Quantum Fluctuations

List of Free Science Books

Here’s an alphabetical list of all available free books. Note that many of the links will bring you to an external page, usually with more info about the book and the download links. Also, the links are updated as frequently as possible, however some of them might be broken. Broken links are constantly being fixed. In case you want to report a broken link, or a link that violates copyrights, use the contact form


  • A Beginner’s Guide to Mathematica
  • A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics
  • A First Course in General Relativity
  • A New Astronomy
  • A No-Nonsense Introduction to General Relativity
  • A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century, Fourth Edition
  • A Review of General Chemistry
  • A Simple Guide to Backyard Astronomy
  • A Text Book for High School Students Studying Physics
  • A Tour of Triangle Geometry
  • About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Adaptive Control
  • Advanced Calculus
  • Advanced Learning
  • Advanced Mathematics for Engineers
  • Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems
  • Advanced Technologies
  • Advances in Computer Science and IT
  • Advances in Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • Advances in Haptics
  • Advances in Human Computer Interaction
  • Age of Einstein
  • Aging by Design
  • AMPL:  A Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming
  • An Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • An Introduction to Higher Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Many Worlds in Quantum Computation
  • An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning
  • An Introduction to Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Proofs and the Mathematical Vernacular
  • An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
  • Analysis 1 (Tao T)
  • Analysis 2 (Tao T)
  • Analytic Functions
  • Astronomical Discovery
  • Astronomy for Amateurs
  • Astronomy Today
  • Astronomy with an Opera-Glass
  • Automation and Robotics


  • Basic Algebra, Topology and Differential Calculus
  • Basic Concepts of Mathematics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Chapter 1
  • Basic Ideas in Chemistry
  • Basic Math: Quick Reference eBook
  • Basic Mathematics for Astronomy
  • Basic Physics
  • Basic Positional Astronomy
  • Basic Principles of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics
  • Basic Principles of Physics
  • Basics of Physics
  • Beginner’s Botany
  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry (practice book)
  • Biology
  • Board Notes for Particle Physics
  • Book of Proof


  • Calculus
  • Calculus Based Physics
  • Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting
  • Circuit QED — Lecture Notes
  • Classical Dynamics
  • Classical Geometry
  • Classical Mechanics
  • Climate Models
  • Collaborative Statistics
  • College Algebra
  • Complex Analysis
  • Computational Geometry
  • Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra
  • Computational Physics with Python
  • Conceptual Physics
  • Consistent Quantum Theory
  • Cook-Book Of Mathematics
  • College Physics
  • Crude Oil Emulsions- Composition Stability and Characterization
  • Curiosities of the Sky


  • Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
  • Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?
  • Differential Equations
  • Diophantine Analysis
  • Discover Physics
  • Dr. Donald Luttermoser’s Physics Notes
  • Dynamics and Relativity


  • Earthquake Research and Analysis
  • Earthquake-Resistant Structures – Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation
  • Einstein for Everyone
  • Electromagnetic Field Theory
  • Elementary Mathematical Astronomy
  • Elementary Linear Algebra
  • Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell
  • Elementary Particles in Physics
  • Elements of Astrophysics
  • Embedded Systems – Theory and Design Methodology
  • Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
  • Encyclopedia of Astrophysics
  • Engineering Mathematics 1
  • Engineering Mathematics with Tables
  • Essential Engineering Mathematics
  • Essential Physics
  • Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs
  • Experimental Particle Physics


  • Fields
  • Foundations of Nonstandard Analysis
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars
  • Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics
  • Fundamentals of Analysis (Chen W.W.L)
  • Further Mathematical Methods
  • Fusion Physics


  • General Chemistry
  • General Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Geometric Asymptotics
  • Geometry and Group Theory
  • Geometry and Topology
  • Geometry Formulas and Facts
  • Geometry Study Guide
  • Geometry, Topology and Physics
  • Geometry, Topology, Localization and Galois Symmetry
  • Great Astronomers


  • Handbook of Formulae and Physical Constants
  • High School Mathematics Extensions
  • Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists
  • History of Astronomy
  • Homeomorphisms in Analysis
  • How to Use Experimental Data to Compute the Probability of Your Theory


  • Intelligent Systems
  • Intrinsic Geometry of Surfaces
  • Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology
  • Introduction to Cancer Biology
  • Introduction to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Cosmology
  • Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • Introduction to General Relativity
  • Introduction To Finite Mathematics
  • Introduction to Particle Physics Notes
  • Introduction to PID Controllers
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Quantum Noise, Measurement and Amplification
  • Introduction to Social Network Methods
  • Introduction to String Field Theory
  • Introduction to the Time Evolution of Open Quantum Systems
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
  • Introductory Computational Physics
  • Introductory Physics 1
  • Introductory Physics 2


  • Kinetic Theory


  • Laboratory Manual for Introductory Physics
  • Laws of Physics
  • Learn Physics Today
  • Lecture Notes in Discrete Mathematics
  • Lecture Notes in Quantum Mechanics
  • Lecture Notes in Nuclear and Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes in Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes on General Relativity
  • Lectures on Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
  • Lectures on Particle Physics
  • Lectures on Riemann Zeta-Function
  • Light and Matter


  • Mag 7 Star Atlas Project
  • Many Particle Physics
  • Math Alive
  • Mathematical Analysis I(Zakon E)
  • Mathematical Biology
  • Mathematical Methods
  • Mathematical Methods 1
  • Mathematical Methods for Physical Sciences
  • Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis
  • Mathematics, Basic Math and Algebra
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Scientists
  • Mathematics For Engineering Students
  • Mathematics Formulary
  • Motion Mountain
  • Music: A Mathematical Offering
  • Mysteries of the Sun


  • Natural Disasters
  • New Frontiers in Graph Theory
  • Noise Control, Reduction and Cancellation Solutions in Engineering
  • Nondestructive Testing Methods and New Applications
  • Nonlinear Optics
  • Notes on Coarse Geometry
  • Notes on Elementary Particle Physics
  • Notes on Quantum Mechanics


  • Observing the Sky from 30S
  • On Particle Physics
  • Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces


  • Particle Physics Course Univ. Cape Town
  • Particle Physics Lecture Notes
  • People’s Physics Book
  • Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical
  • Photons, Schmotons
  • Physics Lectures
  • Physics Tutorials
  • Physics Study Guides
  • Pioneers of Science
  • Practical Astronomy
  • Practical Astronomy for Engineers
  • Preparing for College Physics
  • Primer Of Celestial Navigation
  • Principal Component Analysis – Multidisciplinary Applications
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Volume 1


  • Quantum Dissipative Systems
  • Quantum Field Theory
  • Quantum Fluctuations
  • Quantum Information Theory
  • Quantum Magnetism
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics: A Graduate Course
  • Quantum Mechanics: An Intermediate Level Course
  • Quantum Notes
  • Quantum Physics Notes
  • Quantum Theory of Many-Particle Systems
  • Quantum Transients


  • Recreations in Astronomy
  • Relativistic Quantum Dynamics
  • Relativity: The Special and General Theory
  • Review of Basic Mathematics
  • Riemann Surfaces, Dynamics and Geometry Course Notes


  • Short History of Astronomy
  • Sintering of Ceramics – New Emerging Techniques
  • Solitons
  • Some Basic Principles from Astronomy
  • Special Relativity
  • Spherical Astronomy
  • Star-Gazer’s Hand-Book
  • Statistical Physics
  • Street-Fighting Mathematics
  • String Theory
  • Structures of Life
  • Supernova Remnants: The X-ray Perspective
  • Superspace: One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry
  • System of Systems


  • The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge
  • The Astronomy and the Bible
  • The Astronomy of the Bible: An Elementary Commentary on the Astronomical References of Holy Scripture
  • The Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics
  • The Beginning and the End
  • The Beginning and the End of the Universe
  • The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Sun
  • The Convenient Setting of Global Analysis
  • The Eightfold Way: The Beauty of Klein’s Quartic Curve
  • The General Theory of Relativity
  • The Geology of Terrestrial Planets
  • The Geometry of the Sphere
  • The Handbook of Essential Mathematics
  • The Moon: A Full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features
  • The Open Agenda
  • The Origin of Mass in Particle Physics
  • The Particle Detector Brief Book
  • The Physics Hypertextbook
  • The Physics of Quantum Mechanics
  • The Planet Mars
  • The Small n Problem in High Energy Physics
  • The Story of Eclipses
  • The Story of the Heavens
  • The Structure of Life
  • The Wonder Book of Knowledge
  • The World According to the Hubble Space Telescope
  • The Zij as-Sanjari of Gregory Chioniades (June 27, 2009)
  • Three Dimensional Geometry


  • Understanding Physics
  • Unfolding the Labyrinth
  • Utility of Quaternions in Physics
  • Uses of Astronomy
Simulating a black hole

40 years ago Stephen Hawking predicted that black holes emit a special kind of radiation. Consequently black holes are theoratically able to shrink and even vanish. This radiation arises when virtual particles (pairs of particles developing because of quantum fluctuations inside the vacuum; usually they nearly instantly destroy each other) are near the event horizon. Then the virtual particle pair gets divided: one disappears in the black hole (and its quantum mechanical information) and the other one becomes real. Thus the black hole radiates but unfortunately this radiation is so low that astronomical observations are nearly impossible.
Therefore scientists have to simulate black holes to get empirical evidence. The physicist Jeff Steinhauer of the Technion, the University of Technology of Haifa in Israel exactly did this. He realized an idea of physicist Bill Unruh with an acoustical event horizon. He uses a fog made of rubidium atoms which is only slightly above the absolute zero. Because they are trapped inside an electromagnetic field these atoms become a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Inside of this condensate the acoustic velocity is only a half millimeter per second. With the help of accelerating some above this speed an artificial event horizon is created. The low temperatures lead to quantum fluctuations: pairs of phonons develop. In the simulation these pairs also get divided: one gets caught by the supersonic event horizon; the other one becomes some kind of Hawking radiation.
It is still not sure if this experiment really simulates black holes. According to Ulf Leonhardt it does not proof for sure that the two phonons are entangled. Thus it is not sure if the pairs arised out of one fluctuation. Leonhardt even doubts that the fog of atoms is a real Bose-Einstein Condensate. Leonard Susskind thinks this experiment does not reveal the mysteries of black holes: for instance it does not explain the information paradox, because acoustic black holes do not destroy information.

anonymous asked:

about the upcoming Arceus redesign, you should look up space stuff since Arceus is older than time, they could be a part of the redesign, like Constellations, Black Holes, Supernovae, Galaxy Superclusters, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Cosmic Microwave Background, Quasars, Cosmic Strings, Quantum Fluctuations, Superstrings, the Multiverse, etc, i believe Arceus might have created the Ultra Space, so even the most powerful Ultra Beast would never stand a chance against God.

anonymous asked:

Hi! Sorry if this is a dumb question but can virtual particles be thought of as just really small instantaneous ripples in spacetime? I'm just having trouble conceptualizing how they could just pop in and out of existence out of nothing.

Good question! You’re pretty close, although they aren’t ripples in spacetime. The geometry of spacetime is only used in general relativity, and currently has nothing to do with quantum mechanics. However, virtual particles are small ripples within a ‘particle field’.

The basis behind quantum field theory is that every particle is a wave in its respective field. An electron is a wave in the electron field, a photon is a wave in the electromagnetic field, and so on. If a regular particle is a wave, a virtual particle is a temporary ‘ripple’, and can be caused by a few different things. The virtual particles you are referring to are caused by quantum fluctuations; random, temporary changes in energy in a region of space. These fluctuations exist because of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, and create temporary virtual particles as a result.

Interestingly, ripples in spacetime go by a different name: gravitational waves. When two massive object rotate around each other, like when black holes collide, they warp the space around them in a wave-like pattern, which the LIGO observatory can detect! There also might exist a particle of gravity, the graviton, which would be the smallest wave in spacetime possible. But right now, this particle is extremely hypothetical. Thanks for asking!

RD art idea

I am very limited in my drawing abilities, but I’ve conceptualized a piece of science-y fanart, if anyone who does art well in the Dwarf fandom wants to take a crack at this. Friend Nat helped me refine it toward more actual science …

Red Dwarf (or Starbug if you prefer its more spherical shape) is an atom. Lister is a proton within, Kryten a neutron, and Rimmer an electron doing their correct orbiting inside. Cat is a sort-of Cheshire figure on the outside of the atom, sort-of Schrodinger inspired quantum fluctuation cat, batting the atom a bit. Nat thought they might look best chibi-style. She said this would be an atom of heavy hydrogen (if that matters to the art).

Anyway. Free idea to someone! Or more than one someones.

Musings of a Hunter: The Fourth Element

In the times of Ancient Greece, India, and Egypt, people attempted to explain the diverse complexity of matter by boiling it down to just four elements, water, earth, fire, and air. This mentality continued on into the medieval era into the study of alchemy, which led many to believe that turning one metal into another, such as lead to gold, was possible due to both being comprised of four simple elements: water, earth, fire, and air.

Nowadays, we know that those four elements are not the true elements; the advent of atomic theory has taught us that there are many more elements than four. Hydrogen, element one, all the way to Unonoctium, element one hundred and eighteen. While knowledge of the atomic elements is very useful to humanity, (it allowed us to utilize plutonium for nuclear fission in the 20th century and helium filaments for nuclear fusion in the Golden Age), the “elements” we are more often concerned with are the three that dominate our Light and the impending Darkness: Solar, Arc, and Void.  

These three faux elements are shared between warriors of both the Light and Dark. But how did reality altering powers come to branch out into these three? And is there a possibility there may be a fourth one, hidden to all but the most experienced in the Light and Dark?

Before the Big Bang occurred, the universe was a hyperdense point of infinite temperature and energy, much smaller than a subatomic particle. Then, at some point, the Big Bang occurred. Contrary to popular belief, the universe didn’t “bang” so much as expanded, from the incredibly dense point to the size of a grapefruit. And then from this grapefruit to the size of the current universe. 

But an interesting property of this time is that the four fundamental forces of the universe, gravity, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and electromagnetism were all unified into a singular force, manifesting as quantum fluctuations within the singularity. Then, within the first moments of the universe expanding, gravity “separated” from this unified force, now manifesting like it is today, with the former quantum fluctuations cooling into energy and mass. The other three forces would soon separate as well, with the strong nuclear force separating first as new particles formed and the electromagnetic force separating from the weak nuclear force as electric charges and photons came into existence. 

Now, why is this pertinent to our discussion? 

Ulan-Tan, a Guardian theorist and cult leader, wrote a thesis on the nature of the Light and Darkness, postulating that the Darkness is a necessary symmetry to Light, and that Light “remains connected, across space and time.” This theory appears to be true, due to our ability to use Kabr’s Aegis in the Vault of Glass, Light that has been manifested long ago and used independent of a Guardian’s, and the mission Chamber of Night, where we found the Hive using a shard of the Traveler itself on the moon to corrupt the Traveler, nearly 384.4 million meters away. That implies that Light, or at least its manifestation, is part of a unified field, grounded in our universe.

And if Light is a fundamental part of the universe, then maybe they correspond to the four fundamental forces as well. 

Arc is obvious: electromagnetism. Electrons spontaneously jumping the gun and transferring between molecules with almost no resistance. 

Solar corresponds to the strong nuclear force, the driving mechanic of nuclear fusion, which results in the creation of plasma, and more importantly, solar plasma. 

Void is a tricky one. It could really take the form of either of the remaining two forces. For Void, I will say that it’s representative of gravity, due to gravity being able to reach across a vacuum, and with the language of Void, it seems like the power of the Void is taken from gravitational singularities.

So that leaves… the weak nuclear force.

The weak nuclear force’s role in the universe is mainly in radioactivity and decay. It affects the quarks inside subatomic particles, decaying protons into neutrons and vice versa. So this new class would have the ability to cause other objects to decay and wither and radiate energy, a poison element. 

What do you think could be the next Destiny element? Leave your ideas in reblogs and replies.

This is Farad, the Ishtar Individual, signing off.

Physicists often quote from T. H. White’s epic novel The Once and Future King , where a society of ants declares, ‘Everything not forbidden is compulsory.’ In other words, if there isn’t a basic principle of physics forbidding time travel, then time travel is necessarily a physical possibility. (The reason for this is the uncertainty principle. Unless something is forbidden, quantum effects and fluctuations will eventually make it possible if we wait long enough. Thus, unless there is a law forbidding it, it will eventually occur.)

Michio Kaku

Just for your info, actually he’s talking (without quoting) about the Gell-Mann’s Totalitarian Principle:

“Everything not forbidden is compulsory.”


Could Dark Energy Be Caused By A Reaction To What’s In The Universe?

“What’s the electromagnetic force of empty space? It’s nothing, of course. You wouldn’t even be wrong for saying that it’s nothing. But put two metal plates a finite distance apart, and then ask what the electromagnetic force is, and you find it isn’t zero! Due to the fact that some of the vacuum fluctuation modes are forbidden due to the boundaries of the plates, we not only predict but measure a non-zero force between these plates, arising from nothing other than empty space itself. As it turns out, all of the forces, including the gravitational force, exhibit a Casimir effect as well.”

If you ask what the zero-point energy of space itself is, you can sum up all of the quantum fluctuations you can that arise in quantum field theory, and arrive at an absurd answer: 120 orders of magnitude greater than the observed. Yet if you assume that there’s an incredible cancellation and you get exactly zero, that removes the one thing our Universe needs to explain its expansion: dark energy. Yet the Universe has matter, radiation, the Hubble horizon and other forms of artificial boundaries in it, and we know that boundaries (like metal plates in electromagnetism) can cut off some of the allowed modes of quantum fluctuations, and lead to a real force: the Casimir effect. Could this same effect – which exists for all the forces, not just electromagnetism – be responsible for dark energy?

Come find out what the possibilities are over at Starts With A Bang today!

Quantum fluctuation. Inflation. Expansion. Strong nuclear interaction. Particle-antiparticle annihilation. Deuterium and helium production. Density perturbations. Recombination. Blackbody radiation. Local contraction. Cluster formation. Reionization? Violent relaxation. Virialization. Biased galaxy formation? Turbulent fragmentation. Contraction. Ionization. Compression. Opaque hydrogen. Massive star formation. Deuterium ignition. Hydrogen fusion. Hydrogen depletion. Core contraction. Envelope expansion. Helium fusion. Carbon, oxygen, and silicon fusion. Iron production. Implosion. Supernova explosion. Metals injection. Star formation. Supernova explosions. Star formation. Condensation. Planetesimal accretion. Planetary differentiation. Crust solidification. Volatile gas expulsion. Water condensation. Water dissociation. Ozone production. Ultraviolet absorption. Photosynthetic unicellular organisms. Oxidation. Mutation. Natural selection and evolution. Respiration. Cell differentiation. Sexual reproduction. Fossilization. Land exploration. Dinosaur extinction. Mammal expansion. Glaciation. Homo sapiens manifestation. Animal domestication. Food surplus production. Civilization! Innovation. Exploration. Religion. Warring nations. Empire creation and destruction. Exploration. Colonization. Taxation without representation. Revolution. Constitution. Election. Expansion. Industrialization. Rebellion. Emancipation Proclamation. Invention. Mass production. Urbanization. Immigration. World conflagration. League of Nations. Suffrage extension. Depression. World conflagration. Fission explosions. United Nations. Space exploration. Assassinations. Lunar excursions. Resignation. Computerization. World Trade Organization. Terrorism. Internet expansion. Reunification. Dissolution. World-Wide Web creation. Composition. Extrapolation?


LIGO Scientific Collaboration, integrating more than 1,000 members (including 8 representatives of the Lomonosov Moscow State University) managed to register space-time oscillations – gravitational waves – reaching the Earth after a catastrophe happened far in the universe. This fact confirms a significant prediction made by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity (1916) and enables a brand-new understanding of space.

“The scientific importance of that fact is immeasurable. Just as it was with electromagnetic waves, we will be able to realize its full meaning later,” says Valery Mitrofanov, the director of LIGO’s Moscow team. “LIGO Scientific Collaboration started in 1992, the time particularly difficult for our country, but Russia joined the project thanks to Vladimir Braginskiy, one of the pioneers in gravitational waves researching in the world. I would like to stress his merit of creation a school at the MSU Faculty of Physics, able to produce scientists that could participate in LIGO project and contribute significantly to the job of its large team. We hope that it inspires other the students of the MSU Faculty of Physics, since we have a range of new challenges awaiting decisions.”

“For the first time in the history of science the waves of spacetime curvature were recorded, this discovery starts a new era in astronomy,” says professor Sergey Vyatchanin, professor of the MSU Faculty of Physics.

“This is an outstanding attainment that lays a way to a new research direction – gravitational wave astronomy. Only a large collaboration of scientists in an international project managed to conduct it,” says Igor Bilenko. “It is remarkable that the fundamental discoveries made by a great Russian scientist Vladimir Braginskiy and his colleagues – quantum limits, methods of quantum measurements and quantum fluctuations – were a significant contribution to the project.”

“A number of Russian researches influenced the decisions of LIGO. The Moscow team put its efforts to overcoming noises that prevent from finding effects that are rarely recorded and hence are difficult to discover. Though, they influence the detectors of LIGO significantly,” says Leonid Prokhorov.

Russian Federation is represented in the LIGO collaboration by the two groups of scientists from the Faculty of Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The group from Moscow was founded and lead by Professor Vladimir Braginsky, the world-famous scientist, one of the pioneers of gravitational-wave research.

The research group, incorporated in the number of scientific discovery collaborators, includes members of the Chair of Physics of Oscillations Faculty of Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: professors Valery Mitrofanov (the head of the group), Igor Bilenko, Sergey Vyatchanin, Michael Gorodetsky, Farit Khalili, assistant professor Sergey Strigin and assistant Leonid Prokhorov. An invaluable contribution to the research made by students, graduate students and technical staff of the Chair of Physics of Oscillations.

The group from the Lomonosov Moscow State University is involved in the project since 1992. From the very beginning, the main efforts were directed at improving the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors, determining the fundamental quantum and thermodynamic sensitivity constraints and at developing the new measurement methods. Theoretical and experimental research, conducted by the Russian scientists, was embodied in creating a new generation of detectors, which allowed to directly observe the gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes.

During the work the group as a part of the LIGO collaboration produced the results of fundamental importance, which could be applied not only for the search for the gravitational waves, but also for the whole physics itself:

* Unique suspension test masses were made of fused silica. The measured decay time of pendulum oscillation test mass was amounted to about 5 years. It was demonstrated experimentally, that there are no mechanical noises, previously detected in the steel filaments, in redundant quartz suspensions.

* The noise, associated with electric charges located on the quartz mirrors detectors, was studied in detail.

* A new class of fundamental thermodynamic noise was found in the detector in the mirror. Its analysis led to a significant change in the current optical configuration of the LIGO.

* The research pointed out the danger of parametric instability effect of the interferometer, which was later found in the LIGO detector. The methods for its prevention were provided.

* Qualitatively new topology of the optical system of gravity-wave detectors, based on the principles of quantum measurement theory, were proposed and analyzed. The developed methods should improve the sensitivity of the next generation detectors and contribute to the development of gravitational-wave astronomy.

yeldatova  asked:

What is Schrodinger’s Queerbaiting?

Schrodinger’s Cat was a thought experiment that was about the randomness of quantum fluctuation, and when you’re precise about how it worked it’s complicated, but the way it is used in popular culture is the part where the cat is really either alive or dead, but you don’t know which until you open the box and so functionally it’s both until you look.

so, Schrodinger’s Queerbaiting is the argument that OUAT is either queerbaiting or making SQ canon, because at this point the parallels with romantic couples are visible from space. but we won’t know until it runs its course. and so in the meantime we can either treat it as undecidable or as both queerbaiting AND canon SQ.


Does “nothing” exist in Void spaces, or is there something there?

Asked by not-so-creative-bagel


Well, it depends on what you mean when you say “nothing” (especially when you use air quotes…).

Below is an interview with Lawrence Krauss, who has written a world-renowned book on the subject called “A Universe From Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather Than Nothing):

When you think about nothing you have to be a little more careful than you normally are; because, in fact, nothing is a physical concept because it’s the absence of something, and something is a physical concept. And what we’ve learned over the last hundred years is that nothing is much more complicated than we would’ve imagined otherwise.

For example, the simplest kind of nothing is the kind of nothing of the Bible. Say an infinite empty space, an infinite dark void of the Bible. You know, nothing in it, no particles, no radiation, nothing. Well, that kind of nothing turns out to be full of stuff in a way or at least much more complicated than you might have imagined because due to the laws of quantum mechanics and relativity, we now know that empty space is a boiling bubbling brew of virtual particles that are popping in and out of existence at every moment.

And in fact, for that kind of nothing, if you wait long enough, you’re guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics to produce something. So the difference between empty space with stuff in it and empty space with nothing in it is not that great anymore. In fact, they’re different versions of the same thing. So the transition from nothing to something is not so surprising. Now you might say well that’s not good enough because you have space. Where did the space come from? Well, a more demanding definition of nothing is no space, but, in fact, once you apply the laws of quantum mechanics to gravity itself, then space itself becomes a quantum mechanical variable and fluctuates in and out of existence and you can literally, by the laws of quantum mechanics, create universes.

Create spaces and times, where there was no space and time before. So now you got no particles, no radiation, no space, no time, that sounds like nothing. But then you might say, well, you know what, you got the laws of physics. You got the laws of nature. The laws themselves are somehow something; although, I would argue in fact that that is not at all obvious or clear or necessary. But even there, it turns out physics potentially has an answer because we now have good reason to believe that even the laws of physics themselves are kind of arbitrary.

There may be an infinite number of universes, and in each universe that’s been created, the laws of physics are different. It’s completely random. And the laws themselves come into existence when the universe comes into existence. So there’s no pre-existing fundamental law. Anything that can happen, does happen. And therefore, you got no laws, no space, no time, no particles, no radiation. That’s a pretty good definition of nothing.

There’s a bounty of resources on this topic from Krauss we invite you to explore:

this NY Times article

his original Universe From Nothing“ lecture via the Richard Dawkins Foundation

Harvard University’s Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study lecture by Lawrence Krauss called “A Universe From Nothing

his interview about this topic via The Agenda with Steve Paikin.

Answered by Rich E.

Edited by Yi Z.

Trans girls are beautiful. All trans girls.

How do I know? Well an exhaustive battery of tests using the new Cuteness Detection System revealed that not only does the system show an accuracy rating of 99.995% (negligible percentage error due to subtle quantum fluctuations around the electron intake valve) but that 100% of trans girls are cute (adjusted for said quantum fluctuations).

We actually tested that multiple times because 100% seems like an error but nope, it was right. All trans girls are cute. Every single one.

And if you think you have some reason that you’re not cute well, it’s just quantum fluctuations disturbing your instrument’s calibration.

grandmasterbox  asked:

hey rocco, can you explain the meaning behind the Timbo vid?

Sure! More or less, life’s meaning through fighting, combat, and existentialism. According to existentialism, each man and each woman creates the essence (meaning) of his and her life; life is not determined by a supernatural god or an earthly authority, one is free. As such, one’s ethical prime directives are actionfreedom, and decision, thus, existentialism opposes rationalism and positivism. In seeking meaning to life, the existentialist looks to where people find meaning in life, in course of which using only reason as a source of meaning is insufficient; this gives rise to the emotions of anxiety and dread, felt in considering one’s free will, and the concomitant awareness of death. According to Jean-Paul Sartre, existence precedes essence; the (essence) of one’s life arises only after one comes to existence.

Søren Kierkegaard spoke about a “leap”, arguing that life is full of absurdity, and one must make his and her own values in an indifferent world. One can live meaningfully (free of despair and anxiety) in an unconditional commitment to something finite, and devotes that meaningful life to the commitment, despite the vulnerability inherent to doing so.

Arthur Schopenhauer answered: “What is the meaning of life?” by stating that one’s life reflects one’s will, and that the will (life) is an aimless, irrational, and painful drive. Salvation, deliverance, and escape from suffering are in aesthetic contemplation, sympathy for others, and asceticism.

For Friedrich Nietzsche, life is worth living only if there are goals inspiring one to live. Accordingly, he saw nihilism (“all that happens is meaningless”) as without goals. He stated that asceticism denies one’s living in the world; stated that values are not objective facts, that are rationally necessary, universally binding commitments: our evaluations are interpretations, and not reflections of the world, as it is, in itself, and, therefore, all ideations take place from a particular perspective.

Logical positivists ask: “What is the meaning of life?”, “What is the meaning in asking?” and “If there are no objective values, then, is life meaningless?” Ludwig Wittgenstein and the logical positivists said: ”Expressed in language, the question is meaningless”; because, in life the statement the “meaning of x”, usually denotes the consequences of x, or the significance of x, or what is notable about x, etc., thus, when the meaning of life concept equals “x”, in the statement the “meaning of x”, the statement becomes recursive, and, therefore, nonsensical, or it might refer to the fact that biological life is essential to having a meaning in life.

The things (people, events) in the life of a person can have meaning (importance) as parts of a whole, but a discrete meaning of (the) life, itself, aside from those things, cannot be discerned. A person’s life has meaning (for himself, others) as the life events resulting from his achievements, legacy, family, etc., but, to say that life, itself, has meaning, is a misuse of language, since any note of significance, or of consequence, is relevant only in life (to the living), so rendering the statement erroneous. Bertrand Russell wrote that although he found that his distaste for torture was not like his distaste for broccoli, he found no satisfactory, empirical method of proving this:

When we try to be definite, as to what we mean when we say that this or that is “the Good,” we find ourselves involved in very great difficulties. Bentham’s creed, that pleasure is the Good, roused furious opposition, and was said to be a pig’s philosophy. Neither he nor his opponents could advance any argument. In a scientific question, evidence can be adduced on both sides, and, in the end, one side is seen to have the better case — or, if this does not happen, the question is left undecided. But in a question, as to whether this, or that, is the ultimate Good, there is no evidence, either way; each disputant can only appeal to his own emotions, and employ such rhetorical devices as shall rouse similar emotions in others … Questions as to “values” — that is to say, as to what is good or bad on its own account, independently of its effects — lie outside the domain of science, as the defenders of religion emphatically assert. I think that, in this, they are right, but, I draw the further conclusion, which they do not draw, that questions as to “values” lie wholly outside the domain of knowledge. That is to say, when we assert that this, or that, has “value”, we are giving expression to our own emotions, not to a fact, which would still be true if our personal feelings were different.

But then at one point, the combatant battling Timbo states he is beginning to pass out, which is an entire statement on consciousness. 

The nature and origin of consciousness and the mind itself are also widely debated in science. The explanatory gap is generally equated with the hard problem of consciousness, and the question of free will is also considered to be of fundamental importance. These subjects are mostly addressed in the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience (e.g. the neuroscience of free will) and philosophy of mind, though some evolutionary biologists and theoretical physicists have also made several allusions to the subject.

Hieronymus Bosch’s Ascent of the Blessed depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures, often described in reports of near-death experiences.
Reductionistic and eliminative materialistic approaches, for example the Multiple Drafts Model, hold that consciousness can be wholly explained by neuroscience through the workings of the brain and its neurons, thus adhering to biological naturalism.

On the other hand, some scientists, like Andrei Linde, have considered that consciousness, like spacetime, might have its own intrinsic degrees of freedom, and that one’s perceptions may be as real as (or even more real than) material objects. Hypotheses of consciousness and spacetime explain consciousness in describing a “space of conscious elements”, often encompassing a number of extra dimensions. Electromagnetic theories of consciousness solve the binding problem of consciousness in saying that the electromagnetic field generated by the brain is the actual carrier of conscious experience, there is however disagreement about the implementations of such a theory relating to other workings of the mind. Quantum mind theories use quantum theory in explaining certain properties of the mind. Explaining the process of free will through quantum phenomena is a popular alternative to determinism, such postulations may variously relate free will to quantum fluctuations, quantum amplification, quantum potential and quantum probability.

Based on the premises of non-materialistic explanations of the mind, some have suggested the existence of a cosmic consciousness, asserting that consciousness is actually the “ground of all being”. Proponents of this view cite accounts of paranormal phenomena, primarily extrasensory perceptions and psychic powers, as evidence for an incorporeal higher consciousness. In hopes of proving the existence of these phenomena, parapsychologists have orchestrated various experiments, but apparently successful results are more likely due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, or methodological flaws than to actual effects.

So more or less, that stuff, but it was also a parody of a Kimbo Slice video where he punches this guy in a parking lot really hard. Anyway, hope that helps!

Interstellar was right. Falling into a black hole is not the end, says Stephen Hawking
“If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up, there’s a way out,” Stephen Hawking told the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm

By Sarah Knapton, Science Editor

Interstellar was right. Falling into a black hole is not the end, professor Stephen Hawking has claimed.

Although physicists had assumed that all matter must be destroyed by the huge gravitational forces of a black hole, Hawking told delegates in Sweden that it could escape and even pop into another dimension. The theory solves the ‘information paradox’ which has puzzled scientists for decades. While quantum mechanics says that nothing can ever be destroyed, general relativity says it must be.

However under Hawking’s new theory, anything that is sucked into a black hole is effectively trapped at the event horizon - the sphere surrounding the hole from which it was thought that nothing can escape. And he claims that anything which fell in could re-emerge back into our universe, or a parallel one, through Hawking radiation - protons which manage to escape from the black hole because of quantum fluctuations.

“If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up, there’s a way out,” Hawking told an audience held at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm In the film Interstellar, Cooper, played by Matthew McConaughey, plunges into the black hole Gargantura. As Cooper’s ship breaks apart in the force, he evacuates and ends up in a Tesseract – a four dimensional cube. He eventually makes it out of the black hole.

(excerpt - click the link for the complete article)

Missing galaxy mass found

Gravitational lensing solves puzzle from the Big Bang’s echo.

Soon after the Big Bang, there were tiny ripples: quantum fluctuations in the density of the seething ball of hot plasma. Billions of years later, those seeds have grown into galaxy clusters — sprawling groups of hundreds or thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity.

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A Mathematical Proof That The Universe Could Have Formed Spontaneously From Nothing

Cosmologists assume that natural quantum fluctuations allowed the Big Bang to happen spontaneously. In April, they proved it mathematically

One of the great theories of modern cosmology is that the universe began in a Big Bang. This is not just an idea but a scientific theory backed up by numerous lines of evidence.

For a start, there is the cosmic microwave background, which is a kind of echo of the big bang; then there is the ongoing expansion of the cosmos, which when imagined backwards, hints at a Big Bang-type origin; and the abundance of the primordial elements, such as helium-4, helium-3, deuterium and so on, can all be calculated using the theory.

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