would be, but it seems like the guy they were put with just seems to…fit.

Cold Light of Morning - kepitto 

do you believe in soulmates? - foreverhalo

A drabble about Yuri and Otabek in college.

Fragile Hearts - aksnowchild

*Title and Story are subject to change as this is an ongoing story* AU where Yuuri Katsuki is a Japanese college student going to school in America. He studies to become a vet while working at Ice Pets Adoption, which is owned by his friends the Nishigori family. He keeps his life fairly simple, but one day a mysteriously beautiful Russian waltzes into Yuuri’s life and suddenly he experiences something he never has before: attraction.

It Doesn’t Have to be a Lie - Recesskup

Yuuri is not outgoing. That’s why when Phichit supplies Viktor as his fake boyfriend he’s bringing home for Christmas he nearly dies on the spot. And in all Honesty, he’s not quite sure how he managed to convince Viktor Nikiforov to play the role of his pretend boyfriend. And he’s even more at a loss for words when he remembers he has to go along with this for two weeks. Or- The pretend relationship AU where Yuuri is a shy Dance Major and Viktor is the attractive, outgoing Art/Photography Major and Phichit is the worst wingman ever.

Legendary Lovers - rjk122

Leave it to Yuri Plisetsky to humiliate himself and then have the only person on campus that he wanted to avoid also end up being the only person who he sees all the time. And also who never does anything but stare at him. Like, seriously, why is this dude always staring at him? College AU based on a prompt by theappleppielifestyle on tumblr!

Love Like You’ll Never Be Hurt - OurMidnightMuse

(College AU) In high school Yuri Plisetsky was the end of many pranks by his fellow classmates, being a slight in stature ballet dancer. One in particular resulted in Yuri being forably outed as a homosexual in a most humiliating way, causing a rift in who he felt he could trust. Now in college, Yuri is trying to move past all of the things that bothered him in the past, however, they keep on cropping up. At a college party that he was coaxed into attending, Yuri meets the most unlikely of friend; a former ballet classmate whom he had not seen in many years named Otabek Altin. As the two grow closer, Yuri discovers something troubling about his new friend. Could the two possibly help each other through their past and present troubles, or will the blockades in the road cause them to fall apart before they even begin to come together? (TWs will preface each chapter in the beginning notes as they come.)

Match Made By PhichitSociallyAwkwardFox (Maze_Runner_Fae)

Five times Phichit plays matchmaker for his friends and the one time they play matchmaker for him.

Music of Love - mechatitan

“Otabek felt pure panic course through him. What did he do now? He was accidentally intruding on an extremely private moment for this beautiful man he didn’t even know. How did one even address this.
Maybe the best thing would be to just leave as quietly as he could. Otabek watched as the man leaned forward and onto his knees and crumpled in on himself. He knew he couldn’t just leave now.” Or the story in which Otabek accidentally witnesses Yuri dealing with a tragic loss and kinda fucks up.

Never Content - silvershrubbery, Sukiyaki_Rut

“If you look for perfection, you’ll never be content.” Or: Mila and Sara end up as roommates their sophomore year of college, but there’s a problematic division among the international dance students that puts them on opposite sides of a war. Despite that Sara can’t deny her crush on Mila, and Mila has a growing appreciation for the quiet but free-spirited Italian. When a scandal ensues, things become more complicated for everyone involved. Alternates between Mila’s and Sara’s perspectives each written by one of us, but you’ll catch on. Also, the ages have been adjusted so Mila and Sara are the same year in college; everything else is pretty much based on canon.

Oh the world is okay - mozaikmage

now with more characters and everyone being friends, yay

On Love: Voice - Pigfarts23

Au where Otabek and Yuri have to collaborate and they compose Agape together. The unholy music/college AU you didn’t ask for but got anyway

poly-A tail - owlinaminor

poly-A tail: a long string of RNA containing only adenine bases, added to the 3’ end of a pre-mRNA transcript to protect it from degradation as it travels through the cytoplasm. when depicted in textbooks, the structure is written as simply a long string of A’s. (or: in which yulia plisetskaya forms a study group, makes a friend, and learns that finals week is about more than taking tests.)

Shape of YouForestfish

Yuri wants to sleep but his neighbour keeps remixing into the wee hours of the morning. (in this AU they’re studying in England and living in the same halls of residence)

Taste of Paradise - Spicenee

With another successful house party under their belt, Yuri wanted to keep the party going with his roommates/boyfriends which wouldn’t be too hard to do. “We were wondering how much we made tonight.” Otabek said. He wrapped an arm around Yuri’s waist, pulling him closer to his chest. “Oh. Right, the money.” Yuri got up, turning so that both Otabek and JJ had a good look at his ass. Yuri reached back in to his back pocket, making sure to stick his ass out. He smirked when he noticed how JJ’s pupils dilated when he ran his hand down the curve of his ass. He slowly pulled out money from one of his back pockets before running his hand along his ass to the other back pocket.

Three Cheers and you Lose.Goddess_Of_Profanity

Yavok Feltsman, a retired NHL coach, is forced into teaching a team of useless, enthusiastic college students. As the hockey team grows closer together, problems develop, and relationships evolve. Will the group be able to hold everything together, or will it all fall apart?

wannabe rockstars and prima ballerinas - thehearsesong

au in which yuuri and viktor both attend columbia college in chicago. viktor is a music major and in a band and yuuri is a ballerina studying at the joffrey ballet academy as well as majoring in dance at columbia. they get paired up together for a project in class and viktor wants to be yuuri’s friend, dammit but yuuri has crippling anxiety basically yuuri gets bullied into supporting vitya’s band, there’s some ballet, phichit is the ultimate wingman as usual, and there’s fluff and college student hijinks

who you gonna call? - apollothyme

“Who would win in a fight between a giant pigeon and Iron Man?” “Yura, it’s four in the morning.”

You Must Be The Roomie - kaitlynsmth

AU where Yuri Plisetsky is a 19 year old social media star/dancer and is at college, and his roommate is in a band with Otabek Altin, who Yuri can’t help but pine over. 

here’s what’s happening

U.S. Launches Missiles at Syrian Base Over Chemical Weapons Attack
  Related: What about Syrian refugees?
At Trump And Chinese President Xi’s Meetings, Uncomfortable Talks Are The Order Of The Day
The U.S. Gov is Trying to Unmask an Anonymous Anti-trump Twitter Account
Senate confirms Neil Gorsuch to Supreme Court
Donald Trump’s travel expenses in 10 weeks cost US taxpayers as much as Barack Obama spent in two years
▪ Breaking octopus news: They’re super smart and edit their RNA to adapt to challenges on the fly

here’s an inspirational photo

(inspirational photo via)


here’s a mind bending video

Deeply Artificial Trees: “This artwork represents what it would be like for an AI to watch Bob Ross on LSD.” Yup.


here’s something else


here’s something to think about

The news can be overwhelming sometimes, so make sure to occasionally take a break from your regular pattern of content gathering. My advice: Pull up the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Live Jelly Cam for a few minutes when you need a breather.

Biology resources: DNA/RNA 101

In case any of you Bio students out there are having trouble with this particular topic, I thought I’d share my favorite resources!

These r super awesome fun + free on youtube and you can literally pause and go back as much as you’d like. I’ve included just two lectures (yes, those are actual free MIT lectures) because I really love Eric and he explains things so well wow, but the other videos are shorter! xx

(ノ◕ヮ◕)ノ*:・゚✧ check my biology resources

kiddyshizukajoestar  asked:

Uncle Jotaro! I have two questions about squids! First, what would you say is the intelligence level of the average squid? Second, I read somewhere that squids are quite quick with evolution. Something called RNA? Please explain how that works!

Here are some articles on it if you’re interested. It’s fascinating stuff.

Cephalopod Gene-Editing -  Wired.Com
RNA Editing Instead of Genome Evolution? - PLOS.org

the purest specimen of truth

this is actually for @leiascully​‘s @xfficchallenges​: the fic you’d never write. normally i don’t write “everything was beautiful and nothing hurt” william fics, let alone fics where he’s a teeeeeen! so i did that, but i was also at the science march in d.c. this weekend and obvi i had to fic an au where scully was there so…also, all the signs mentioned herein were actually witnessed irl haha also, the title of scully’s academic paper is based in real science but to my knowledge doesn’t exist…yet.


“What about I was told there’d be pie — but it’s the symbol for pi?”

Scully sighed without looking up at him, though she did admittedly choke back a smile which she wasn’t about to reward him with.

“That is clever,” she said, tapping the capped end of a Sharpie against her temple, “But I was partial to your original idea.”

He chuckled, “At the start of every disaster movie there’s a scientist being ignored?

She does smile then, peering at him overtop her reading glasses, which have slowly but surely become a permanent fixture atop her head over the last few years.

“Well, it’s true!” He bellows, playfully slapping his hand down atop the dining room table, “The Core, Dante’s Peak, The Day After Tomorrow, Twister —  that one we saw in theaters where they did an autopsy on Gwyneth Paltrow — ?”

Contagion,” she said, uncapping a marker with her teeth, “Which was impressively accurate, by the way. Not just the autopsy scene but later, the visual showing the way in which new viruses are formed by the recombination of DNA or RNA from different species of animal hosts?”  

“I’ll take your word for it,” he said, watching her squint intently down at her poster board, outlining the letters with a pathologist’s steady hand. He reached for a Sharpie, his finger grazing the back of her hand as he did. “So,” he said, flicking the cap off with his thumb, “Are you nervous?”

Her hand froze and she visibly stiffened. He immediately regretted bringing it up but as was his wont, he couldn’t help himself. 

“Yes,” she said after an agonizingly long moment of silence.“I still don’t understand why they asked me to speak,” she muttered, refusing to look up at him.

Mulder scoffed, “Scully — you fucking cured Tay-Sachs.”

“No,” she snapped, pointing her Sharpie at him, “I did not cure it. Not yet.

Recombiant Adeno-Associated Virus PHP.B Serotype for Cross-Correctional Enzyme Transfer Across the Blood Brain Barrier in Lipid Storage Disorders,” he recited on a single breath, “Sounds like a cure to me.”

She gave him a warm smile, “You memorized the title of my paper?”

“What can I say, I’m your biggest fan,” he grinned. She blushed, which of course only made him grin harder.

“I wish you’d look over my speech…” she said softly, picking up her marker again and retracing a giant letter S.

“I told you, Scully, they don’t want a speech from Fox Mulder: former FBI agent and profiler turned New York Times best-selling, National Book Award-winning author,” he said, though not unkindly, “They want a speech from former FBI agent, medical doctor, professor, surgeon, American Medical Association award-winning, guest-lecture giving, honorary degree-having, enigmatic, Dr. Dana Katherine Scully. Who also happens to be my best friend, the love of my life, and the mother of my child,” he said, “And a damn fine shot, too.”

“Oh, Mulder…” she tutted, shaking her head. As if on cue, they heard booming footfalls on the stairs and a second later Will skidded into the room, brandishing a poster board.

At 16, he was just about Mulder’s height and just as lanky and would probably be taller than him by the end of the summer; if his propensity for eating a week’s worth of groceries in a weekend was any indication of his basic metabolic rate and robust genetic profile.

Will cleared his throat, feigning seriousness, but his eyes sparkled with his father’s particular brand of indolence, “Brace yourselves for the unremitting sheen of my brilliance.”

Scully snorted. Mulder and Will threw her identical, indignant looks.

“I’m sorry,” she said, putting her hands up in surrender, “You are your father’s son, Will. No doubt about it.”

Mulder nudged her foot with his under the table, “Was there ever really any doubt, Scully?”

She gave him a long look, which did not get passed Will. Not much did. 

“I detect a rather abrupt change in atmosphere,” Will said, licking his finger and holding it in the air as if to sense a gust of wind.

“Son,” Mulder said gravely, not taking his eyes off Scully, “There’s something we have to tell you.”

Scully frowned, but before she could speak she saw the faintest glimmer in Mulder’s eye and relaxed a bit.

“What?” Will said, slumping down in the chair closest to his father, letting his sign drop to the floor.

“William…Uncle Walter …is your real dad,” Mulder said, his mouth twitching around a grin.

“That explains why I find you and Mom so ridiculous,” Will said, rolling his eyes in with such form that it rivaled even his mother’s practiced art.

“No, that’s just ‘cuz you’re an angsty teen,” Mulder said, ruffling his son’s hair. Will blushed at the childishness of the gesture — more so because, even as a young man, he still craved his father’s approval and affection and was relieved to be in receipt of it.

“Let’s see your sign, Will,” Scully said, capping a nearby Sharpie that was teetering precariously over the edge of the dining room table.

Will reached for the posterboard, brandishing it high above his head. With a flourish, he turned it so they could read its words as he proclaimed them.

SCIENTISTS ARE PRO-TESTING!” He bellowed, and while he expected his father to laugh heartily and give him a high-five, neither of them expected that his mother would laugh. Certainly no so hard.

After a minute or two went by, Will and Mulder both eyed Scully with a kind of nervous fascination, wondering if perhaps they would have to sedate her.

“Have you…have you ever seen her like this?” Will said, his voice low.

Mulder didn’t take his eyes off Scully, who had lowered her head onto the table, collapsed like a pop-tent. Her shoulders still shaking and her muffled giggles getting lost against the polished cherrywood.

“Once,” he said slowly, “But she was drugged.”

This only made Scully laugh harder. When she finally lifted her head, her face was a hot shade of blush-pink and sallow with tear stains.

“I appreciate the encouragement, Mom,” Will said, “But there’s no need to stroke my ego that much. It’s a good sign but it’s not that good.”

Scully reached up to wipe her eyes on the sleeve of her faded Quantico sweatshirt — which was older than Will by about a decade. She sighed deeply, then looked at them both through damp eyes and with a warm, almost cherubic smile.

“No, no, it is a good sign, Will. It’s just…” she sighed again, then drew in a long, sobering breath, “After all your father and I have been through, all that we’ve seen, the things that we’ve fought for…” she looked at Mulder, then. “The FBI sent me to your father because of my faith in science. They believed that science and reason would take him down. It didn’t, though. If anything it became an asset to his cause, and somewhere along the line I became — and so did the science I brought with me — the enemy.”

She lowered her eyes to her own sign, which suddenly seemed incapable of capturing everything she wanted — and needed — to say.

“The science helped sometimes,” Mulder said softly, “But you were the real strength, Scully.”

She smiled up at him as he reached across the table to squeeze her hand, “I guess I just find it preposterous that we have to protest this at all,” she said, shrugging slightly, “That the persecution we faced as a result of our pursuit of the truth has somehow become so much bigger than just us, than the X-files.”

“This whole political milieu is a freakin’ X-file,” Will grumbled.

“Nice 10-point vocab word there, dude.” Mulder said, clapping his son on the back.

“What can I say — my dad writes books.” Will shrugged.

Mulder beamed at Scully, who had rested her chin on her hand.

“Mulder,” she said, her voice hoarse from her laughing jag, “You never told me Skinner was a writer.”


“There must be almost 50,000 people out there,” Scully breathed, her nails digging into the skin of Mulder’s left hand. They could hear the roar of the crowd from beyond the stage — or possibly the rain, which was coming down in sheets. Of course, given that it was a crowd of scientists, they were prepared with slickers and umbrellas, upon which many had inscribed: “Science predicted rain today.”

“You’re gonna be great,” he said, kissing the side of her head which was damp with sweat or rain water or both.

“At least you’re not after Bill Nye,” Will offered, “No one wants to follow him.”

Scully groaned and pressed herself into Mulder’s chest.

“That’s true,” Mulder said, rubbing her back, “Plus, if you screw it all up, no one will remember because they’ll just remember Bill Nye and the fact that Thomas Dolby is gonna sing She Blinded Me With Science.”

“Wait, what song is this?” Will said, digging his phone out of his pocket presumably to YouTube it.

“It’s about your mother,” Mulder said, “Especially the lyric: she’s tidied up and I can’t find anything.”

“Mulder, I want a divorce,” Scully said from somewhere under Mulder’s chin.

“We’re not married, Scully.”

She pulled her head back from his coat and looked up at him, “Fox William Mulder, will you marry me?”

“Sure,” he grinned, running his thumb along her chin.

“Ok,” she said, pressing herself back into his chest again. Then, “Mulder—?”

“Yeah, Scully?”

“I want a divorce.”


The gray sky opened up over the undulating crowd.  If anyone looked up, they’d drown.  

“She looks — ” Will said, standing next to his father backstage, watching his mother at the podium.

“Brilliant? Amazing? Powerful? Divine?” Mulder finished.

Will snorted, “I was gonna say scared shitless.

Though her voice was steady and clear, from his vantage point Mulder could see what the audience could not: how Scully was anxiously lifting and lowering her stockinged foot from her sleek high heel, running the front of her toes along the back of her calf.

God, he was proud of her. God, he loved her.

“…to shed light on what has typically been sequestered away to labs and libraries and lecture halls. To put on full display the humanity that has for centuries stoked the fire of scientific inquiry, refined it, rejoiced in its revelations and more often, endured the frustrations of its arcanum.”

She looked up from her notes, then, and not out at the audience — but to her right, to him and to their son. The next words she spoke, he understood, she had not written for the masses, or for history — but for them.

“The truth exists whether we believe it or not. It endures even the most violent scrutiny and ruthless persecution. As we persist in seeking it, may we find solace in knowing that there is no person, no institution, no government, with jurisdiction over it. It can be suppressed, hidden, censored, altered or misappropriated, refuted and denied,” she paused, looking back to her audience who waited on baited breath, “What those who try to manipulate it beyond recognition, who try to eradicate it and replace it with calculated imitations, fail to recognize is that when all of those measures fail – and they will fail — what remains is the purest specimen of truth.”

She looks back at Mulder, then. At their son. And she smiles, “And it is those of us who want to believe such a truth can be revealed to us who will one day find it, and bring it into the light.”

Anti-cancer drugs - DNA targeting

Include alkylating agents, intercalating agents, and chain cutters.

Alkylating agents

  • Highly electrophilic species, looking for nucleophilic sites to attack, and forming covalent bonds to bases in DNA 
  • Prevent replication and transcription 
  • Toxic side effects (e.g. alkylation of proteins) 
  • Bind in the major groove of DNA
  • Both types cross-link DNA by covalently bonding to nitrogen of base pairs.
  • Binding of nucleic acid bases results in miscoding and distortion. 
  • Distortion of DNA prevents excision by HMG proteinspermanent damage. 
  • Transcription and replication prevented, tumour growth slows. 

Two electrophilic sites on an anticancer drug can cause interstrand and intrastrand cross-linking.

  • Preference for 1,2-GG or 1,2-GC linkage sites, with interstrand or intrastrand linkage, is dictated by drug chemical structure 
  • Other linkage adducts are possible. Eg 1,3-GCG, 1,2-GA. 
  • Monofunctional adducts are also possible 

Chlormethine (a nitrogen mustard)

  •  Chlormethine is highly reactive, toxic side effects. 
  • Lead compound for many less toxic mustard derivatives. 
  • Methyl (CH3 ) group has positive inductive effect – promotes loss of chloride – see mechanism 

Less toxic chlormethine analogues:

  • Melphalan:  e- withdrawing ring lowers Nu strength of N, less reactive drug, less side effects, less toxic. Mimics PhAla, carried into cells by transport proteins. 
  • Uracil mustard:  Uracil ring is e-withdrawing, less reactive alkylating agent. Mimics a nucleic acid base, concentrates in fast growing cells.
  • Cyclophosphamide:  Most commonly used alkylating agent, Non-toxic, orally active prodrug. Acrolein associated with toxicity.
  • Busulfan: Causes interstrand cross-linking. Sulphonate group withdraws electrons, adjacent carbon subject to Nu attack by DNA bases. 
  • Dacarbazine – A diazine:  Prodrug activated by oxidation in liver, decomposes to form methyldiazonium ion. Alkylates guanine groups 

INTERCALATING AGENTS

 Aminoacridines eg Proflavine

Antibiotics - Dactinomycin

  • Extra binding to sugar phosphate backbone by cyclic peptide 
  • Intercalates via minor groove of DNA double helix 
  • Prevents unwinding of DNA double helix 
  • Blocks transcription, blocks DNA-dependent RNA polymerase 

Anthracyclines eg Doxorubicin (adriamycin) 

  •  Extra binding to sugar phosphate backbone by NH3 Planar rings and Anthracyclines eg Doxorubicin (adriamycin) 
  • Intercalates via major groove of DNA double helix 
  •  A topoisomerase poison - blocks action of topoisomerase II by stabilising DNA-enzyme complex 

CHAIN CUTTERS 

Calicheamicin g1 I antitumour agent 

  •  Nucleophilic attack on trisulphide chain starts a rearrangement process. 
  • This interacts with DNA to generate a DNA diradical, which reacts with oxygen, resulting in chain cutting.

Bleomycins (BLM)

  • Highly active head, neck, testicular cancer (Hodgkin lymphoma) 
  • Single and double-strand cleavage of DNA with several reduced metal ions and O2 , Fe(II) highest in vivo activity. 
  • Three regions - 
  • bithiazole DNA binding domain (DBD) locks BLM into the minor groove, 
  • carbohydrate domain (CHD) H-bonds BLM to sugar phosphate of DNA 
  • metal binding domain (MBD) bonds to Fe(II)    

Mechanism

  • A reaction with hydrogen peroxide gives Fe(III) and hydroxyl radicals which abstract H atoms and cut the DNA chain. 
  • Fe2+ + H2O2 Fe3+ + OH. + OH− Fenton mechanism 

Lungs and skin have low levels of BLM hydrolase - higher sensitivity and toxicity. Pneumonitis occurs in about 10% of patients, progresses to pulmonary fibrosis. Over-expressed in malignant cells, resistance to bleomycin    

Summary of Anti-Tumour Specificity for DNA 

Major groove alkylators 

  • GG interstrand - N-mustards, nitrosoureas. 
  • GG intrastrand - methanesulphonates. 
  • GC-interstrand - nitrosoureas, triazines. 

Minor groove intercalators 

  • GG interstrand – anthracyclines. 
  • GC-interstrand – actinomycins, acridines. 

Minor groove chain cutters 

  • GC or GT intrastrand – bleomycins 
NieR Automata meets amazarashi “Deserving of Life” MV Trivia + NieR Automata Technology Analysis

Watch the MV + English Lyrics here

The story is a set in NieR world a year after the story of “Deserving of Life Picture Book” created by Yoko Taro, which is bundled with the limited edition of “Deserving of Life” Album. It sets on the year 11944 AD in distant future.  

The MV story is about a “certain incident", in a ruined factory. An integrated management Living Machine robot, is depicted following a programmed command for destroying the dolls left by human beings from the old world.

There are 200 dolls created for the MV. It’s created carefully so all the clothes and accessories can match the NieR Automata world. It’s created under supervision of a famous doll creator, Ryo Yoshida.

All the dolls created only to be crushed, burned, shredded, and exploded. Even though it looks like a high cost music video, Yoko Taro said that it’s a limited budget production. The team works very hard to make it best with those limited budget.

Many gameplay footage shown on the very beginning of the video. It represents the memories of the Living Things. One of them shown a new type of enemy. The Tank Enemy Type.

There’s some signs around the factory walls that about the Warning of the Dolls and “REMEMBER THE 1728″. The warning sign told us that the dolls could infect Living Machine with “ERROR 1728″. We shouldn’t love or have any feeling to them, because the Dolls have no spirits. And those who don’t follow the warning should “Remember the 1728″ which we will talk about it later.

Besides the destroyed Dolls, you can see some destroyed Living Machines among the mountain of junk. And in the end you can see 2B modeled Dolls among the other Dolls. 

Right in the middle of Doll destruction mission, the Living Machine robot suddenly obstructed by some kind of emotion that they shouldn’t have. Probably he starts to feels something after destroying the dolls. Their eyes blinking so much and they seems confused to do any actions. The robot even tries to Stop the doll destructing machine.

But then the system forced to Install a Patch that will fix that emotion feelings. The robot then continue the Doll destruction mission. You see that “AVSYS” besides the Patch installation UI? That’s an acronym of “Audit Vault System”. It’s a kind of data warehouse (database) schemas that manage the audit data collected from the secured targets. Just another technical definition.

My Analysis:

Disclaimer - These following paragraphs are only my analysis and speculation, it’s not a fact nor official.

So we can conclude that Living Machine is probably programmed to emulate a function to feels and having an emotion. But later on, somehow, it’s considered to be a bug. It’s called Error Number 1728.

How do I get that kind of analysis? Well.. besides getting the information from the MV, I also read a bit of futurist theory. One of the those theory tells that that in 2045, Artificial Intelligence (AI) will solve all of the human problems. And I think that NieR Automata has a similar theme. 

AI will evolves much further so it can resembles human ego. And this theory also believes that, somehow, a thing resembles to human being can be created by overwriting the AI algorithm and such, to be similar to human’s DNA and RNA. Although in human it’s usually called “hearts”, still it’s a part of “mind”.

I already wrote about DNA and its connection to NieR/Drakengard world, you can read it here.

anonymous asked:

Do you have any nerdy love puns I can tell my boyfriend?

WARNING: Positive results not guaranteed!

• Are you my appendix? Because I have a feeling I should take you out ;)
• If I had to choose between DNA and RNA, I’d choose RNA because it has U in it ;)
• If I was an enzyme, I would be helicase so I could unzip your genes ;)
• You must be the acid to my litmus paper - every time I meet you, I turn bright red!
• When I’m near you, I undergo anaerobic respiration because you take my breath away ;)

[ask me anything]

Three Badass Subfields of Astronomy: Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, and Astrophysics

I’ve been receiving a lot of messages from people curious to know the differences between these subfields of astronomy. So, I’ve written a post giving a simple definition and a brief description of what’s involved in each.

Astrobiology (also known as exobiology) is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life here on Earth and—more importantly—the entire universe. Using existing origin theories and models, this relatively new branch of astronomy is primarily focused on analyzing and discovering the amazing possibility of extraterrestrial life.

Astrobiologists face some distinct problems in their work. Many planets are completely unsustainable to life as we know it. Scorching or freezing temperatures, seemingly gentle rain that would actually burn the skin off of your body, or hurricanes the size of Earth itself are quite common planetary conditions in the universe. Astrobiologists attempt to simulate the possibilities of life cropping up in these unlikely conditions. Whether or not a life form can survive in these types of environments will reveal just how diverse and adaptive it is. Despite nature seeming like a sadistic asshole, there is striking evidence for the resilience of life. Astrobiologists have outlined four requirements for life to survive:

  1. A liquid solvent in which molecules can move freely and interact. 
  2. An energy source.
  3. An atom which allows complex structures to exist.
  4. A sh*t load of time.

Considering that certain life forms here on earth have defied some of these requirements, it’s logical to presume that there is indeed extraterrestrial life. The fact that the conditions can literally be terrible and life can still survive, is enough to convince me there are almost certainly other forms of life in the universe.  

Additionally, if we do find evidence of other life forms in the universe, they will probably look almost nothing like little green men with large heads and telepathic abilities (although, that would be awesome). In fact, astrobiologists hypothesize that extraterrestrial life will most likely be far more exotic and diverse than anything we can possibly imagine. Nature has certainly shown that it has one hell of an imagination.

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Will You? Pt. 1

A/n: Nothing much to be said besides the fact that I was ficspired to write this because prom is coming up soon for me and that there will be a second part.

Pairing: Jungkook x reader

Summary: Jungkook + you = prom dates??

Genre: Pure fucking fluff

Word Count: 1353


Jeon Jungkook, a name you were too familiar with and maybe that was because he was always top of the class, part of the football team and just super popular with not only girls, but the boys too. He was basically the school’s sweetheart, a hard working, athletic, smart and kind guy. He was someone everyone could reach out to, being that he was a very warm and welcoming person, always helping those in need, but to you he was someone you could never reach. Similar to Jungkook, you were quite popular, being part of student council, helping out as a tutor after school, athletic too although you didn’t belong to any sport team, you were another role model others looked up to.

With both of you very similar there really was no time for you to ever interact with him. But it wasn’t until he had asked you to help him with understanding the new chapter that the biology teacher had introduced. He practically begged for your help when he should already know the stuff. You couldn’t ignore him since it was the Jeon Jungkook pleading.

And here you were, sitting in the library studying with the school’s sweetheart himself for an upcoming exam while you had to explain to the brainiac how DNA and RNA worked together, even though he knew the answers he just wanted to be sure and checked with you. Sitting across from the brown haired boy, he’d give you quick glances thinking that it would go unnoticed.

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