Brain injury is damage to the brain which is not hereditary, degenerative, or congenital. It is often caused by a physical trauma, such as a car crash, fall, or sports mishap. Other times the brain injury is acquired through medical conditions such as stroke or lack of oxygen. Here are ways brain injury can affect the body.



First (Fully) Warm-blooded Fish Found

by Stephanie Pappas

The car-tire-size opah is striking enough thanks to its rotund, silver body. But now, researchers have discovered something surprising about this deep-sea dweller: It’s got warm blood.

That makes the opah (Lampris guttatus) the first warm-blooded fish every discovered. Most fish are exotherms, meaning they require heat from the environment to stay toasty. The opah, as an endotherm, keeps its own temperature elevated even as it dives to chilly depths of 1,300 feet (396 meters) in temperate and tropical oceans around the world.

“Increased temperature speeds up physiological processes within the body,” study leader Nicholas Wegner, a biologist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries’ Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, California, told Live Science. “As a result, the muscles can contract faster, the temporal resolution of the eye is increased, and neurological transmissions are sped up. This results in faster swimming speeds, better vision and faster response times.”…

(read more: Live Science)

photograph by NOAA Fisheries, SW Fisheries Science Center

Instead of blinking, guitarfish pull their eyeballs into their heads using specialized muscles.

And this is very helpful when you live in sandy environments. Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). And like sharks, the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) doesn’t have eyelids that close all the way, so it can’t blink.

When the guitarfish hunts, it protects itself with an eye-catching method: retracting its eyes almost completely into its head, leaving a craterlike depression. Using high-speed video, researchers found a guitarfish could sink its eye nearly 40 mm.

The eye retraction distance is nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates and likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes.

Some rays and skates, however, have the same muscle arrangement as guitarfish, so researchers are eyeing them for future studies.

hi, friends! it’s grace!

here’s a list of resources i’ve gathered that will help you study the human body! 

my anatomy masterpost should also help. :)

good luck + happy studying! 

feel free to send me requests for posts!


Nursing Community

these awesome nursing community members can provide help with anatomy and physiology!


  • Go to class and pay attention during lectures! If allowed, record it for future reference, if needed.
  • If the professor posts the slides prior to the lectures, look over them to prep.
  • Make mindmaps, flashcards, study guides, etc.
  • Use online study materials in addition to the text!
  • Don’t be afraid to ask for help if needed. Physiology is a complicated subject!
  • Form study groups. When you “teach” a topic to someone else, you retain much more of the material!