PNAS

wired.com
Controversial New Theory Suggests Life Wasn't a Fluke of Biology—It Was Physics

by NATALIE WOLCHOVER

(wired.com)  The biophysicist Jeremy England made waves in 2013 with a new theory that cast the origin of life as an inevitable outcome of thermodynamics. His equations suggested that under certain conditions, groups of atoms will naturally restructure themselves so as to burn more and more energy, facilitating the incessant dispersal of energy and the rise of “entropy” or disorder in the universe. England said this restructuring effect, which he calls dissipation-driven adaptation, fosters the growth of complex structures, including living things. The existence of life is no mystery or lucky break, he told Quanta in 2014, but rather follows from general physical principles and “should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”

Since then, England, a 35-year-old associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has been testing aspects of his idea in computer simulations. The two most significant of these studies were published this month—the more striking result in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and the other in Physical Review Letters. The outcomes of both computer experiments appear to back England’s general thesis about dissipation-driven adaptation, though the implications for real life remain speculative.

“This is obviously a pioneering study,” Michael Lässig, a statistical physicist and quantitative biologist at the University of Cologne in Germany, said of the PNAS paper written by England and an MIT postdoctoral fellow, Jordan Horowitz. It’s “a case study about a given set of rules on a relatively small system, so it’s maybe a bit early to say whether it generalizes,” Lässig said. “But the obvious interest is to ask what this means for life.”

(Excerpt please click link for the full article)

Fairy Circles in the Outback

Whimsically classified as fairy circles, these strange hexagonal patches of land never over-lap and can only truly be appreciated with an aerial view. Resembling the same pattern as honeycomb, they can be found in the millions along a 1,800km (more than 1,000 miles) long area of South Africa extending from Angola south toward the Northwestern Cape province. Most of them, however, are located in the Namib desert. Individually they appear as rings of tall grass enclosing barren centers of red earth, which can measure between 2m (7ft) and 20m (65ft) in diameter.

Keep reading

Imagine - Zayn Malik

Espero que gostem! Feito com carinho! Amanhã vem mais novidades! Beijos ❤️

Pedido: gostei muito daquele seu pedido para escrever algo que vc quisesse.por isso quero como aquele só que com o zayn. vc é a melhor ❤️


A pele descoberta do meu braço era beliscada de tempos em tempos e eu acabei bufando, sabendo que não dormiria mais.
- O celular nem desperto ainda. – Resmunguei, obtendo um miado em resposta.
Sabia que era impossível me fingir de morta, ele continuaria chamando minha atenção com suas unhas afiadas até demais. Não sei quantos minutos se passaram até o meu celular começar a berrar em cima da mesinha de cabeceira.
Sem mais nenhuma chance de aproveitar o conforto da minha cama, joguei as cobertas para um lado e meu corpo para outro, levantando da cama em seguida.
- Tudo bem, (S/N), você só precisa de um banho e comida. – Murmurei para as paredes do meu quarto. – E você, Snow, só precisa de ração.
O gato me encarava antes de soltar um espirro e saltitar para fora do quarto.
Depois de alimentar o gato e pôr a cafeteira para funcionar, analisei meu caderninho aberto sobre a mesa da cozinha com um bocado de tarefas para serem concluídas durante o dia. Era preciso mais uma, ir na pet para comprar ração do Snow. Minha listinha do mercado eu havia feito ontem, então agora, só faltava o banho.
Depois do banho, do café e de estar devidamente agasalhada, desci de elevador até a garagem do pequeno prédio que escolhi morar. Meu carro continuava mal estacionado e o dono da vaga do lado deve ter tido bastante trabalho para estacionar. Melhoraria hoje à noite.
Com meu caderninho aberto sobre o banco do carona, passei primeiro no pet, depois na papelaria, uma olhadinha na livraria e finalmente rumei para o escritório. O mercado passaria depois do expediente.
Já fazia um ano e meio que eu trabalhava na Baroug Economias e ainda não havia me acostumado com a musiquinha irritante do elevador.
- Bom dia, Jenny! – Estendo o embrulho com um livro que sabia ser o mais desejado por ela. – Feliz aniversário!
- Ah, (S/A)! Obrigada! – Ela sorriu e abriu o embrulho.
- É só um presentinho, nada demais… nos vemos no intervalo? – Perguntei, já caminhando para minha sala.
- Claro! – Ainda no corredor, a ouvi gritar.
- Srta. (S/S)? – Ouvi a voz do meu chefe de trás da porta.
- Bom dia, Sr. Mork. – Disse ao abrir a porta. – Posso ajudar?
- Gostaria de alguns relatórios. Poderia me ajudar? Ou já tem algum compromisso?
- Claro que posso ajuda! Relatórios de que?
Sr. Mork e eu passamos mais de uma hora conversando sobre os relatórios das empresas filiais e clientes.
O dia, na verdade, passou voando. Papéis e mais papéis, uma pausa para o almoço, litros de café para ficar acordada, e-mails idiotas respondidos e muita dor nos pés.
Após me despedir do meu chefe e de Jenny, peguei o carro e fui para o mercado com meu caderninho pnas mãos. Em cada corredor que eu passava, eu lia, praticamente, toda listinha para não esquecer de nada.
Ao contrário do normal, comprar as coisas no mercado foi rápido.
No caminho para casa, Demi Lovato tocava no som do carro e eu cantava junto. Estacionei o carro bem direitinho dessa vez é recolhendo tudo, entrei no elevador e, em seguida, em casa.
- Oi, Snow! – O gato branco se esfregava em minhas pernas.
Comecei a guardar as coisas, passei mais um pouco de café e quando fui começar a fazer a janta, a campainha toca.
- Zayn? – Arregalo os olhos ao ver meu melhor amigo parado em frente à minha porta.
- Oi, (S/A)! – Zayn me dá um beijo longo na bochecha. – Vim ver como você está, já que não responde minhas ligações.
- Mas não recebi nenhuma ligação sua… – Fecho a porta depois de Zayn entrar.
- Ah, fala sério, (S/A)! Te liguei um monte de vezes! – Caminhei até minha bolsa encontrando o celular desligado, sem bateria.
- Foi mal… – Mostrei a tela do celular para ele.
- Ah, viu?! – Ele sentou no sofá.
- Quer ficar para jantar? – Fui para cozinha. – Vou fazer strogonoff.
- Com certeza, eu fico! – Zayn riu e levantou. Caminhou até onde eu estava e se escorou na bancada próximo onde eu estava.
- Como estão as namoradas? – Pergunto enquanto corto a carne.
- Estou na seca a mais de mês. Na última vez que sai, chamei a menina pelo nome errado e, desde então, não tenho saído.
- Por que? – O encarei.
- Por que o nome que eu a chamei me assustou. – Ele mordeu o lábio inferior e, por um momento, eu me perdi.
- Foi tão horrível assim? – Volto a cortar a carne.
- Foi, por que uma conhecia a outra. Foi bem complicado, na verdade. – Ele cruzou os braços. – Mas e você? Muitos namorados?
- Claro que sim, começamos pelo Snow e terminamos com meu caderninho. – Resmungo e ouço Zayn rir.
- Nossa, (S/N), como você consegue? – Ele ri.
- Estou ótima assim. Melhor do que chamar pessoas pelo nome errado. – Dou de ombros e sacudo a cabeça rindo.
- Touché! – Diz rindo.
Zayn e eu ficamos falando da vida alheia até o jantar ficar pronto. Nós nos conhecemos a muitos anos, e apesar de ele ser um galinha e eu achar ele um gato, nunca tivemos nada; nem beijos culpados pela bebida. Comemos o strogonoff com vinho e muita batata palha. Depois de lavar a louça, Zayn e eu ficamos no sofá assistindo filme e quando ele cochilou, eu corri para cozinha com meu caderninho para planejar o dia seguinte.
- Mas que falta de educação me deixar aqui sozinho. – Zayn grita da sala.
- Você dormiu primeiro. – Gritei de volta.
- Posso ficar aqui hoje? – Ele pergunta escorado na porta.
- Claro! – Concordo com a cabeça.
- Vou indo deitar, então. – Zayn tira a camisa e vai para meu quarto.
Depois de tudo organizado para o dia seguinte, troco de roupa e vou para o quarto. Zayn já ocupava seu lado da cama e, inebriada pelo seu perfume, dormi em segundos, sentindo Snow se aninhar entre nós.
- Somos quase um casal perfeito. – Zayn resmunga me abraçando.
- Sempre seremos um casal perfeito. – Resmungo o abarcando também.
- Quando você vai me dar uma chance?
- Quando você me der uma.
- Está bem, amanhã resolvemos isso.

Wires and supercapacitors constructed inside living plants

In November 2015, the research group presented results showing that they had caused roses to absorb a conducting polymer solution. Conducting hydrogel formed in the rose’s stem in the form of wires. With an electrode at each end and a gate in the middle, a fully functional transistor was created. The results were recently presented in Science Advances.

One member of the group, Assistant Professor Roger Gabrielsson, has now developed a material specially designed for this application. The material polymerizes inside the rose without any external trigger. The innate fluid that flows inside the rose contributes to create long, conducting threads, not only in the stem but also throughout the plant, out into the leaves and petals.

Keep reading

anarchyinblack  asked:

Wait, explain to me this mechanic where you have to give up your Palestinian ID if you want to go to Palestine?

It’s a really complex system and I cannot explain it all in one post, but I will try to summarize it. 

Every Palestinian residing in the Palestinian Territories has an ID that’s issued by Israel via the PNA

And you need the ID to get a passport, open a bank account, get married, own property, have the right to live there, have the right to enter/exit the part of the Palestinian Territories you’re living in, etc. 

And there are three type of IDs issued to Palestinians living in the Palestinian Territories, one for Palestinian residents in Gaza (like mine), one for the West Bank, and one for Palestinians in East Jerusalem. (the one for East Jerusalem is issued by Israel directly)

They slightly differ from each other, so for example, since I’m from Gaza and I carry an I.D. from Gaza, I can’t enter/live in the West Bank or East Jerusalem, though these areas are considered a Palestinian territory. 

And if a Palestinian from the West Bank someway how managed to visit Gaza and went back home to the West Bank, they will face consequences. (I’m not sure what are the consequences, but I heard there are consequences)  

And if I remember correctly, a Palestinian with an East Jerusalem I.D. cannot marry a Palestinian with a West Bank or Gaza I.D. and if they do, they won’t be able to grant their spouse a permit to live in Jerusalem. 

And if a Palestinian with an East Jerusalem I.D. lives outside Jerusalem for about 7 years their I.D. will be revoked, making them lose their right to live their even if they were born there and their family lived there for centuries.

So basically it’s not the PNA or Hamas that decides who’s a resident of Gaza and who’s not. It’s Israel that decides that, though Israel claims it ~completely separated itself~ from Gaza. Same goes for the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

Here’s a fun question I got asked during a job interview. (I will not, of course, say where.)

Ten prisoners are going to be executed at dawn. The executioner gives them one chance at survival. In the morning, the prisoners will line up in single file, and the executioner will place a white or black hat (randomly selected) on each prisoner’s head. He will then ask each prisoner the color of the hat they are wearing, starting at the back of the line. The prisoners can only respond with “white” or “black.” If the prisoner is correct, they will go free; if they are wrong, they will be executed.

Each prisoner can see all the hats in front of them, but not their own hat or the hats behind them. Each prisoner can hear everything; they know the responses of the prisoners behind them and whether or not they were executed.

The prisoners can meet beforehand to decide on a strategy.

What is the maximum number of prisoners you can guarantee will be saved, and with what strategy?

Hint #1 [rot13]: Gurer vf n jnl gb thnenagrr gung avar bs gur gra cevfbaref jvyy fheivir.

Hint #2 [rot13]: Vs avar bs gur gra ner thnenagrrq gb fheivir, gurve nafjref zhfg or qrgrezvarq ol gurve bja ungf. Bayl gur svefg cevfbare pna neovgenevyl pubbfr jurgure gb fnl “juvgr” be “oynpx.” Jung fbeg bs vasbezngvba pna ur pbairl hfvat bayl bar ovg?

There is a real-world technical problem that can be solved using a similar strategy.

Time To Out Dari Rumah Sewa My Cikara Vando Kota Bahru..
Now… Otw Blek Utara Dri Timur…
Cantik Tak Awek Ats Nie.. Lw Nk Aq Leh Kasi No Phon..
12Hour Only RM100… Deposit pair RM50 Sblm Jmpa.. Dan RM50 Selepas Jmpa… If U Want Phon Sex With She.. Cuma RM30 Celcom Topup… Sapa Cpt Dy Dpt… Aq Dah Dua Kali Service Gn Dy…
Servise Kalah Chiaa2 Yg Ternama Wlupn Dy Bru Nk Berjinak..
Plg Syg Skali D'mana Aq Tak Leh Rakam.. Apa Pn Best…Lpas Mndi Blm Sempat Kringkn Bdan..Blum Bersdia,. Trus Isap Btg… Tetek 34B , Pepek Tembam Dan Bersih.. Cmfirm Lw Tgk..Kowg jilat…Pancut Dlm,. Boleh kuar Blek Pnya.. Smlm Men 3 Round… Pncot Dalam.. Lpas Pancot Dy Akan isap Kowg Smpai btol keras.. Dan Pncot Dlm bontot dy… Last Kali.. Dlm mulot,. Pastu Tdo.. Trus.. Kowg Lw Jmpa Dy Owg Tau la .. Hehe… Maen Buleh Buat Mcm Kekaseh Pnya… mlm 3 Round.. Siang 3 Round.. Only 100RM..
FULL service Blowjob,Fucking Ass,Fucking Pussy…
Kwn Dy Pn Cr Dt Jgk… Skali Ja Pna Maen Gn Mbe Dy.. Tu Pn Dy Payung.. Masa TGAH mandi nk Siap Nak Blek Utara la.. lepas served gn pmpn dlm pic ne.. Nga Mandi Dia ketok Pintu nk mandi,. Time Dlm 2 la.. Bab Burit Org Gila Pun Tak Tolak… Aq Burit Smua Bangsa Da Rasa.. Time Ada Dt.. cuma Minah Salleh Ja Belum…
Hehe….

Sexism in Bronze Age China left signs of malnourishment etched on women's skeletons

Upheaval in farming methods in the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty meant that life took a major turn for the worse for women’s social status and health, a new study has find. Neolithic China during the Yangshao period (5000-2900 BCE) wasn’t such a bad time for women, at least compared with men.

In agricultural communities along the Yellow River, women could eat the same amounts of animal products and were, roughly speaking, equally well-nourished.

But by the time of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221 BCE), all that had changed. Women had less access to valuable high-protein animal products, and their skeletons have revealed marked stress and increasing height disparities with men, reflecting malnourishment, according to a paper published in the journal PNAS. Read more.

en.wikipedia.org
2016 in science - Wikipedia

A few samples:

7 January: Mathematicians, as part of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, report the discovery of a new prime number: 274,207,281 − 1.

14 January:  Astronomers report that ASASSN-15lh, first observed in June 2015, is likely the brightest supernova ever detected. Twice as luminous as the previous record holder, at peak detonation it was as bright as 570 billion Suns

18 January: Light-activated nanoparticles able to kill over 90% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are demonstrated at the University of Colorado Boulder.

20 January: Astronomers at the California Institute of Technology present the strongest evidence yet that a ninth planet is present in the Solar System, orbiting the Sun every 15,000 years.

26 January: Researchers at the University of Washington announce a new handheld, pen-sized microscope that could identify cancer cells in doctor’s offices and operating rooms.

27 January: Google announces a breakthrough in artificial intelligence with a program able to beat the European champion of the board game Go.

28 January: Research into the nature of time by Griffith University’s Centre for Quantum Dynamics shows how an asymmetry for time reversal might be responsible for making the universe move forward in time.

11 February: Scientists at the LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 announce the first direct detection of a gravitational wave predicted by the general relativity theory of Albert Einstein.

13 April: A quadriplegic man, Ian Burkhart from Ohio, is able to perform complex functional movements with his fingers after a chip was implanted in his brain.

20 June:  China introduces the Sunway TaihuLight, the world’s fastest supercomputer, capable of 93 petaflops and a peak performance of 125 petaflops.

30 June:The first known death caused by a self-driving car is disclosed by Tesla Motors.

4 July: NASA scientists announce the arrival of the Juno spacecraft at the planet Jupiter.

5 July: China completes construction on the world’s largest radio telescope.

2 May:  A study in PNAS concludes that Earth may be home to 1 trillion species, with 99.999 percent remaining undiscovered.

10 May: NASA’s Kepler mission verifies 1,284 new exoplanets – the single largest finding of planets to date.

18 May: At the I/O developer conference, Google reveals it has been working on a new chip, known as the Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), which delivers “an order of magnitude higher performance per watt than all commercially available GPUs and FPGA.

3 June June: NASA and ESA jointly announce that the Universe is expanding 5% to 9% faster than previously thought, after using the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the distance to stars in 19 galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

27 July:  Neonicotinoids, the world’s most widely used insecticide, are found to reduce bee sperm counts by almost 40%, as well as cutting the lifespan of bee drones by a third.

29 July:The seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone – an area in the Pacific Ocean being targeted for deep-sea mining – is found to contain an abundance and diversity of life, with more than half of the species collected being new to science.

4 August: A team at the University of Oxford achieves a quantum logic gate with record-breaking 99.9% precision, reaching the benchmark required to build a quantum computer.

5 August: Research by Imperial College London suggests that a new form of light can be created by binding it to a single electron, combining the properties of both.

11 August: The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is found to be the longest-lived vertebrate, able to reach a lifespan of nearly 400 years.

10 September:The second largest meteorite ever found is exhumed near Gancedo, Argentina. It weighs 30 tonnes and fell to Earth around 2000 BC.

16 September: The development of 1 terabit-per-second transmission rates over optical fiber is announced by Nokia Bell Labs, Deutsche Telekom T-Labs and the Technical University of Munich.

21 September: Scientists report that, based on human DNA genetic studies, all non-African humans in the world today can be traced to a single population that exited Africa between 50,000 and 80,000 years ago.

11 October: Scientists identify the maximum human lifespan at an average age of 115, with an absolute upper limit of 125 years old.

4 November: Researchers in the UK announce a genetically modified "superwheat” that increases the efficiency of photosynthesis to boost yields by 20 to 40 percent. Field trials are expected in 2017.

8 November: Lab-grown mini lungs, developed from stem cells, are successfully transplanted into mice by researchers at the University of Michigan Health System.

13 November: The University of East Anglia reports that global emissions of CO2 did not grow in 2015 and are projected to rise only slightly in 2016, marking three years of almost no growth.

28 November: Scientists at the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry officially recognizes names for four new chemical elements: Nihonium, Nh, 113; Moscovium, Mc, 115; Tennessine, Ts, 117 and Oganesson, Og, 118.

15 December: Scientists use a new form of gene therapy to partially reverse aging in mice. After six weeks of treatment, the animals looked younger, had straighter spines and better cardiovascular health, healed quicker when injured, and lived 30% longer.

22 December: A study finds the VSV-EBOV vaccine against the Ebola virus between 70–100% effective, and thus making it the first proven vaccine against the disease. 

and a lot more…

anonymous asked:

Hello! Totally irrelevant to the context of your blog, but I came across your most recent nail post on my dash and read that you were a psychiatric nurse. I'm interested in the nursing field (I'm a male) and was wondering if you could please give me a little insight on what being a psychiatric nurse is like? How is it different from being a bedside nurse in say, med-surg or ICU? What drew you into psychiatry? Hopefully I'm not bothering you too much with these questions!

When I was in nursing school, about 90% of the students could not wait for the psych clinical rotation to be over (some actively hated it, others were just uncomfortable or indifferent).  But 10% totally loved it, and I was one of those.

It’s not completely unrelated to other areas of nursing— I’m still assessing patients, implementing physician orders, charting like crazy, passing meds, and arguing with other members of the treatment team.  And I do deal with medical problems as they come up (feels like every week I’m examining someone’s hand for possible fracture after they punched a wall).

But it’s also very different from other types of nursing.  One of my major responsibilities is to manage the therapeutic milieu, which is a fancy way of saying that I make sure the hospital setting is as helpful to our patients as it can be.  Are there enough structured activities? Do the kids feel safe?  Is the unit too noisy or chaotic feeling? Who is fighting with who?  Who’s trying to fuck who?  Who needs new shoes, or a notebook, or a special type of shampoo? 

This also involves overseeing our PNAs (psychiatric nursing assistants), and making sure that our whole direct-care team is being consistent and therapeutic in how we interact with patients.  Are we setting the right limits, are we giving enough encouragement, are we maintaining healthy boundaries, do our patients feel heard?  It’s not unlike parenting— we’re teaching the kids we work with all kinds of unspoken things, and we need to make sure we’re modeling the right kind of behavior.  Interpersonal skills are important in all kinds of nursing, but it’s really the bread and butter of psych nursing.

I also do a lot of crisis management.  Maybe two kids are threatening to kill each other and I need to find a way to diffuse the situation.  Maybe someone is feeling suicidal and I need to talk them through that and make sure they don’t have opportunities to act on their urges.  Maybe someone has stripped their clothes off and is trying to break the windows with a chair.  There are not necessarily rules for dealing with the situations that come up, which is different from other areas of nursing. On the one hand this allows for a lot of creativity and independence, and makes my work life feel like an adventure.  On the other hand, sometimes I feel totally lost and have no fucking clue what to do or say.

It’s a meaningful job, but also profoundly sad at times.  It’s an exciting job, but also a draining and sometimes dangerous one.  I know it’s not for everyone, but personally I love it.