Picture-Telephone

5

USP Victorville is a federal maximum security prison for men, located in Adelanto, California. Victorville was designed to hold 960 inmates, but currently houses over 1400. Housing units were built in a rectangular shape, with 12 units of cells that are roughly 13x6.6 feet large, built for two men. It has been reported that a 3rd inmate sleeps on the floor. Victorville is surrounded by four separate layers of electrified chain link fence, which is fortified by rows of razor wire. Inmate’s communication with the outside world is limited. They e-mail with friends and family using the TRULINCS system which limits the amount of characters they can send, and they are not allowed to view or send pictures. Telephone time is limited to 15 minute calls, with a maximum of 5 hours of phone time per month. Inmates pay for their telephone time out of their personal finance accounts.
Victorville houses many of California’s most violent offenders, and those who are serving long or life sentences. Several high ranking gang members and mafia hit men are serving time at the facility. The prison has a long history of inmate violence and murder, much of which is gang or drug related. However the practice of keeping inmates three to a cell causes most of the daily violence between inmates. Because of the layout of the cell, the inmate who sleeps on the floor is directly in front of the toilet, so if someone has to use the bathroom, the inmate has to cover up with their blanket or get up and stand somewhere else. In any case, the likelihood of the third inmate getting beat down and going to the hospital is extremely high.  In 2005, one inmate’s throat was slashed, apparently over a debt of less than $10 worth of tobacco. In 2014, five separate murders occurred within a 9 month period. In April of 2016, an inmate was beaten to death in his cell, the cause of which is still ongoing.

Writing Research - The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties is a term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, characterizing the decade’s distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, Los Angeles and many other major cities during a period of sustained economic prosperity. French speakers called it the “années folles” (“Crazy Years”), emphasizing the era’s social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

Normalcy returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism after World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, and Art Deco peaked. Economically, the era saw the large-scale diffusion and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, and electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home team and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic stadiums. In most major countries women won the right to vote for the first time. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ended the era, as the Great Depression set in, bringing years of worldwide gloom and hardship.

The social and cultural features known as the Roaring Twenties began in leading metropolitan centers, especially Chicago, New Orleans, Los Angeles, New York City, Philadelphia, Paris and London, then spread widely in the aftermath of World War I. The United States gained dominance in world finance. Thus when Germany could no longer afford war reparations to Britain, France and other Allies, the Americans came up with the Dawes Plan and Wall Street invested heavily in Germany, which repaid its reparations to nations that in turn used the dollars to pay off their war debts to Washington. By the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade later becoming known as the “Golden Twenties”.

The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity and a break with traditions. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, moving pictures and radio proliferated “modernity” to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality in both daily life and architecture. At the same time, jazz and dancing rose in popularity, in opposition to the mood of the specter of World War I. As such, the period is also often referred to as the Jazz Age. [1] [2]

Names

  • Social Security Administration - Top Names of the 1920s
  • About.com: Popular Baby Names in 1920s
  • Nebraska Health and Human Services - 50 Most Frequent Names in Nebraska, 1920-2013
  • Baby Name Science - Popular New Jersey Boy Baby Names in 1920
  • Baby Name Science - Popular New Jersey Girl Baby Names in 1920
  • British Baby Names - The Top Names in England and Wales 1924
  • Naming Across the Pond - Best of the Twenties
  • eHow - Jewish Names in 1920
  • The NY Times - Baby name data from 1920-2008 from New York City’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
  • BabyCenter - Most Popular Names in Spain (Pre-1920 and 1920s)
  • GlobalNews - Interactive: 93 Years of Ontario Baby Names, 1917-2010
  • BabyMed - Top German Baby Names, 1920s

Society & Life

  • HISTORY.com - The Roaring Twenties
  • BBC - The 1920s Overview
  • Ohio State University - 1920s Introduction
  • Indiana Historical Society - 1920s and the Great Depression
  • Maine Historical Society - An Evening in the 1920s
  • Scholastic Press - The United States Turns Inward: The 1920s and 1930s
  • University of Houston - Overview of the 1920s
  • University of Houston - Chapter 2: The Roaring Twenties (PDF)
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The Roaring Twenties
  • Lone Star College - American Cultural History: Decade 1920-1929
  • Stanford History Education Group - World War I and the 1920s
  • Study Notes - Chapter 32: American Life in the “Roaring Twenties,” 1919-1929
  • American History: ‘Roaring Twenties’ a Time of Economic and Social Change
  • Iowa Public Television - The Great Depression Begins: The 1920s
  • United States Department of Labor - Chapter 2: The 1920s and the Start of the Depression, 1921-1933
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Women in the 1920s
  • BBC - The Changing Role of American Women in the 1920s
  • Ohio State University - New Women
  • National Women’s History Museum - Women in the Progressive Era
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - Jazz and Women’s Liberation
  • Academia.edu - Flappers and Mothers: The Women’s Movement and Feminism in the 1920s
  • New York Public Library - Everyday Life and Women in America, 1800-1920
  • American History - Working and Voting: Women in the 1920s
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - “Women’s Work, Never Done”: West Virginia Farm Women, 1880s-1920s
  • Telegraph - Diary of a 1920s Bridget Jones
  • About.com: Flappers in the Roaring Twenties
  • U.S. History - Flappers
  • Smithsonian - The History of the Flapper, Part 1: A Call for Freedom
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Pets in America
  • Kansas Historical Society - Children in Kansas: 1890s - 1920s
  • Library of Congress - Children’s Lives at the Turn of the Twentieth Century (PDF)
  • Prezi - Children and Schooling in the 1920’s
  • University of Iowa - Children Playing. Lebabon, Ohio, 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Child Labor
  • Public Schools in the 1920s in the New York City and Virginia
  • Vintage Kids and Babies Ads in the 1920s
  • University of Toronto - Education in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Canada in the 1920s: Teenagers and School Life and Discipline
  • Prezi - Teenagers of the 1920s
  • 1920s American Culture: City Life & Values - US History II
  • Wessels Living History Farm - 1920s Farm Life
  • Dhahran British Grammar School - Farming in the 1920s
  • The Living City - New York City: Life in the 1920s
  • An Amazing Photographic Tour of New York In The 1920s
  • Digital Harlem Blog - Harlem in the 1920s
  • The New York Times - Listening to the Roar of 1920s New York
  • Smithsonian Institution - American on the Move: New York Connected, 1920s
  • BuzzFeed - Then Vs. Now: 1920s New York City
  • W. W. Norton & Company - Chapter 5: New York in the 1920s
  • Prezi - New York City in the 1920s
  • Britannia - Distorted: Europe in the 1920’s
  • NPR - Let Frivolity Reign: London’s Roaring 1920s
  • The Guardian - Color footage of London in the 1920s (Photos)
  • 1920-1929: Explore the 20th Century London
  • Historic UK - The 1920s, the Roaring Twenties, in Britain
  • My London Life - London Life in the 1920’s
  • BBC America - Snapshot: 21 Photos of 1920s London
  • Daily Mail Online - Open-topped Buses, Flat Claps and Bobbies on the Beat: Color Video of 1920s London
  • History Today - Wish You Were Here? Britain Between the Wars
  • Daily Mail Online - On the production line in the 20s and 30s: Forgotten photographs chart the progress of industry at castings company in Derby
  • Nature Travel Egypt - Egypt in the 1920s
  • BBC - Travelling to Egypt - the culture of 1920s exploration
  • National Geographic Society - Curse of the Mummy
  • National Geographic Society - Port Said, Egypt, Circa 1920
  • Tutmania in the Roaring Twenties: When Ancient Egypt was in Vogue
  • University of California, Santa Barbara - 20th Century Archaeology
  • British Airways - Explore Our Past: 1920 - 1929
  • BBC - The Romance of 1920s Train Travel (Photos)
  • Fordham University - The Fate of Ocean Travel
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Transportation improvements in the 1920s
  • France: The Parisian Life in The 1920’s
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in France
  • Youtube - Seeing Paris in 1920s: Part One (Video)
  • Prezi - 1920’s in Paris
  • Americans in Paris - Paris in the 1920s: Changes in Society Lead to Changes in Fashion
  • Chicago Tribune - Ah, Paris of the 1920s
  • Indiana University - Paris and Berlin in the 1920s
  • The National - Berlin in the 1920s: Anything but Calm Before Storm
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Berlin
  • International Center of Photography - Berlin Street Photography, 1920s-30s (Photos)
  • The Wall Street Journal - Experiencing the 1920s in Berlin, Germany
  • Texas State Historical Association - Texas in the 1920s
  • The Huffington Post - What The 1920s Was Really Like
  • City of Clarence: Tasmania, Australia - Life in Clarence in the 1920s and 1930s (PDF)
  • Belfast Telegraph - Pictures of Northern Ireland in the 1920s
  • Waterloo Region Record - The Great Depression hit Canada the Hardest
  • Prezi - Canadian Lives in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Wikipedia - 1920s in Canada
  • Canada in the 1920s
  • Bentley Historical Library - Detroit and the Great Migration 1916-1929
  • 1920’s Garden: Privacy, Shelter, and Unified Design
  • Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales - A 1920s Garden Revisited
  • 1920’s Interior Decorating: Simplicity in Design
  • 1920’s Residential and Commercial Architecture
  • BBC - 1920s Homes
  • Bricks & Brass: Designs of the Period House - 1920-1929
  • American Vintage House Styles: A Brief History of Middle-class American Residential Architecture from 1900 to 1960
  • American Vintage House Styles: 1920s Bathroom Design
  • American Vintage House Styles: Gallery of 1920s Bedrooms
  • American Vintage House Styles: Gallery of 1920s Kitchen
  • Vintage Household Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Household Furniture Ads of the 1920s
  • 1920’s Automobiles: Auto Industry Consolidation and Vehicle Mass Production
  • Brigham Young University - Love and Romance in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Marriages in the 1920s VS, Marriages Today
  • NPR - Interracial Family Prevails in 1920s Alabama
  • Northern Kentucky University - Prosperity of Urban Families in the 1920’s
  • Prezi - Family Life in the 1920s
  • The Huffington Post - Dating in the 1920s: Lipstick, Booze and the Origins of Slut-Shaming
  • The Gloss - What Dating Was Like in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Dating in the 1920s and early 30s
  • University of Oxford - The Sex Age: Gender, Sexuality and Culture in 1920s Britain
  • History Today - Sex and the Automobile in the Jazz Age
  • Ohio State University - Sexuality
  • University of Michigan - Lesbian History: Between the World Wars
  • Prezi - Homosexuality in the 1920’s
  • US Today - In 1920, Harvard purged Gays…
  • American Psychological Association - History of Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Social Movements
  • The Guardian - Pride and Prejudice in the 1920s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Harlem Life: Black Families and Everyday Life in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Prezi - How did Life Change for African Americans in the 1920s?
  • Ohio State University - African American New Women
  • HISTORY.com - Great Migration: Black History
  • University of Houston - The Great Migration
  • Yale University - The Harlem Renaissance: Black American Traditions
  • Vintage Car Ads of the 1920s
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Automobiles
  • Vintage Oil and Gas Ads of the 1920s
  • British Pathe - Cairo 1920s-1960s (Video)
  • BBC - The Journey to Egypt: Travelling to Egypt & the Culture of 1920s Exploration

Commerce

  • The Cost of Living - 1920
  • The People History - Food, Groceries and Toiletries Prices in the 1920s
  • The People History - Electrical Goods and Appliances Prices in the 1920s
  • The People History - Examples of Houses for Sale in the 1920s
  • The People History - Fashion, Clothing and Accessories from the 1920s: Prices and Examples
  • The People History - Furniture Prices in the 1920s
  • Bryant University - Consumer Prices of the 1920s
  • Vintage Money, Insurance and Banking Ads of the 1920s
  • Statistics Canada - Prices of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fuel, Lighting and Rent, for 60 Cities in Canada: 1920 to 1936
  • Vintagedancer - What Clothing Cost in the 1920s

Fashion

  • 1920’s Women Fashions: Freedom from Corsets
  • Victoriana - 1920s Clothing
  • Fashion Era - 1920s Flapper Fashion History
  • Fashion Era - 1920s Photography of Flappers
  • Fashion Era - 1920-1930 Wedding Fashion History
  • 1920’s and 1930’s Hairstyles: Transition from Long to Short Hair
  • The Huffington Post - 1920s Hairstyles That Defined The Decade, From The Bob To Finger Waves
  • Fashion Era - Hats and Hair Fashion History in 1920s
  • 1920’s Jewelry: Classic Geometric Jewelry Designs
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Clothing: 1920s
  • Vintage Jewelry and Watches Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Perfume Ads of the 1920s
  • Glamourdaze - The History of 1920s Makeup
  • ELLE UK - 1920’s Make-up Looks
  • Smithsonian Institution - The History of the Flapper, Part 2: Makeup Makes a Bold Entrance
  • Duke University Libraries - Cosmetics of 1920s Ads
  • Glamourdaze -  The Beauty Secrets of 1920s Parisian (French) Women
  • Wikipedia - Cosmetics in the 1920s
  • Houston Chronicle - Swimsuits from the 1920s to Today (Photos)
  • Fashion Era - Women’s Swimwear from 1920 to 2000
  • Victoria and Albert Museum - Dating Clothes & Photographs from the 1920s
  • University of Brighton, England - 1920s Fashion
  • Vintage Clothes/Fashion Ads of the 1920s
  • University of Vermont - Men’s Fashion: 1920s
  • BBC - 1920s Fashion
  • The People History - 1920s Children’s Fashion

Entertainment & Food

  • PBS - The Devil’s Music: 1920’s Jazz
  • PBS - Jazz in Time: Roaring Twenties 
  • New York Historical Society - Jazz of the 1920s and '30s
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - A New Jazz Culture
  • Academia.edu - The Influence of Jazz on Women’s Fashion and Society in the 1920s
  • 1920’s Food: Introduction of Processed Foods
  • University of Chicago Press - Recipes from the Twentieth Century: 1920
  • The Food Timeline - 1920s: Prohibition-era Foods & Speakeasy Dining
  • The Guardian - Downton, Parade’s End and British food between the wars
  • Vintage Food Ads of the 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Prohibition, Speakeasies and Finger Foods
  • HubPages - A 1920s Menu: What Did People Eat in the 1920s?
  • Global Post - Desserts From the '20s
  • Old Time Candy - 1920s Candy
  • Vintage Candy Ads of the 1920s
  • Texas State Historical Association - Soft Drink Industrial
  • Telegraph - Cocktail Recipes: Drink like it’s the 1920s
  • Vintage Drinks Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Coke/Coca-Cola Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Alcohol Ads of the 1920s
  • Bonjour Paris - Paris Jazz Age: New Generation Explodes in Paris, 1920s
  • Prezi - Entertainment in the 1920s
  • Atlantic City Weekly - Atlantic City Nightlife Circa 1920s
  • Wikipedia - Speakeasy
  • Mail Online - Inside the Speakeasies of the 1920s: The hidden drinking spots that transformed New York City’s
  • Prezi - The Party Life of the 1920s
  • Vintage Movies, Theater, and Entertainment Ads of the 1920s
  • University of California, Berkeley Libraries - Vamps, Flappers, and Shieks: Films of The 1920s
  • IMDb: Most Popular Feature Films Released 1920 to 1929
  • Hollywood Movie Memories - 1920’s Movie Stars
  • Elon University - 1920s-1960s: Television
  • Vintage Electronics/TV Ads of the 1920s
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Movies, Music, and Sports of the 1920s
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - The Great Jazz Musicians of 1920s
  • North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources - America’s Music in the 1920s (PDF)
  • 1920’s Music: Jazz, Ragtime, and Musical
  • Vintage Music Ads of the 1920s
  • 1920’s Literature: Books Reflected Changes in Society
  • University of California, Berkeley - The Books of the Century, 1920-1929
  • Stylist Magazine - The 50 Best Books of the 1920s
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in Literature
  • Ranker - Bestselling Novels of the '20s: 1920 to 1929
  • Toronto Public Library - Roaring Times: 1890s to 1920s
  • Vintage Books, Magazines, and Newspaper Ads of the 1920s
  • eHow - American Writing Styles of the 1920s
  • Montgomery College - The Lost Generation: American Writers of the 1920’s
  • 1920’s Toys: New Materials and Mass Production
  • 1920’s Art: The Are of Surrealism and Art Deco
  • Scholastic Press - Surrealism: 1920s-1940s
  • 1920’s Dancing: New Styles of Dancing and Music Evolved
  • BBC - About BBC News
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in Sports
  • York University Library - The Golden Age of Women and Sport in Canada (PDF)
  • Prezi - Canadian Sports Heroes of the 1920s
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Sports in the 1920s
  • George Mason University - The National Pastime in the 1920s: The Rise of the Baseball Fans
  • Prezi - Popular Pastimes of the 1920s
  • Ask About Ireland - Games Children Play on the 1920s
  • Victoriana -  1920s Party: Correct Behavior on a Picnic

Dialogue

  • The Huffington Post - Flappers’ Dictionary: How To Talk The 1920s Talk
  • Antique Automobile Club of America - Slang of the 1920
  • OxfordDictionaries.com - 20 Words that Originated in the 1920s
  • KCTS 9 Public Television - Flapper Slang: Talk the 1920s Talk
  • The Wired - How to Sound Like the Bee’s Knees: A Dictionary of  1920s Slang
  • BuzzFeed - The A-Z’s Of 1920s Slang
  • Thought Catalog - 59 Quick Slang Phrases From 1920s

Health, Hygiene & Medicine

  • University of California, Berkeley - Life Expectancy in the USA, 1900-98
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics - Life Expectancy Trends, 1881-2009
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Life Expectancy in Canada: An Overview
  • Statistics Canada - Life Expectancy at Birth, by Sex, by Province
  • University of Alcalá - The Pharmaceutical Century: 1920 to 1930
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Prematurity as a public health problem: US policy from the 1920s to the 1960s
  • United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Tobacco Use in the United States
  • Social Security Association - 1900s to 1920s
  • Vintage Medicine Ads of the 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Drink Some Whiskey, Call in the Morning: Doctors & Prohibition
  • Ohio State University - Medicinal Alcohol: Temperance & Prohibition
  • 1920’s Medicine: Nobel Prize Winning Medical Discoveries
  • Cambridge University Press - Health and Health Services in British Malaya in the 1920s
  • Canadian Public Health Association - Milestones in Public Health: 1920 to 1929
  • Chicago State Hospital History
  • History Museum - History of Canadian Medicare: 1914-1929
  • Reddit: AskHistorians - I’m a patient at a psychiatric institution in the 1920s. What types of treatment would potentially be used?
  • Prezi - Mental Asylums in the 1920’s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Psychiatry and the General Hospital in an Age of Uncertainty
  • State Records Authority of New South Wales - Asylum Records
  • University of Michigan Health System - A Century of Improving Mental Health Care at Michigan
  • Prezi - Medical Breakthrough in the 1920s
  • Science Museum - Mental Institutions
  • Mail Online - Sent to the Asylum: The Victorian Women locked up Because they were Suffering from Stress, Post Natal Depression and Anxiety
  • South Shore Hospital, South Weymouth; Boston, Massachusetts - The 1920s
  • The Stockton State Mental Asylum from the 1890’s to 1920’s
  • Mississippi State Department of Health - Public Health Nursing 1920-1949
  • University of Rhode Island - Syphilis from 1880 to 1920: A Public Health Nightmare and the First Challenge to Medical Ethics
  • Duke University Libraries - Timeline: Medicine and Madison Avenue 1920s
  • PBS - A Social History Of America’s Most Popular Drugs
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Headache Powders
  • Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine - The 1920s
  • Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC - 1920s
  • BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia - Anaesthesia in the 1920s (PDF)
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - 1920 History Timeline
  • Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - The Polio Era, 1920s to 1960s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Immigration, Ethnicity, and the Pandemic
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - British Maternal Mortality in the 19th and Early 20th Century
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Timeline
  • National Institutes of Health - The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit: Timeline
  • Family Planning Association - Contraception: Past, Present and Future Factsheet
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - The Politics of Birth Control , 1920-1940
  • Museum of Menstruation and Women’s Health - Ad for Hickory Sanitary Napkin Belts, 1920s
  • Duke University Libraries - Feminine Hygiene: 1920s Ads
  • Vintage Beauty and Hygiene Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Shaving Ads of the 1920s

Law Enforcement & Crime

  • 1920’s Law and Order: Criminal gangs the Legacy of Prohibition
  • Crime Library - Harlem Gangs from the 1920s and 1930s
  • New Jersey State Police - History in 1920s
  • Trenton Police Museum - 1920-1939
  • Gothamist - 16 Grisliest Crime Scene Photos From 1920s New York
  • Huffingtonpost - Crime Scene Photographs From The 1920s-1960s Give A Glimpse Into America’s Dark Past
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - New York History
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - The FBI and the American Gangster, 1924-1938
  • Anaheim Police Department History: 1920
  • New York State Police - History: 1917 - 1929
  • Los Angeles Police Department - The LAPD in 1900-1925
  • Gothamist - Photo: In 1920s NYC, Police Stopped Traffic For Crossing Cats
  • NPR - Eerily Beautiful Mug Shots From 1920s Australia
  • HiConsumption - Dapper Criminals in 1920s Police Mugshots
  • Palm Beach Daily News - Police Ledgers from 1920s Capture Unvarnished Details of Palm Beach Life
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Laws ad Major Events of the 1920s
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Organized Crime and Prohibition
  • About.com - The United States Prohibition of Alcohol: 1920-1933
  • Office of the Historian - The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)
  • About.com - Prohibition
  • University of Michigan - Organized Crime: How it Was Changed by Prohibition
  • The Finer Times - Organized Crime in the 1920’s and Prohibition
  • BBC - Was the 1920s a Decade of Organized Crime and Corruption?
  • Encyclopedia of Chicago - Organized Crime in 1920s Chicago
  • HISTORY.com - Mafia in the United States
  • Australian National University - Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929
  • Cato Institute - Alcohol Prohibition Was A Failure
  • Prezi - Crime and Punishment in the 1920s
  • Death Penalty Information Center - Part 1: History of the Death Penalty
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Crimes
  • History Today - Hitler and the Law, 1920-1945
  • Crime & Investigation Network - London Gangs
  • The Guardian - Girl Gang’s Grip on London Underworld Revealed
  • Prezi - We So Gangsta’: Canadian Organized Crime in the 1920’s and 1930’s
  • Prezi - Mafia Weapons of the 1920’s
  • The Guardian - Did American Gangsters in the 1920s and 1930s really carry guns in violin cases, or was that characteristic invented by movie script writers?
  • NY Daily Times - As many as 20 boys in Wineville, Calif., die at the hands of sadistic sex manic Gordon Stewart Northcott in the late 1920s
  • Baltimore City Police History - 1920 to 1940
  • Australian Police - Uniforms of the NSW Police 
  • Metropolitan Women Police Association - History of Women Police Officers
  • Ohio State University - Women’s National Committee for Law Enforcement: Temperance & Prohibition
  • National Center for Women & Policy - A History of Women in Policing
  • Reddit: AskHistorians - Was cocaine legal during the 1920s in Germany?
  • Texas State Historical Association - Prostitution
  • Prezi - Prostitution in the 1920’s
  • University of Michigan - Organized Crime: The Status before Prohibition
  • University of Michigan - The Corrupt City
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - FBI Versus the Klan, Part 2
  • PBS - The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s
  • Oklahoma State University - Ku Klux Klan
  • San Diego History Center - Ku Klux Klan 1920-1980
  • University of Washington - Ku Klux Klan in Washington State, 1920s
  • Encyclopedia Virginia: Racial Integrity Laws of the 1920s
What I want for Edith in S6 (aka a super long headcanon)

What I want for Edith in Series 6, isn’t for her to fall in love again. I don’t want her to pine after somebody new and have it work out. I don’t want it to all work out perfectly for her or Marigold.

Because in the 1920s, the newspaper industry grows. The Sketch’s reader-base expands beyond high society and the aristocrats. Under Edith’s watch, it will shift away from royalty, and towards a new form of aristocracy - sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home teams and people rush to fill the new palatial cinemas and gigantic sports stadiums.

And her grandmother will raise a judgemental eyebrow, and Mary will crack jokes about how she’s turned into a new form of spinster. But Aunt Rosamund scoffs at the dinner table, and reassures her niece that newspapers are the future, and she’ll smile nostalgically as she remembers her Marmaduke. They’re in an era with large-scale use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations. There have been significant changes in lifestyle and culture and they must adapt because their way of life is not sustainable.

And then the inevitable will happen. Black Thursday. The stock market will crash. The family will be hit with great losses, but they’ll still fare much better than others due to Mary and Tom’s reforms.

But at this point, Edith won’t even really be at Downton anymore. She’ll be living in London almost exclusively. While factories close and old dynasties fall, the newspaper remains stronger than ever. They’ve moved from one publication a week, to two… and now, with more people reading newpapers than ever before, Edith will be busier than ever.

Overshadowed by much bigger, more relevant news of once prominent families losing their dignity, the fact that Marigold is her daughter will barely make the rounds in London.

They don’t go back to Downton that often. But when they do, Marigold and George do not get along at all. When he is 10, and she is 9, he tells her that she was a mistake. In the heat of the fight, Marigold retaliates: “At least my mother can stand the sight of me.”

Edith will find him crying in the garden, in the same spot she used go (still goes sometimes.) She dries his eyes, tells him that despite being away a lot Mary does love him. She is not the cold monster she pretends to be.

(But she’ll never admit this to Mary.)

When Marigold is 11, she will arrive from school to her mother’s choked sobs that are drowning out the radio. A man called Hitler will become the Chancellor of Germany. Marigold won’t understand why this news matters, but she still circles her arms around her mother.

And when Edith calms down, Marigold will silently hands her a handkerchief.

It’s only when Marigold is 13, when Edith sits her down and says, “I think you’re old enough to know” does that strange night from so long ago starts to make sense.

The day will come when Edith gets a frantic phone call and the presses are on fire because they are at war with Germany again.

And George, still a child in her eyes, will don a uniform and be shipped away. Marigold will tear up. give him a massive hug. “Come back in one piece,” she’ll tell him before he gets on the train. Before she is sent away kicking and screaming to live with her grandparents in the countryside.

Edith will stay in London because she has work to do. She has a business to run and a public to keep informed. (And a stash of forged documents she’s protecting).

In 1940, Marigold will turn 18 and there is nothing Edith can do to stop her from coming back to London. The skies are on fire, and Edith will yell and scream until her face is red and her throat is sore. But Marigold will refuse to go back to Yorkshire. She’ll stand her ground and tell her mother to shove it. This is happening. The man who killed her father is killing millions more. This is her contribution. She’s going to Bletchley Park whether her mother likes it or not.

“But clerical work, Marigold?” Edith will exclaim, utterly exasperated. “There are other ways to contribute to the war effort!”

“This is my choice, mama. You don’t have to like it.”

Edith won’t like it, but she respects it nonetheless.

When the war ends, Marigold and her mother will celebrate with the rest of the world. They’ll cry tears of relief and they’ll dance in the streets.

They will hold a toast in honour of Michael and George.

In the years following the war Edith will occasionally wonder about Marigold’s wartime clerical job because there’s something about it that just doesn’t make any sense. Edith knows that there is something her daughter isn’t telling her. But Edith won’t push, because she has her own secrets.

(Years later, when her joints are sore and her hair is grey, somebody will hear a rumour and ask to interview her. She’ll refuse.

“You think I helped Jewish refugees by smuggling passports?” she’ll laugh in his face. “That’s ridiculous!”

For the rest of her life, she will maintain that those rumours were nonsense.)

Sometime after the war, Marigold will meet a nice chap with a bit of a limp and she’ll fall madly in love. They are both so young and have seen and lost so much. They decide to live for today.  They are married almost immediately.

Edith will tell her grandchildren stories of an age gone by. Of a time before electricity and radios and this new “Punk” music trend. She’ll them about how scandalous jazz music was at first, and their poor brains won’t be able to comprehend it. She’ll tell them about the time her sister wore pants for the first time, her Irish revolutionary brother-in-law, about all the times her and Mary argued over silly things.

And maybe somewhere in between all of this, Edith will find somebody she’ll love and who will love her. But she’ll be happy either way.

I don’t want something good to happen to Edith. I want Edith to do something good.

a two thousand word office antics outline

There were about 10 episodes left. And this is how it was supposed to go down.

The numbering is based on the LJ chapters. For the AFF chapter, please add 8 to the number to get the equivalent numbering. 

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

how do you find excitement in life, i'm like 20 but i feel like my soul is super old and bitter

To be honest, Anon, I don’t think being old or bitter precludes excitement. I am The Oldest, I was born old, and yet I find joy in plenty of things, like grumbling about the state of the world, shaking my cane, etc.

I’m only partially kidding. I think part of it is that despite having been diagnosed with clinical depression when I was seventeen, I am a naturally cheerful person – I think the world’s a bit absurd and finding the absurdity in it is always entertaining to me. A friend of mine in college described my vocal tone as constantly implying that I wasn’t afraid to laugh what a joke the entire world was. I think it was a very nice compliment, and pleasantly ignored the fact that I am ALSO constantly restraining myself from punching the entire world in the face for not making more sense. The two sentiments can coexist in me, if not peaceably.

I’ve been trying to articulate how I go about finding excitement in life and interestingly, every time I try it comes back to comedy instead. So let’s try it this way: let’s ask some questions. (Oh dear, homework from Dad.)

Why are you in search of excitement? As opposed to say, occupation, entertainment, or inspiration. What is it about excitement – what does excitement mean to you, and why is it the thing you desire? I’m not questioning your desires because I think they’re not valid but because finding what you want doesn’t start with the quest itself – it starts with identifying what you want, and why.

And why do you think age and bitterness precludes excitement? How are you defining “old”, and why is that an impediment? Is it that you feel as though you’ve seen everything, and therefore nothing is new? Again, this isn’t to judge – these are genuine questions, the answers to which will help you identify the problems before you.

And actually asking these questions helps me to work out what may help you – because even if you have seen everything, there’s always a headtilt ahead of you.

Most of the artistic heroes of my life were people who took the ordinary and shifted it. Picasso drew faces from three angles at once. George Bernard Shaw wrote an entire play advocating for Satanism at the height of Victorian morality, using Puritans as his mouthpieces. Magritte, one of the finest surrealist artists in history, lived an aggressively normal, bourgeois life while he painted some wild shit that artists and critics still grapple with. (To remind me of the absurdity of carrying my existence around with me in a little black box whose central purpose, telephoning people, I no longer use, my phone case has a picture of an antique telephone on it captioned “Ceci n’est pas un phone”. I get especially delighted when people try to tell me that “phone” isn’t proper French, because that’s the least weird thing about it.)

My point is that the ordinary only remains ordinary so long as you keep looking at it face-on. If you tilt your head, or better yet tilt the world a little, everything becomes new – and often, the newness of a thing, the chance to explore and share its newness, is what excites us.

The headtilt is a learned skill – it takes time to learn it and to practice it, to look at an object or a concept or a law and ask, how do I tilt this? What other side can I take in this argument and what does that teach me? How do I alter this to make something new? What is the most familiar aspect of this, and what would happen if that aspect were altered somehow?

Fortunately, the things that are good practice for this are also a lot of fun to do. Fanfic by its very nature is a headtilt at canon – what scene did we miss? What would happen if everyone owned a food truck? How would this character acquire a child? What expertise can I bring to this story? Art is a constant remix of both reality and other arts; I once explained to a friend that the surrealist painting of a bridge implies the bridge because of the specific aspects of “bridginess” in it (arches, cables, columns) and that made me think way harder about both bridges and surrealists than I had in some time.

ANYWAY, being an angry old bitter crank is no bar to the headtilt. In fact, it means you have a specific and unusual point of view that you can use to tilt the world around you. What about any given thing makes you feel bitter? What would you change? What would make something EVEN WORSE? Embrace your boredom – what specifically about the thing bores you?

You have a young and elastic mind – you’re about the age I was when I started consciously headtilting (a lot of my unconscious headtilts in high school were severely punished, which is not uncommon) so you’re in a good position to start. Anything ordinary, anything accepted, anything that is “common sense” can be taken apart and reassembled into something new – and it’s your job to bitterly, crankily do it.

And when you start doing this, you start to notice that other people do it too, that they have unique experiences and viewpoints and thoughts that you’ve never encountered before, which is exciting too, especially when you get to share yours with them and see their reactions.

Once upon a time I got mad that Harry Potter didn’t get to grow up with someone who loved him, and I got really mad that his creator was visibly, piece by piece, removing what little support structure he had. So I wrote a story where he got a loving home with two dads and the chance to build a network of friends throughout his school who would trust and love him, and to explore how that would change his narrative as a child destined to save the world.

And it made me famous.

I exaggerate a little for effect, but the reason I have twelve thousand followers now is that once I remixed a Young Adult novel series and it drew enough attention to start an avalanche. I didn’t know that would happen. I was just fucking around. But my headtilt spoke to people and they all headtilted back and here I am.

So I suggest, the next time something seems so jaw-clenchingly ordinary and usual that you just can’t stand it, tilt your head a bit and ask yourself, how can I make this exciting?

And if that doesn’t work, well, you could try making cookies. That always turns out excitingly for me, and if it doesn’t for you, at least then you have cookies.

anonymous asked:

okie, HC that v slowly falls in love with MC, whos been hired as his assistant because blind people need help? how and why des he fall in love? hw would they go about being intimate? does v ask for help? does mc offer to help him get off? (im sorry so many ideas) whos more dominate? whos more the caretaker? and would he listen to her to get the eye surgery?

(2/2) is v the jealous type? does he ask her to marry him sooner or later? does he take her on his trips for work? what about pets? what type would they get? if he gets the surgery, would there e a big thing about it? would MC fight him over it? or just let it go? what kind of kinks does he have? i neeeed help and answers lol            

Okeeee… I couldn’t control myself.. bullet points just weren’t enough for me to express this… (I’ll add the NSFW part later, no worries!)

  • “Your resume looks promising, as far as my friend Mr. Han told me.” He chuckled but his friend didn’t seem too amused. The black haired guy, Mr. Han, leaned forward “Do you have other qualities, my friend Mr. Kim could benefit from?” Mr. Kim chuckled again, “Don’t be that formal Jumin. I’m Jihyun, but you can call me V. Everybody does.” You smiled faintly and opened your mouth to say something but you were interrupted before you could say anything. “Why are you offering her your, and most importantly my name?” “Because I just hired her, that’s why!” he winked at you while Jumin was furiously talking to him about how he didn’t know anything about you. The worst part about it was that Jumin didn’t even think to care about your presence. “Jumin, calm down. I had Seven background check her along with everyone else and she seemed the most suitable for the Job!” Jumin sighed loudly and turned to you “This man is unable to work with. Please excuse me, I must go now!” “Bye Juju!” V waved after him and smirked until Jumin was out of sight. “Soooo since the party pooper is gone, I’d like to show you around.” He stood up and began to walk through the apartment, showing you how things worked and what had to be where. “Every single item has a designated place, but since you’re here,” He dramatically gestured at you, “You can move things wherever you want them to be… As long as I can find them it’s alright.” “So I better not move things around?” He nodded and proceeded to go towards a smaller room. It looked small from the outside but it was huge. To the south side a big window let the sun light up the room. pictures and picture frames, like leaves, lay on the floor and in the middle stood a large desk. It was filled with pictures, a telephone and some stationary that had been carelessly tossed aside. “This must be my office. I guess. More or less our office!” “Our office?” “Oh yes. You have to help me answer my call, help with clients, do my paperwork and just help me get along. You see, I can’t!”
  • “Do you want some tea, Jiyhun?” “Oh, I’m already on it!” A weird feeling filled your gut as you heard the sound of cups banging together and the faint sound of a curse coming from the kitchen. “Are you okay?” V gave no answer and you became worried. Your Job was to assist V in every day tasks and not just with overdue paperwork he just couldn’t bother to do himself. He could see, at least a bit through his right eye. Enough to still work as a photographer, but sometimes not enough to make a cup of tea or do other things. At first he seemed very excited to have someone to help him. But after a while he seemed a bit annoyed when you did everything for him. “It’s not that I don’t like you… but I just want something to do, you know?” It was not until that day, that he finally acepted that he could not do everything by himself. He stumbled over his own feet, over the couch and spilled hot water all over himself. A perfectly good tea set and a perfectly good photographer were ruined. Other people would’ve brushed it off as clumsiness. But V was sulking in his office all day. You could hear him talking to Jumin a few times, but you didn’t really know what the two were talking about. The weeks went by and V, still a bit reluctant to accept your help, had to admit that you made his life easier than it was before. He still insisted on making his own cup of tea though.
  • “Uhm, I wanted to talk to you about something important. Can you take a seat please?” You were ready to go home and didn’t expect V to talk you about serious matters. “What is it, Jihyun?” he shuffled in his seat and cleared his throat:“ I wanted to ask you if you want to live here… with me? I noticed that it might be a good idea for us to live together. So you’re right here if I need your help. You know?” “I have to think about that. But I don’t see why not. I’ll come back to you tomorrow, okay?” And just like that, you moved in with V. It wasn’t as big of a step as you first thought, and living with V was an opportunity to make your job better than you already did. He loved to be independent, a bit reluctant towards you offering your help. But it was other times that made living in that apartment so special. For some reason, V always smelled like coffee. The scent wafted through the house every morning, afternoon and even in the evenings although no one drank coffee that late. V loved to play music in the background. Some smooth Jazz or blues or just simply some relaxing tunes. They were nothing but a faint tune that lost itself in the room and just hit your ear when you began to think of it.
  • You two became a good team. after a few weeks you knew what he wanted without him having to say it. Besides a work relationship you two became very close. If you didn’t know better you two could’ve been an old couple. The other R.F.A members had talked about that once in awhile. V didn’t seem to annoy that. In fact, he enjoyed all this talk about you and him.
  • It was a cold autumn day when you had your first kiss. V and you were in the park, like nearly every day. V had been silent all day long and you were curious why. “You know, I try to explain it to you. But I don’t know if I can. Since Rika left, no one else was able to fill the void in my heart and I thought I deserved the pain. No one else could understand me like you do. And all this talk about us behaving like an old couple.. it makes me think.” He locked eyes with you and sighed. “I’ve been thinking about one thing a lot in the last few weeks. I apologize to you in advance!” And then he leaned over to kiss you. On a park bench, surrounded by playing kids, old couples walking their dogs and falling leaves.
  • [NSFW]
  • “Who’s that guy that was talking to you earlier?” “No one, just someone from my old school.” V never was the jealous type. Why should he? He knew that you loved him and he loved you as well. He was just curious who you were talking to. When the guy came by another time, V was very friendly. Almost too friendly. Your high school friend seemed not very intimidated by your boyfriend, it was more of an awkward conversation when he revealed that he was your ex. V remained calm and friendly. Why waste energy on someone who couldn’t even make an effort to keep someone special like you.
  • “Jiyhun … I’ll ask you for the last time…” “No, we’re not getting a cat or a dog. What do we do with it when we go on trips together?” “I could just stay at home.” You pouted and looked at him with big eyes. He pulled you closer and mumbled in your ear “But I would miss you if you wouldn’t be by my side. And you’re my assistant after all.”
  • You never dared to talk about one topic before you were in a relationship with V. He always said it would be great to see his girlfriend in all her glory. But whenever you brought up the topic about him having eye surgery it ended up in a big fight. One day, he was complaining about not being able to see you, you lost it. “V, I beg you … please get your eye surgery.” “You know as well as I do why I can’t do that.” You had enough. As always, Rika was the issue. “Fuck it V! Fuck Rika. You don’t deserve to suffer because of her. I love you now and I want that you are healthy and happy. I care about you.” He turned around and stared at you for a while before saying calmly:“ You’re right. I’ll get the surgery under one condition.” “I’ll do anything!” “Anything?” “Yes.” “Alright. I love you, and I’ll get the surgery if you marry me.”

Okay so if you guys haven’t heard, there’s this cool site called Doodle or Die and it’s like telephone with pictures and there’s a Danganronpa section and I’ve been on it so I’ve been doing shit like

and

and

this too

stuff I’m proud of

… and stuff I’m not so proud of

NEEDLESS TO SAY

This is a great time I highly recommend 10/10

9

The Roaring Twenties Spam [01/25]

The Roaring Twenties is a term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, characterizing the decade’s distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, Los Angeles and many other major cities during a period of sustained economic prosperity. French speakers called it the “années folles” (“Crazy Years”),[1] emphasizing the era’s social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. Normalcy returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism after World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, and Art Deco peaked. Economically, the era saw the large-scale diffusion and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, and electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home team and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic stadiums. In most major countries women won the right to vote for the first time. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ended the era, as the Great Depression set in worldwide, bringing years of worldwide gloom and hardship. [x]

Can we just take a moment to appreciate the amazing level of audience control that was the McGucket Author Fake Leak? I mean, way back when everyone working under the McGucket Author theory was also assuming Alex was writing a mystery with an easy, obvious answer that no kid tuning in would figure out but the adults watching would know all along. In faking the leak Alex ‘confirmed’ this assumption and the adult fan’s assumed position of superiority.

“Darn it all, you guys got the answer! Blogosphere types are all too smart for me and my kid show writing brain! I can not believe some guerrilla ninja managed to snap some telephone pictures on a tour and upload them to the 4chans interblog! I am going to post impulsively about this leak on twitter and then delete the evidence, just to show how much you all got to me!”

“haha, we’re so smart”

-Society of the Blind Eye Happens-

“oh fuck”

“WELCOME TO THE WILD RIDE MOTHERFUCKERS ENJOY YOUR FUCKING STAY!”