Does a politician represent The People in abstract, or do they represent them through materially fighting for them?  The first definition has a far longer and more storied history,  one which coincided (and often worked off of) the general definition of representation as being the image of a larger idea, a concept which was and still is used to analyze the arts. This was the representation of Divine Right theory in which the King was the image of God on Earth, an idea which started with Bossuet working from the analogy of the visual arts, but later moved to the far broader definition suggested by later 17th century theorists based off of dramatic theory.  This definition had the King as a mediator of God, a representative of God, and thus was free to do what he wished in God’s name.  This, obviously, allowed the Monarchy a far greater reign over the law and coincided with/was created for the first of the absolute monarchs, Louis XIV.

When the Jacobins took over and established a democratic government, they performed a secular act of transubstantiation.  Instead of the King being free to do what he will because he represented God, the democratic representative was free to do what they will because they represented the People, because they were Of the people.  This definition gives the same flexibility to representatives that it once did to the monarchs of the Ancient regime: so long as they are of the people, so long as they proclaim themselves to be a part and parcel of the general politic, they are able to do what they wish, do what they will.  There was no obligation, no requirement to act for the people, because by the mere act of existence they already had fulfilled their part of the social contract.

—  Campaigning in Memes, Jean Allen

On this day in 1689 Parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that King James II, by attempting to flee, had abdicated the government of the realm, thereby leaving the throne vacant. The Crown was not offered to James’s infant son, who would have been the heir apparent under normal circumstances, but to William and Mary as joint sovereigns. It was, however, provided that “the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said Prince of Orange in the names of the said Prince and Princess during their joint lives”

anonymous asked:

If we were dating I would give you blood oranges and then promise to stop but then secretly fill your closet to the brim with the blood oranges and you'd get home and be like "Stop giving me blood oranges i hate them because tumblr is full of psychos" and I'd be like ok but then sike you open the closet and blood oranges all over the place and the you look out your window to see that I'm piling blood oranges all over your house and your faucets run blood orange juice and there is no escape. ever

We’re breaking up

German Revolution 1918/1919: The cover page of the newspaper Das Illustrirte Blatt (The Illustrated Newspaper) published on 24 November 1918 shows revolutionary sailors and soldiers with a red flag as they drive on a truck through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany, on 9 November 1918. Photo: Berliner Verlag/Archi