PPI

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I played with some bruise makeup today. Skin Illustrator FX palette on the left (alcohol activated), and Ben Nye Media Pro palette on the right (creme makeup). I’ve had a lot more experience with Skin Illustrator, so I prefer it and find it easier to use. However, the creme makeup is good for sensitive skin, especially if you’re doing makeup around the eyes (say, for black eyes). 

I got the Ben Nye palette for Christmas, but I haven’t used it much yet. I’ll have to play with it some more. 

Acid reflux medications may increase kidney disease risk

Certain medications commonly used to treat heartburn and acid reflux may have damaging effects on the kidneys, according to two studies that will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2015 November 3¬-8 at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego, CA. The drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), are among the top 10 class of prescribed medications in the United States.

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise, with more than 20 million Americans burdened by the disease. Diabetes and hypertension are common risk factors for CKD; however, certain medications can also play a role. Two new studies show that increased use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), medications that treat reflux and stomach ulcers, may be contributing to the CKD epidemic.

“As a large number of patients are being treated with PPIs, health care providers need to be better educated about the potential side effects of these drugs, such as CKD,” said Dr. Arora. “PPIs are often prescribed outside of their approved uses, and it has been estimated that up to two-thirds of all people on PPIs do not have a verified indication for the drug.” 

Figure: The increased gastrin concentration during proton-pump inhibitor therapy exerts trophic effects on the oxyntic mucosa causing hyperplasia and increased functional capacity of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell and parietal cell. As a consequence, on discontinuing the proton-pump inhibitor there is rebound acid hypersecretion which persists for at least 2 months. Source

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“PPI” known as “Payment protection insurance” is a financial product that offers protection in the event that an unforeseen event occurs, and you find yourself unable to meet your monthly payments on a given finance agreement, be it a credit card, loan, mortgage, store card, or something similar.

The rebound acid that occurs when PPI-withdrawing also makes it very difficult for patients to stop taking them - but it can be done with patience.

Study Finds Growing Reason to Be Wary of Some Reflux Drugs

Since their introduction in 1990, the drugs collectively known as proton pump inhibitors (common brand names: Nexium, Prevacid, Prilosec) have become among the most frequently prescribed in the country. They are also available over the counter. They suppress stomach acid more effectively than a previous class of drugs called H2 blockers (Zantac, Tagamet, Pepcid).

They have also given users reason to be wary. In recent years, scores of studies have reported associations between prescription P.P.I. use and an array of health problems, including bone fractures, low magnesium levels, kidney injuries and possibly cardiovascular drug interactions.

They are also linked to infections, like the stubborn Clostridium difficile and pneumonia. Reducing the acidity of the stomach, researchers believe, allows bacteria to thrive and then spread to other organs like the lungs and intestines.

The latest findings, published last month in JAMA Internal Medicine, point to increased risk of chronic kidney disease among users, which is particularly worrisome.

First, the increase in esophageal cancer and now this…

Heartburn drugs could increase heart attack risk, warn scientists

Common heartburn drugs could increase the risk of heart attacks, scientists have warned. A major US study drawing on the health records of nearly three million patients showed that people taking indigestion drugs called proton pump inhibitors were 16 to 21% more likely to suffer a heart attack.

“We have not proved causation,” said Dr Leeper. “But it’s a very worrisome association and for now we want people to discuss the risks and benefits with their physicians.”

The author of the study warned that patients should not stop taking the drugs, but should discuss the risks with their doctor. Photograph: Sebastian Kaulitzki /Alamy

For the win!!! @the_ryan_kelley looking unreal at #monsterpalooza :)) props to @bitemaresinc #ppi and the entire team who collaborated to make him come to life…not only did it take hours and hours to apply, but many hours to fabricate all the original components that went into this character…#BRAVO!!

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The history of the distribution of wealth has always been deeply political, and it cannot be reduced to [how free markets “naturally work on their own”].


In particular, the reduction of inequality that took place in … developed countries between 1910 and 1950 was … a consequence of war and of policies adopted to cope with the shocks of war. Similarly, the resurgence of inequality after 1980 is due … to the political shifts of the past several decades, especially in regard to taxation & finance.


The history of inequality is shaped by [how people] view what is just and what is not, as well as by [their] relative power ….…

— 

Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty (Arthur Goldhammer, trans.)

(highlights, [], and … are mine)

Heartburn Drugs Linked to Heart Attacks | NYTimes Well Blog

The widely used drugs known as proton pump inhibitors, or P.P.I.’s — gastric reflux preventives like Prilosec and Prevacid — may increase the risk for heart attack, according to analysis of data involving almost three million people.

Previous studies have found that P.P.I.’s are associated with poor outcomes for people with heart disease, probably because of an interaction with clopidogrel [Plavix], a drug commonly prescribed after a heart attack. This new study examines the heart attack risk in otherwise healthy people.

The researchers used data-mining, a mathematical method of looking at trends in large amounts of data, to analyze the use of the drugs over time. Evidence that they were increasing the risk for heart attack was clear as early as 2000.

“This is the kind of analysis now possible because electronic medical records are widely available,” said the lead author, Nigam H. Shah, an assistant professor of medicine at Stanford. “It’s a benefit of the electronic records system that people are always talking about.”

There was no association of heart attack with another class of drugs used to treat gastric reflux, H2 blockers like Zantac, Tagamet and Pepcid. The researchers suggest that P.P.I.’s promote inflammation and clots by interfering with the actions of protective enzymes.

A significant limitation of the study, in PLOS One, is that P.P.I. usage may be a marker of a sicker patient population, more subject to heart disease in any case.

Long-term PPI use is widespread, though the drugs are only supposed to be used for a few weeks at a time. In 2009, worldwide PPI sales totaled $13.6 billion USD. There are other effective approaches to GERD available, including dietary changes and weight loss, both of which can lower heart attack risk and help resolve reflux without the use of PPIs. This drug class contributes to magnesium wasting as well as low microbial diversity in the gut, which raises risk for gut infections like traveler’s diarrhea.

Your professor is right in a sense: you can’t blow up digital work and expect a sharper image.  A little math: Each image is just a grid of colored pixels.  When a computer makes a picture 2 times as big, 1 pixel becomes 4 pixels.  The computer then guesses what color to fill in those 3 new pixels, and sometimes it makes pretty bad guesses.

However, there are plenty of ways to avoid that effect.  Mostly just draw at the resolution you want to print (I work at 300ppi).  The computer is better at guessing pixel color when downsizing (averaging 4 pixels down to 1).  However, this makes for huge files (especially when you multiply by the number of layers).

We don’t all have supercomputers.  What I’ve discovered is, when printing, you can get away with up to half the dpi (150 ppi).  Printers work by squirting dots of ink on paper, and these dots are often bigger than screen pixels.  So whether you work at 200ppi or 300ppi, there’s not much difference because the ink dots can’t get any smaller.  What you are printing on can also affect your lowest dpi: rougher, more absorbent papers or canvas will let you get away with a lower dpi because the ink dots will naturally bleed no matter what.

Personally, I’d say your professor is being “stupid” to say SAI and PS are “stupid.”  What’s “smart” is to know the limitations and capabilities of your materials - whether digital or traditional!