Why Do We Have Different Blood Types?

Why do humans have all kinds of different blood types? What is A, B, AB and O all about?

By: Life Noggin.

7-year old girl with hypertelorism (1924)

Hypertelorism, derived from the Greek word “telouros” (meaning distant), is an abnormally increased distance between two organs or bodily parts, usually referring to an increased distance between the orbits (eyes)—orbital hypertelorism. In this condition the distance between the inner eye corners as well as the distance between the pupils is greater than normal. Hypertelorism should not be confused with telecanthus, in which the distance between the inner eye corners is increased but that of the outer eye corners remains unchanged. Therefore the distance between the pupils is normal.


Mudskipper Morphs Water Into A Makeshift Tongue

High-speed video reveals the mudskipper uses water as a tongue, first exuding water from its mouth and then sucking it back up once it submerges the food.

By: Live Science Videos.

As children we’re taught the process of a caterpillar turning into a butterfly, and the story normally goes along the lines of a hungry caterpillar eats and eats until it can eat no longer, then it hangs upside down and forms a chrysalis, from which a beautiful butterfly emerges.

But what actually happens inside the cocoon?

It’s actually quite surprising, the caterpillar does not merely change its body a bit and grow wings, no… It dissolves. Almost entirely. The caterpillar excretes an enzyme which decomposes all the tissues and fibres into basic organic material, leaving only a few ‘cell disks.’

These cell disks comprise all the different types of cells in an adult butterfly - its eyes, legs, wings, etc. The caterpillar is actually born with them but they just remain dormant until metamorphosis. 

Once all the caterpillars cells have been decomposed the adult cell disks then start to grow, using the organic materials left over, eventually forming the butterfly that emerges a few days later.

Coffee addiction is a relatively new phenomenon (yes, I’m looking at you, university students), and has been accommodated by the increase in coffee based fast food chains such as Starbucks and Dunkin’ Donuts which in turn has led to the so-called ‘coffee culture’ as coffee drinking becomes a national habit. This infographic explores how caffeine works and the effects it has on you and your brain when it becomes part of your daily routine.

Nobel Awarded Women In Medicine and Physiology

Gerty Theresa Cori - 1947 Discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen (also known as Cori Cycle)

Rosalyn Yalow - 1977 Development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones

Barbara McClintock - 1983 Discovery of mobile genetic elements

Rita Levi-Montalcini - 1986 Discoveries of growth factors

Gertrude B. Elion - 1988 Discoveries of important principles for drug treatment

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard - 1995 Discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development

Linda B. Buck - 2004 Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi - 2008 Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus

Carol W. Greider - 2009 Discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase

Elizabeth H. Blackburn - 2009 Discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase

May-Britt Moser - 2014 Discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain

We can be the next. WE CAN DO IT!

How To Make Concept Maps

What Is It? | Basically, a concept map is like a mind map. Except instead of brainstorming while making it (like you would for a mind map) you are taking information you already have and organizing it more succinctly. Concept maps are great for seeing relationships between concepts and identifying the most important elements of a concept.

Studying for Tests | Concept maps are really helpful for taking multiple choice tests, because you can anticipate questions (“What is the main difference between X and Y”, “What are the similarities between X and Y”, “If X has Y and Z, then which is it, A or B?”, etc…)

When to Make Them | I make one concept map per unit, which helps to condense my power point notes of 100+ slides down into two pages.

Get Set Up | Gather class power point slides, the text book chapter(s) & your lecture notes.

Know What’s Important | Identify the main ideas, most important aspects of the lecture, and any diagrams or charts that summarize these main ideas. 

Plan It Out | Arrange these main concepts on your map, and then start planning where all the other information goes in relation to these.You can use:
-Post-it notes
-Rough drafts
-Lightly pencilling things in 
-Graph paper

Add Information | Start filling In your map with all the information from the week! Don’t worry about it looking perfect. Sometimes my maps have one area with lots of blank space and another corner with tons of info crammed into it. Done is better than perfect. Trust me. And the more concept maps you make, the more aesthetically pleasing they will become as you get the hang of it!

Make connections | Draw arrows, create tables, & begin to colour-code sections based on relationships. When your concept map is done, you will be able to visually compare and contrast the information that is there.

Make It Visually Appealing | Finish colouring and drawing your map! I love this part because I get so excited when I can see my final product coming together! And it makes studying so exciting!

Ta-Da! Enjoy The Final Product!


Bats are better at flying than birds are.

I can hear all you bird fanatics out there revving your engines, but that’s not just my personal opinion (ok, it mostly is). Still, there are some sound scientific facts in there.

Look, if you compare the effortless soaring of something like a turkey vulture to the frenetic flapping of a little brown bat, of course the bird is going to seem better off. But most people haven’t spent a lot of time around bats, or watching bats fly. Because they generally fly at night.

I spent a summer mist-netting for bats in rural Ohio once, and let me tell you, your opinion on bat flight prowess changes after you have seen a bat fly within a few centimeters of a vertical wall of net and completely reverse direction in midair. All in a split second.

Bats are really, really good at flying.

Read more…

Discovering The Brain's GPS Earns Three A Nobel

by Michael Keller

Three neuroscientists who uncovered how the brain understands where the body is in space have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, judges announced today. 

"How do we know where we are? How can we find the way from one place to another?" wrote the Nobel Assembly in making the announcement. “This year´s Nobel Laureates have discovered a positioning system, an ‘inner GPS’ in the brain that makes it possible to orient ourselves.”

Half of the prize went to John O’Keefe, an American and British citizen who is now the head of University College London’s Sainsbury Wellcome Center in Neural Circuits and Behavior. In 1971, O’Keefe found that certain neurons in a rat’s brain activated when the animal was in one location. When it moved somewhere else, other cells lit up. O’Keefe proposed that this activity engendered a sense of place and develop into a map of the external world. Furthermore, the collection of different “place cell” activations for a particular environment could be saved to remember a particular place later.

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